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Street Railway 
Journal. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XII. 



1596. 



street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt Street, 
New York. 



70006 



INDEX TO VOLUME XII. 




ABBREVIATIONS : * illustrated ; c, correspondence. 



Accident Claims, Record ot a Western Road ... 18 

Accident Insurance, See Insurance, Accident. 

Accidents: Accident Blanks and Minneapolis.. 'U6 

Uow Can We Prevent? 619 

Marseilles Street Railway Co., Report ot.. . 124 

Milwaukee, In E26 

Accounts: Employes' Engagement Blanks in 

Milwaukee 52,5 

Minneapolis *346 

Repair, tor a Large Road 20 

Steam Railroad Methods, Some Decisions in ill 

Store Room and Wages *754 

Adklns, James "666 

Advertising, Street Car "641 

Air Brakes, See Brakes, Air. 

Aix-laCbapelle, Germany, Railway System of. 150 
Akron, Bedford & Cleveland Railway, See Cleve- 
land. 

Albany : Albany Railway, Annual Report of . . . 146 

Structural Steel Flywheel at *428 

Allen, J. C *667 

Alternating Current Electric Railway at 

Lugano 307 

Alton Railway & Illuminating Co., Financial 

Report ot 502 

Altoona, Pa., Pleasure Resorts In c414 

America, Great Street Railway Properties In.. 602 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 

Meeting ot 386 

American Street Railway Association '600 

Meeting of Executive Committee of 2G 

St. Louis Convention: Among tbe Exhibits. *717 

Attendants at 687 

Exhibits at 320 

Plan of Hall at '334 

Proceedings of 673 

Programme of 550, *60l 

Social Happenings at 685 

American Street Railway Investments, Statis- 
tics of 449. 502 

Among the Manufacturers 

265. 388, 444, 498, 555, 668, 743, 791 

Amusement Company, An 385 

Anderson, Ind., Power Station Practice In c 359 

Armature Colls: Ingenious Method of Making 

(Walker) 261 

Manufacture of, at Schenectady *549 

Asbury Park, Atlantic Coast Electric Railroad, 

System of *505 

Astoria, N. Y., Coal Pocket at *135 

Repair Shops of Stelnway Railway Co c *236 

Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway Co., An- 
nual Report of 385 

Atlanta Exposition, Johns' Exhibit at *66 

Atlantic Coast Electric Railroad , System of ... . *505 
Atlantic Highlands, Red Bank & Long Branch 

Electric Railway, System of *508 

Aurora, lU., Opening of the Aurora & Geneva 

Railway 753 

Australia, Ralls Wanted In 549 

Band Saw (Egan) *316 

Baltimore: City Passenger Ry. Co., Cost of 

Generating Power 248 

Grip Changes 466 

Baltimore & Catonsville Construction Co., 

Work of 262 

Belt Line Tunnel, Elec. Locomotives In. *161 *65l 
City & Suburban Railway Co , Panel Equal- 
izer •489 

Bartlett, Wlnthrop *666 

Baylor, A. K '388 

Belfast, Ireland, Overhead Electric System 

for 375 

Belts, Use ot, in Electric Railway Power-sta- 
tions "645 



Bergen County Traction Co., System of '335 

Blrmlnifham, Ala,, conduclorless Cars In c 529 

Opening ot East Lake Line 420 

Bicycle Carrying Attachment for Electric 

Cars *495 

Blddeford & Saco R. R. Co., Annual Report. ... 146 

Black, Charles N -322 

Boilers: Effect of Retarders in Fire Tubes of.. 374 

Efficiency ot 385 

Horizontal Water Tube (Cahall) »784 

North Chicago Railway Co'ii *2j7 

Bolt, Improved Insulating *378 

Bond and Stock Quotations, see Stock and 
Bond (Quotations. 

Bond Issue by the Johnson Company 450 

Booker, S. G "743 

Boosters, Installation of. In Chester, Pa 43 

Boston: North Shore Traction Co , Financial 

Characteristics of 606 

Railway System ot, as a Factor ot Urban 

Growth *10 

Subway, Method of Ventilating 190 

Progress of 124 

West End Street Railway Co., Car House 

Construction *248 

Changes In Main Power Station *179 

Charlestown Power Station *177 

Financial Characteristics of 606 

Method of Testing Underground Feed- 
ers *243 

Repair Shops of .. *95 

Standard Long Car '254 

Study of the Comparative Economy of 

Horse and Electric Traction . . 305 

Brackets: Improved Hinged •433 

Flexible, In Overhead Construction (Creag- 

head) 661 

Brakes: Novel Lever in Oakland, Cal c*528 

Power, I' pen Electric Cars 184 

Brakes, Air: Abroad (Standard) 387 

Nantasket Beach Railway, on •tiSO 

National ^315 

New (Chrlstensen) *648 

New Compressor for (Standard) ^66 

Problem ot Braking Street Railway Cars 

with ^307 

Record on New York central & Hudson 

River Railroad 13 

Standard Motor Compressor »645 

Street Railway Service, in (Standard) ^131 

Vacuum Pump for Elevated Railway Ser- 
vice ,. •546 

Works ot Hunt Alr-Brake Co *646 

Brakes: Electric 184 

Experiments In Chicago (Prouty-Noble) ... 354 

Lombard 0)1 385 

New Electric at Ogden 135 

Brake Shoes- (Corning) ^740 

Connections and. New (Kinzer) ^434 

Brazier and Blow Torch 638. *786 

Bridgeport Traction Co., Annual Report of 790 

Brighton, Eng., Seashore Electric Railway at, *302 

Brill Co., J. G., Exhibit of '739 

Broken Joints: Resume of Discussion on 304 

V. Opposite Joints 50 

Brooklyn & New York Railway Supply Co., 

Works of '1% 

Brooklyn Bridge: New Cars for •740 

Contracts, New 385 

Electric Equipment and Cars ot "661 

Electric Locomotive for 132, 780 

Electric Locomotive Truck for ^135 

Reasons for Use of Electric Locomotives on. *164 

Signaling System for Cars 131 

Brooklyn: Brooklyn Elevated Railroad Co., 

Financial Characteristics of 6O3 



Brooklyn Heights Railroad Co., Cast Welded 

Joints, Use of c412 

Express Car "436 

Express Service c 3.57 

New Publication 429 

Parlor Cars '130 

Rewards to Motormen 496 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Financial 

Characteristics of 005 

Consolidation In 212 

Buffalo: Railway Company, Financial Charac- 
teristics of 606 

Notes 69 

Traction Co., Abstract of Franchise 143 

BufTalo-Nlagara Falls, High Voltage Trans- 
mission Line *488, •772 

Cable Railways: Changes In Third Avenue Sta- 
tion 538 

English Methods ot Construction '246 

Isle ot Man, New 644 

Large Contract in Edinburgh 386 

Lesson in Gearing *121 

Lubrication of Machinery 19 

Reasons for Electrical Equipment of c 288 

San Francisco, Doom of. In *119 

Cables: Cars for Transporting (Broderick & Bas- 

comj '193 

Life In Melborne 300 

Cables, Electric, Insulation ot Underground.. . . c 291 

Calendars for the New Year 129 

Calendars and Catalogues for 1896 65 

California, Mountain Railway In 137 

California Street Railway Association: Annual 

Convention of 383 

Organization of 71 

Capitalization. Mileage and Cars of American 

Street Railway Properties 502 

Carbon Brushes for Motors 633 

Carbollneum as a Tie Preservative 63 

Car Builders, Amona- the 333 

Car Company New (.Brooklyn & N. Y. Ry. Sup. 

Co.) 71 

Car Construction: Belts, Ralls aad Plates ^409 

Corners *105 

Dry Oak lor 104 

Error in ^530 

Four Post Cars c 529 

Lessons from a Collision •356 

Notes lOU, 171, 199 

Panels and Roofs , *474 

Posts ♦232 

Practice in the United States *34 

Roots and Sides, Veneer 738 

Roots, Water Conductors on c 107 

Seasoned Oak in 170 

Some Lessons Taught by Old Cars *537 

Steam Truss in c528 

Car Equipment, Daily Inspection and Care of. . 621 
See also Rolling Stock. 

Car Factory, Work at a Large (Brill) 441 

Car Houses; Construction in Boston •348 

Doors, Roller for *656 

Duties of. Force 19 

Motor Wheel Lift *762 

Novel Method of Emptying in Case of Fire. 104 

Car Jacks (National) •68 

Carruthers-Wain, W. J •si 

Cars: Automatic Circuit Breakers for 665 

Boston, Standard Long ^254 

Braking, Problem of *307 

Double Deck, for South Africa •261 

Express., in Brooklyn '435 

Illu mm ated Signs for ^287 

Mileage and Capitalization of American 

Street Railway Properties 502 



iv 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 12. 



New, for Mt. Clemens, MlcU '433 

Old, A New Use for 762 

Open, Step for *i53 

Parlor, Brooklyn Helglits Railroad Co •130 

Parlor, Chicago Cliy Railway *3S9 

Parlor, Sprlngfleld, Mass "492 

Platform, Clock tor -m 

Problem of Braking *307 

Ke verslWe Seats for *638 

Poller Bearings for 044 

St. Louis, m *580 

Skeleton of 18 ft. Closed *233 

Step for Open *253 

Transporting Cables, for (Broderlck & 

Bascom) *193 

Trucks, and (Brill) *ca8 

Twenty Foot Center Aisle, Utlca c*4U 

Universal Sanitary, for New York (Dry 

Dock) *360 

United States, In *G09 

See also Rolling Stock. 

Car Strap Handle, Sanitary *433 

Car Works, Brooklyn & N. Y. Ry. Supply Co. . . *196 

Clilcago, In (Wells & French^ *63 

LaconlaCarCo '125 

Laclede Car Co *G31 

Union Car CO *038 

Vi ason Manufacturing Co *255 

Cassatt, A. J *o64 

Catalogue, Kail (Dick, Kerr & Co.) 653 

See also Trade Catalogues. 
Cheapness of Municipal Transportation In 

America 415 

Chester, Pa., Installation of Boosters In Power 

Station 43 

Chicago: Calumet Electric Street Railway Co , 

Extensive Trolley Party 539 

Chicago City Railway Co., Brake Experi- 
ments on 2,'>4 

Card from c47G 

Cast Welded Joints, Use of C413 

Financial Characteristics of C04 

Gears In 21st Street Station "isi 

Motor, New *441 

Parlor and Mall Car '359 

Repair Shops "402, *4C8 

Electric Construction In *]33 

Elevated Railroad Construction In 301 

Englewood & Chicago Electric Railway, 

System of '748 

Lake Street Elevated Railroad, Electrical 

Equipment of 345 

Truck +135 

Opening 443 

Large Car Works in (Wells & French) '02 

Metropolitan Elevated Railroad Co., Traffic 

Report 124 

Track Construction *259 

North Chicago Street R. R. Co., Annual Re- 
port 146 

Boiler Room of *257 

Financial Characteristics 605 

Hawthorne Ave., Power Station '659 

Projected Extensions In 281 

Recent Extensions in 757 

Storage Battery in 321, '748 

Street Railway Mileage and Equipment In. 320 
West Chicago Street R. R. Co., Annual Re- 
port 146 

Cast Welded Joints, Use of c 413 

Financial Characteristics. 604 

Repair Shops '324 

Clcott, Frank X '743 

Cincinnati, Large Truck Order from 51 

Circuit Breakers: Automatic, for Cars 605 

Large 479 

Clambake, Annual . 552 

Clamp, " Hercules" Trolley Wire '603 

Cleveland: Akron, Bedford & Cleveland Rail- 
way, System of »80 

Cleveland Electric Railway Co., Financial 

Characteristics of 606 

Cleveland & Elyrla Railway Co., System of. *88 
Cleveland, PalnesvUle & Eastern Railroad 

Co., System of '89 

Lessons ot the Viaduct Disaster 20 

Wheel Manufacture in (Dorner & Dutton). 60 

Clip, New Mechanical «383 

Clock for Car Platform *290 

Cloth and Paper as iBsulatore 436 

Club House for Motormen and Conductors '122 

Coal Handllt g Machinery: at Long Island City. *663 

North Chicago Railway Statlon.at *257 

Coal Pocket at Astoria *135 

Colorado Notes 787 



Columbia Machine Works '656 

Commercial Electric Supply Co 635 

Commutator Segments, Drop Forged '309 

Commutators of G. E. 800 Motors 495 

Compressed Air Motors in New York.. . .387, 428, *436, 

549, 654 

Condensers, Self-Coollng (Worthlngton) 309 

Conductorless Cars c288 

Birmingham, Ala c529 

Mansfield, O c4l4 

Oakland, Cal c'538 

Conductors' Pocket Record Book o'l68 

Conduits, Feeder Underground, Practice in the 

United States '31 

Conduits Railway: Practice in the United 

States 39 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of New 

York, View on Lenox Avenue *6G5 

Metropolitan Railroad Co., Washington ... 98 

Im provements in *399 

Operating Expenses of 234 

Third Avenue Ry. Co., New York '41, 384 

Connecticut: Railroad Commissioners, Annual 

Report 143 

Street Railway Association, Annual Meet- 
ing of 787 

Consolidation Rumors, Denial of 4.50 

Contracts: Important Electric Railway 551 

Important, of the Walker Co , 321 

Controllers: Need for More Running Points c289 

New, (Walker) »370 

Novel Method of Showing Diagram of *290 

Running Notches of Series-Parallel, Com- 
pared 541 

Coupling for Shafts *664 

Crimmlns, J. D '554 

Crossings: Protective Device for Grade. '647 

Use of Twin Rails on 387 

Curtain Fixture, Adjustable '314 

Curves '769 

Correct Location of the Trolley Wire on. '367, '428 

See also Transition Curves. 

Danger Signals, Lamps as 775 

Davidson, J. F »007 

Dayton (O.) Traction Co., System of 429 

Denver: Lamps as Danger Signals 775 

Safety Switches in c '288 

Derby, Conn. : Cars In a Freshet. 386 

Club House for Motormen and Conductors . '122 
Detroit: Detroit Railway Co., Heavily Over- 
loaded Generators in 331 

System of •! 

Rapid Railway Co., System of '8 

Dorner & Dutton Manufacturing Works '60 

Drawbridge swung by Electric Motor 4«9 

Drop Forged Commutator Segments *309 

Dublin: Electric Tramway Rights in 203 

Resolution of Dublin United Tramway s Co. 386 

United Tramways Co., Annual Meeting of. 555 

Duffy, C. N *ofl6 

Dynamo and Engine Building, Improvements 

in (McEwen) *67 

Economy of Horse and Electric Traction In 

Boston 205 

Editorials: 

Accidents: Claim Problem of 484 

Fruitful Cause ot 365 

St. Louis, In 599 

American Cable Construction Methods 240 

American Street Railway Association : 600 

New Officers and Executive Committee 694 

Papers at St, Louis Convention v")95 

Proposed Consolidation With National 

Electric Light Association 174 

Retiring Officers and Executive Com- 
mittee, 694 

St. Louis Convention 364, 534, 094 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; Electric Loco- 
motives in the Belt Line Tunnel 175 

Brooklyn Bridge, Proposed Cbanges on 296 

Business Revival, The 707 

Cable Construction, English and American 

Compared 240 

Cable Railways, Abandonment in America 341 

Cars in St. Louis 598 

Cast Welded Joints, Electrical Resistance 

of 419 

Cheapness of Municipal Transportation In 

America 419 

Chicago " Three Cent Fare Association".. 113 

Cleveland, Freight and Express Service in 114 

Common Use of Tracks In St. Louis 599 

Compressed Air Motors , 535 



Consolidation of Companies, Advantages of 482 
Consolidated Traction Company of New 

Jersey 482 

Detroit; Failure ot Low Fares In 585 

Lessons from Street Railway System of 25 
Economy, Exaggerated Ideas of, From 

Electric Operat ion 174 

Electric Locomotives In the Baltimore Belt 

Line Tunnel 175 

Employes, Emulation Among 175 

English Cable Construction Methods 240 

Express, Baggage. Freight and Mall Serv- 
ice 114,297,483 

Fares: Low, Danger of 113, 535 

In Detroit 25, 418 

Fender Problem, The 419 

Financial Statistics 418 

Financial Supplement, Our 364 

Fire Insurance, Standardizing Rules of 

Electric Construction for 240 

Franchises : " Carefully Drawn " 365 

Dangei-ous 112 

Freight, Mail, Express and Baggage Service 

114, 297, 483 

General Electric Co., Annual Report of 297 

Grade Crossings 114 

Heaters 48a 

Indiscriminate Information, Danger of Giv- 
ing 418 

Interurban Electric Railways 113 

Low Fares, Danger of, in Detroit 25, 112, 535 

Mall, Freight and Express Service. . . 114, 297, 483 

Municipal Reform, Need of 483 

New York, Rapid Transit Plans in 866 

Overcapitalization, What is it? 175 

Patent Ownership, The Equities of 341 

PeeksklU, N. Y., "Carefully Drawn" Fran- 
chise in 365 

Piping in Power Stations 418 

Pleasure Traffic 296 

Power Stations: Tests 26 

Better Methods of Testing, Wanted 766 

Piping of 418 

Prospects for the Coming Year 24 

Rails, Chemical Composition ot 112 

Reserve Fund, Importance of a 365 

Return Circuit 241 

Return Feeders, Use of Old Rails for 484 

Silver Question: Its Relation to Street Rail- 
way Companies 482 

Its Relation to Street Railway Em- 
ployes 539 

Souvenir Issue, Our 534 

Standard Accounting System, Desirability 

of 365 

Standardizing Rules lor Electric Construc- 
tion 174 

St. Louis: Convention 364, 534, 694 

Street Railway Experience in 598 

Storage Battery Traction 766 

Street Railway Journal for 1890 24 

Thi-ee Cent Fares 35, 112,635 

T Rails in Paved Streets 174 

Track Construction in St. Louis 599 

Vestibules, The Use of 297 

Wanted, Better Methods of testing Power 

Stations 766 

Wheels, The Purchase of 113 

Electric Launches for Pleasure Resorts 375, 665 

Electric Locomotives: Baltimore, Experience 

, with, in *161, *651 

Brooklyn Bridge 132, 135, '164, 780 

New (Wesilnghouse) *192 

New Haven, in 469 

Practice in the United States 39 

Electric Power, Long Distance Transmission 

of 378 

Electric Railways: Practice in the United 

States '27 

Urban Growth and 'lo 

Electric Traction: Comparative Economy of, 

in Boston 205 

Steam Railway Conditions, under 779 

Elevated Railroads: Lake Street, Chicago, 

Opening of 443 

Metropolitan & Northwestern, Chicago,.^ 

Track Construction on *259 

Practice in the United States 38 

Vacuum Pump for Air Brakes *5I6 

Employes: How to Increase the General Effi- 
ciency of 619 

Selection and Management ot 715 

Wages on British Railroad Systems 190 

EnglneerlD^ Notes 124, 190 



De;c:embb;r, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



V 



Engines: Automatic Danger Stop for 310 

Direct Connected Units (Kodak) *(i53 

Dynamo Building and Improvements In 

(McEwen) '07 

Pltcliburg *195 

New Vertical, for Stein way, N. Y *060 

Records at Webster, Mass. (Mils) 259 

St. Louis Corliss *(i35 

Shafts, Hollow Forged Steel, for '057 

England: Notes from 13,13(1 

Hallway Systems, Wages ot^Employes on . . 11)0 

English Methods of Cable Track construction. *2i6 

Equipment Notes ?3, 13n, 202 

See also, Among the Manufacturers. 

Europe; Gas Motor Cars In, 785 

Notes 788 

Progress of Electric Traction In 31)3 

EvansvlUe, Ind., Wheel Practice In c 537 

Express Car In Brooklyn "436 

Express, Mall, Freight and Baggage Service. .201, 178 

Express Service in Brooklyn c 357 

Falrmount Park, Philadelphia, Novel Electric 

Railway In .. 778 

Pare Regulations In Knoxvllle 200 

Fares, Results of Reducing Omnibus, in Lon- 
don 114 

Feed Water Heaters: Improvements In (Coch- 
rane) *25e 

Purifier and Large. (Kensington) »310 

Purifier, Filter and Oil Separator (Cook- 
son) ",547 

Feeders: Method of Calculating, see Power 
Distribution for Electric Railways. 

Panel Equalizer *489 

Feeders, Return, Old Ralls as 621 

Feeders, Underground *243, c29l 

Fenders: New (Crawford) '318 

New (Mayollnl) 193 *260 

New (Shields) '548 

Records 387 

Figure 8 Wire, Trolley Appliances for (Ohio 

Brass Co.) 547 

Financial Markets, "Outside Securities" In.. . . 502 

Financial Notes 75, 80, 148 

Financial S upplement, Press Comments on eol 

Fire Insurance, See Insurance. Fire. 

Fireworks as a Park Attraction *317 

Firm, New (Macartney, McElroy & Co.) 322 

Flywheel, Steel, at Albany '428 

Fountain, Electric, Syracuse Street Railway 

Co n30 

Four Post Car Construction c 529 

France: Electric Central Station Statistics 190 

Some Recent Electric Railways In "156 

Freight Service, see Express Service. 

Gas Motor Cars In Europe 7t5 

Gearing, Lesson in. *121 

Gears: Long Lived '741 

Improvements In (Nuttall) 311 

Gears and Pinions: Causes which lead to 

Breakage of *227, *385 

Life of 20 

Steel (General Electric) *653 

General Electric Co.: Annual Report of 329 

convention, at the 640, *737 

1000 Motor *493 

Works of •437 

Generators : Direct Connected (Eddy ) *68 

Heavily Ove rloaded, In Detroit , 321 

Some Recent Motors and (Walker), . . *44 

Geneva, Switzerland Electric Railways of 263 

Germany: Electric Railway Construction In 395 

Extensive Electric Railway In 778 

"Ghost Chin," The 530 

Gliding Wheel '664 

Glasgow, Scotland: Report o£ Corporation 

Tramways 497 

J- Tramways of : 788 

governor, Automatic (Brownell & Co.) '64 

Grades; Ascending, in San Francisco «371 

Limiting, for Adhesion — ; 780 

Grand Rapids, Mlpii,, Olpaervatlons on Return 

Circuit C476 

Graphite Bushings ..... „ ,' , 386 

jlSlravlty Return System •SO 

Great Britain, Light RaUwa.ys In 368 

See also England. 

Grlffln. Capt. Eugene, Interview with 295 

Grlffln Wheel Co.. Works of »312 

Hand Planer and^Jolnter, New *378 

Hand Strap, Adjustable "655 

Hanley, T. L "667 



Ilanover, Germany, Street Railway System of "513 
Hartford (ii West Hartford Railway Co., Book 

of Views 67 

Haytl, Electric Railway In 741 

Headlights, Electric: (Wheeler) 382 

New(Neal) "133 

Heaters, Feedwater, see Feedwater Heaters. 

Heaters Electric: Improved (Gold) 491 

New (Ohio Brass) '782 

Panel for (Gold) '655 

To day, of *543 

Henry, Frank R *60u 

Highspeed Lines, Trolley Wire lor '378 

High Speed on the Lorain-Cleveland Electric 

Line c 414 

High Voltage Transmission Line at Buffalo- 
Niagara Falls •483, *773 

Hobart, Garret A *444 

Hoist, Electric Motor (Harrington) ^192 

Hospitality, Appreciation of American 380 

Houston, Tex., city street Railway, Annual 

Report Of 75 

Hungary, Railway Matters In c*76l 

Incandescent Lamps, Mallgnanl System of Ob- 
taining Vacuum 124 

Insulation ot Underground Cables c 291 

Insurance: Accident' 318, 665 

Report of Guarantor's Co 71 

Insurance, Fli-e, Standard Rules for^Construc- 

tlon 2C0, C 263,787 

International Street Railway Convention at 

Stockholm 460 

Interurban Railways: Baltimore and Wash- 
ington Electric Line, Work on 262 

Dayton and Mlamisburg, between 429 

Ohio, In (Mahoning Valley) ^252 

Some Recent *85 

Trolley Wire for "378 

Washington, Alexandria & Mount Vernon 

Electric Railway, System ot "301 

Iron and Steel Manufacture In Different Coun- 
tries 124 

Isle of Man: Mt. Snaefell Electric Railway '93 

New Cable Railway In 644 

Italy, Electric Railway at Varese *745 

Jennings, R. B *666 

Jersey City, N. J., CoasoUdated Traction Co., 

See Newark, N. J. 
Joints, Rail, see Rail Joints. 

Jobnson Co. : Bond Issue of. 450 

Electric Welding System of 776 

Kansas City, Metropolitan Street Railway Co. , 

Financial Characteristics of 607 

Kerosene Instead of Salt for keeping Switches 

Clear of Snow c357 

Kingston, N. Y., Silver Lesson In 5,53 

Knoxvllle, Fare Regulations in 290 

Kraushaar Lamp & Reflector Co 635 

Labor Statistics of Michigan 502 

Laclede Car Co., Works of *63l 

Laconla Car Co., Works of '125 

Lansing, Mich., Operation In, Suspended 637 

Lathe, Double Spindle (J. J. McCabe) •ai 

Lebanon, Pa,, Repair Shop Practice in c529 

Legal; 

Abutting Owner, vs. Trolley Road 480 

Accident Insurance 109, 693 

Elevated Railroad Land Damage Suits, Ef- 
fect of Surface Railroads upon — 362 

Exclusive Franchises 531 

Fenders, Patents for. Sustained 763 

Front Platforms, Elding on 238 

Highway, Right s of Stx eet Railways In 480 

Insurance against Liability of Common 

Carriers of Passengers 109, 692 

Jury Decisions, Remarkable 416 

Negligence, The Law of, with Some Statis- 
tics 293, 763 

New York Elevated Railroad Land Damage 

Suits, Effect of Surface Railroads upon. . 363 
Six Cent Verdict for Death by Wrongful 

Act 173 

Street Railway Law. Fundamental Prin- 
ciples of 22 

LkGAl Decisions; 

Assault on Passenger 363 

Charters, Statutory Powers— Ordinances, 22, 111, 
294, 363, 417, 481, 533, 692, 764 

Compensation for Use of Tracks 173 



Dedication 417 

Eiectlon ot Passengers 23, 173, 633, 763 

Equity— Specific Performance 533 

Excessive Damages 23, 110, 173, 230, .5-33 

Injunction 173, 417, 481 

Legal Tender Pare 763 

Liability for Negligence 110, 173,239,204, .363, 

417, 481, 533,764 

Mandamus m 

Patents 763 

Riding on Front Platform 23 

Use of Road— Damages 417 

Yallillty of Contract Exempting from Neg- 
ligence Ill, 533 

Letters and Hints from Practical Men 19, 107, 107, 

234,288, 411, 476, 537 
Lewlston (N. Y.) &Youngstown Electric Rail- 
way, Opening of ,509 

Light Railways In Great Britain .368 

Lightning Arresters, Why they do not always 

protect 200 

Live Wire Cut-Out, Automatic "bss 

Locomotives, Electric, see Electric Loco- 
motives 409 

London, England, Results of reducing Omnibus 

Pares.ln ii4 

Underground Systems 94 

London, Ont., Ladles as Conductors in 663 

Long Branch, Atlantic Coast Electric Railroad, 

System of. -z(J5 

Long Distance Riding and Transfer Systems in 

American Cities 41,5 

Long Distance Transmission of Electric Power. 373 

Lorain, O., High Speed In. c414 

Los Angeles, Interurban Roads near •93 

Lawrence; Lowell & Haverhill Street Railway 

Co., Annual Report 7,5 

Lowell & Suburban Street Railway, Annual 

Report 75 ' 

Lugano, Three Phase Electric Railway at 307 



Machine Works (Bullard) '434 

Ma gee, Louis J «44j 

Maine, Annual Report of Railroad Commission- 
ers 75 

Mail Car, Chicago City Railway *359 

Mall, Express, Baggage and Freight Service 291, 478 
Mall Service, see also Express Service. 
Manchester, N. H., Street Railway Co., System 

of *223 

Mansfield, O., Conductorless Cars In.... C414 

Maps. 

atlantic Coast Electric Railroad Co 506 

Bergen County Traction Co 336 

Boston 10 

Cleveland, Interurban Railways about 86 

Consolidated Traction Company of New 

Jersey 460 

Detroit Railway Co 2 

Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connec- 
ticut 540 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co.. New 

York 517 

Orleans Railroad Company 21 6 

Portland (Me.) Railroad Co 150 

St. Louis 5S0 

Staten Island Electric Railroad Co. , 273 

Marseilles, France, Accident Report of i24 

Marinette, Wis., Power Station Records in c 167 

Massachusetts Railroad Commissioners, An- 
nual Report of 213 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association, 

Convention of 551 

Mayer, C. J , n39 

Mcculloch, Richard •666 

McCulloch, Robert 717 

McLean, J. L ' *201 

McLean, Thos. H 387 

Mechanical Stokers, Experiments with Auto- 
matic *o68 

Melbourne, Life of Cables In 300 

Mexico, Large Power Transmission Plant in.. 512 

Mica Volume, A 738 

Michigan Labor Statistics 502 

Michigan Street Railway Association, Annual 

Meeting of 46 

Mlddletown, Conn., Power Station Records... c 167 

Milan, New Electric Railway in 120 

Mileage, Cars and Capitalization of American 

Street Railway Properties 503 

Mileage, Long Distance Riding and Transfer 

Systems In American Cities 415 

Milwaukee Street Railway Co.: Conductors' 

Book of Instructions,., I60 



vi 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol.. XII. No. 12. 



Conductors' Pocket Record Book c*lC7 

Foreclosure of 75 

Method of Explaining Controller Connec- 
tions *290 

Practice In 524 

Resistance ol Cast Welded Joints In c47C 

Strike and Boycott. .. 385, 442 

Traffic Report 134 

Minneapolis, Twin tlty Rapid Transit Co.: An- 
nual Report 2119 

Financial Characteristics of 007 

Maintenance, Wages and Shop Practice ♦282 

Rolling Stock, Accident Blanks "Sid 

Missouri Car & Foundry Co 632 

Mortising and Boring Machine, Hollow Chisel.. "433 

Momentum, Meaning of the Word , c 237 

Montreal Street Railway Co,, Annual Report 

of 790 

Morris, Tasiver & Co., Works of *)37 

Mortising Machine '740 

Motormen and Conductors, Cluh House for '122 

Motormen, Rewards to, in Brooklyn 496 

Motors: G. E, 800, Commutators for 496 

G. E. 1000 "m 

New (Westlnghouse) '441 

Repairs, Cost ol 104 

Some Recent Generators and (Walker) '44 

Steel, Type C-3... *782 

Moulding and Shaping Machine, Double Spindle 

Edge «782 

Mount Clemens, Mich., New Cars tor •432 

System of Rapid Railway Co '8 

Mountain Railway In California 137 

Municipal Transportation In America, Charges 

for 415 

Nantasket, Mass., Third Rail Experiments at. *435 
National Electric Light Association, Meeting 

ol 386 

National Electrical Exposition 318, '379 

New Publicatlons,28, ill, 137, 327, 391, 000, 557, 743,793 
Newark, Consolidated Traction Co: 

Car Speclflcations 490 

Fender Records 387 

Financial Characteristics 607 

Managers "554 

Repair Shops '14 

Piece Work In 758 

System •4.53 

Newburgh (N. Y.) Electric Railway Co "89 

New England, Growth of Electric Railways In 

Southern "SSO 

New Haven, Large Electric Locomotive for 469 

New Jersey, Electric Railway System of the 

Northern Coast of '505 

New Orleans: Canal & Claiborne Railroad Co., 

Opening of 753 

Recent Orders Awarded by 263 

New Orleans Traction Co.: Aid Association 

of 433 

Financial Characteristics of 607 

Orleans Railroad Co.: Piping for '432 

System of *215 

Overhead Construction in *i95 

New York & Brooklyn Bridge: Contracts, New, 38.5 

Electric Equipment and Cars of '661 

Electric Locomotive for 132 

Electric Locomotive Truck •ia5 

New Cars for *740 

Reasons for Use of Electric Locomotives on. 'lO* 

Signaling System lor Cars 121 

New York City: Compressed Air Motors for 

387, 428, *436, 5 '9, 654 
Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Rail- 
way Co , New Car of •3C0 

Manhattan Elevate'l Railway Co., Finan- 
cial Characteristics of 002 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Financial 

Characteristics of 002 

Lease of Eighth Avenue Road 135 

Lenox Avenue Conduit Construction.. . . 'GOo 

Officers of Fourth Avenue Division 490 

Open Cars for 410 

Organization and Operating Methods of *oi4 
■ Proposed Changes at Union Square .... 491 
Metropolitan Traction Co., Report to Stock- 
holders 209 

Third Avenue Railroad Co., Changes In 

St itlon and Track Construction 538 

Compressed Air Motors on 135 St. Line. *436 
Electric Conduit Construction on Am- 
sterdam Avenue *41 

Financial Characteristics of 604 

New Sand Car of •414 

Opening of Coadiilt Line 384 



New York R. R. Commissioners: Annual Re- 
port 143 

Recent Decisions by 200 

New York State Street Railway Association: 

Annual Convention "eiT 

Meeting of Executive Committee 114 

Proaramme of Convention 550 

Niagara Falls— Buffalo, High Voltage Trans- 
mission Line '488, *772 

Oak: Dry, in Car Construction 164 

Seasoned in Car Construction 170 

Oakland, Cal., Conductorless Cars anC Brakes 

In c*528 

Obituary: 

Abbott, Job 553 

Beach, Alfred E 139 

Beatty, William S 333 

Collins, H. E 743 

Crawford, R. A 498 

Ellis, Wm.G 791 

Bain, F. K 388 

Hairis, WllliJmA 743 

Law, George 498 

McCoubray, Thos 72 

Pratt, Nat. W ♦264 

Wlnser, Henry J 553 

October Issue. Few Press Comments on 744 

Ohio State Tramway Association, Annual Meet- 
ing of 023 

on Puriller: (McClelland) 'OSO 

Perfection *260 

Operating Methods and Organization of the 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co., New York. '514 

Operating Statistics of American Street Rail- 
way Properties 449 

Operating Statistics, Table of 79, 147, 213, 273, 333, 

451, 503, 559 

Opposite vs. Broken Joints 50, 304 

Organization and Operating Methods of the 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co., New York. '514 

Ottawa, Ont., Electric Railway, Power Station 

Records c289 

Overhead Appliances: 

Fig. 8 Trolley Wire Appliances (Ohio 

Brass) 547, •654 

Flexible Brackets (Creaghead) 061 

" Hercules " Clamp '663 

Improved Insulating Bolt '•378 

Live Wire Cut-out •0^3 

Material (Macallen) *310 

Medbery Insulation *eG2 

New Mechanical Clip *3S2 

Type " G" (General Electric Co.) •izo 

" W. E " clip (Western Electric Co.) '64 

Overhead Construction: Chicago "123 

Modern 712 

New Orleans *I95 

Practice In the United States *30 

San Francisco, Recent •4S5 

P. &B 034 

Painting Trolley Poles ^547 

Paper and Cloth as Insulators 430 

Parks, see Pleasure Resorts. 

Partridge, A. S 033, *742 

Patents: Decision In Overhead Trolley Case.. 51 

Decision of Judge Townsend 203 

General Electric- Westlnghouse Arrange- 
ments .322 

List of 141, 204, 208, 328, 417, 500, 557, 743, 794 

Litigation on Overhead Trolley 197, 200,787 

Peckham Motor Truck & Wheel Co.: Exhibit of •737 

Output of 387 

Recent Orders of 444 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association: An- 
nual Convention 496, 623 

Programme of Convention 551 

Personals 71. 138, 201, 264, 323, 388, 444, 497, 553, 

060, 742, 790 

Philadelphia: Fairmount Park Transportation 

Co., System of 778 

HestonvUle, M. & F. P. Ry. Co., Circuit 

Breaker Alarm, Switchboard 237 

Power Station Records 235 

Strike In bs 

Transfers, Abolition of 13 

Union Traction Co., Financial Character- 
istics of 604 

Ogontz Power Station %5 

Orders to stop at the Farther Corner. . 51 

Storage Battery Plant for 741 

Piece Work In Repair Shops 758 

Pinions, Manufacture of Hot Pressed 'eoi 

See also Gears. 



Piping: Electric Railway Power Plants, for. .. . 421 

Problem In c '168, c •359, c •413, Tei 

See also Power Stations. 
Pittsburgh: Conversion of Cable Lines to Elec- 
tric 874 

Second Avenue Traction Co., Car Wheel 

Grinding Maclilne c*477 

Planer, Extra Heavy Smoothing (Egan) '192 

Pleasure Resorts: Attractions for c 414 

Electric Launches at 374 

Fireworks as Attractions at ♦317 

Pottstown Passenger Railway Co., of 401 

Pole Brackets; Flexible (Creaghead) •134 

Improved Hinged •433 

Poles: Electric Railway, In Germany -3% 

Manufacture of (Morris, Tasker & Co.) •127 

Method of Painting •547 

Woodlllne for 639 

Porter, B. W *138 

Portland, Me., Portland Railroad Co., System 

of ♦149 

Pottstown Passenger Railway Co , Pleasure 

Resort of 401 

Power Distribution for Electric Railroads, ♦99, *168 
C 167, •239, •352,*406, *470, *519 
Power from Trolley Circuits, Is It Practicable ?. 620 

Power Stations: Modern, A *701 

New in Philadelphia *65 

Piping, Problem in c*168 5 c^39, o'413 

Practice In Anderson, lud c 359 

Practice in the United States *si 

Railway 622 

St. Louis •587 

Steam Piping for ^421 

Power Station Records: HestonvUle. Mantua & 

Fairmount Pass. Ry. Co., Philadelphia... 235 

Large Western Road 359 

Marinette, Wis c 167 

Mlddletown, Conn c 167 

Ottawa c 289 

Racine, Wis c 167 

Rochester, N. Y 762 

Savannah c 289 

Trenton, N.J c 234 

Power Transmission, Increased Use of 549 

Progress of Electric Traction 295 

Properties, Great Street Railway, of America. . 602 
Providence: Method of Painting Trolloy Poles. ♦547 
United Traction & Electric Co., Financial 

Characteristics of 007 

Pratt, George E •553 

Purifier and Feedwater Heater, Large (Ken- 
sington) •sio 

Filter, Oil Separator and (cookson) •547 

Racine, Wis., Power Station Records In c 167 

Rail Cleaner, New. (Hunter) 

Rail Bonds: 'ige 

Columbia •491 

Construction and Maintenance ^697 

Device for Measuring Resistance of 443 

Horseshoe (Atkinson) •495 

New (Atkinson) "378 

New (Brown) •649 

New, (Caldwell) •495 

New, (Herr) 373 

New, (Rleth) "434 

Testing, New Method of 257 

Protected (Forest City) .!!5ia^ 

Rail Joints: Cast Welded, Resistance of...c4]2, c473, 

C527 

Electrically Welded 776 

New (Fulton Truck & Foundry Co.) «197 

Opposite vs. Broken 50, 304 

Some Notes on 668 

Some Results from 139 

Track, Bonds and. Construction and Main- 
tenance •097 

Track Fastenings and *250 

Weber. »639 

Ralls: Effect of Improper Wheel Flanges oh... ci07 

Electrically Welded. .. .... .^ tJffi 

Removing Sand from.. ... .. cMi 

Report on 619 

Use of Old, as Underg'fbucd Conductors .... fljfl 

Wanted In Australia. : . . : 549 

Rail Saw, PortaDle (Q. « C.) . .... ' 667 

Railway Magsizine, New ; 659 

Ralncy, France, Railway System of ♦15C 

Receiverships, Street Railway, in the United 

Stales 269 

Red Bank: Atlantic Highlands, Red Bank & 

Long Branch Electric Railway, System of. . *508 

Registers, L. & F., 1896 *196 

Repair Shops: Chicago City Railway ^402. "46S 

Consolidated Traction Co., of New Jersey. . *14 



Dkcembkr, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



vii 



Equipment ot Western Railway Company. . 1118 

Experiment In Managing 355 

Lebanon, Pa., rracllce In C520 

Milwaukee, Practice In 524 

MlnneapoUg, Practice In *282 

Piece Work In 768 

Kochester Hallway Co *7ti0 

Stelnway Railway Co c'236 

West Clilcag-o Street KulUvay Co 

West End street Railway Co., Boston 'flS 

Repairs, Truck and Motor 104 

Ketarders, Effect ot, In Fire Tubes of Steam 

Boilers 374 

Return Circuit, Observations In Grand Rapids, 

Mlcli., Upon c 470 

Revenue of Street Railways, How Can it be In- 
creased 706 

Rewards to Motormen in Brooklyn 49ti 

Rlcbmond (Va.) Traction Co, Track Construc- 
tion ot '489 

Roadbed, Strett Railway '47, 'IIj, '182, *2r>0, »769 

See also Track Construction. 

Koebester: Power Station Records 763 

Repair Shops "760 

Store Room and Wages Accounting *754 

Track Construction In, New 7E3 

Rockwell, H. O '667 

Rome, Italy: Klectrlc Traction In 93 

Electric Railway of '510 

Roller for Car House Doors "OSO 

Roller Bearings for Street Cars '644 

Rolling Stock, see Cars and Car Construction. 

Rontgen Rays 190 

Roubalx, Prance, Railway System of *156 

Rouen, France, Electric Railway System ot '467 

Routes, Announcing, by Gongs 160 

Russia, Large Piping Plant for 717 

Safety Signals on Electric Railways '305 

Safety b>top for Engines, Automatic '310 

Safety Switches '288 

St. Louis: Cars In '580 

City and Its Transportation System '561 

Cass Avenue & Fair Grounds Railway Co., 

Cast Welded Joints, Use of c 412, c 637 

National Railway Co., Financial Character- 
istics of 606 

Power Stations In »587 

Representative Street Railway Managers 

In '561 

Roadbed In »590 

Wheels and Wheel Records In *636 

Works of Union Car Co. , '638 

St. Louis Car Wheel Co., Works of '634 

St. Paul, Twin City Rapid Transit Co., See Min- 
neapolis. 

Sale ot Frog and Crossing Works 61 

Sand Boxes and Flat Wheels 410 

Sand car. New '414 

San Diego, Cal., Sale of Cable Railway 72, 129 

Sand Papering Machine (Fay) »133 

San Francisco: Ascending: Grades In '371 

Doom of the Cable In *l]9 

Market Street Railway Co., Financial Char- 
acteristics of , 607 

Notes 69, 136, 198, 364, '320, 386, 496 

Recent Electrical Overhead Work In »485 

T Rail on Paved Streets, Why It Is not Sat- 
isfactory ; V *isi 

Santa Barbara New Electric Line In «753 

Savannah (Ga,), Thunderbolt & Isle of Hope 

Railway, Power Station Records c 289 

Saw, Improved Variety (Egan) '54^ 

Schenectady, N. Y., Manufacture of Armature 

Colls at '549 

Sclentlflc American Souvenir Number 497 

Scranlon, Pa., Scranton Traction Co., Annual 

Report 146 

Seashore Electric Railway, A Novel,at Bright- 
on, England '303 

Seats, Reversible, tor Street Cars '638 

Separator and Steam Receiver, Combloed 

(Goubert) '254 

Series Parallel Controllers, Running Notches 

Compared 541 

SerpoUet Steam Motor *191 

Shafts: Compression Coupling for '604 

Hollow Forged Steel '0.57 

Shanley, B. J *554 

Shultz Belting Co 635 

Signals on Electric Railways '305 

Signs for Cars, Illuminated '287 

Silesia Germany, Extensive Electric Railway 

In 778 

Silver Lesson in Kingston, N. Y. 553 



Sioux City Traction Co., Novel Method of 

stringing Trolley Wire 4lo 

Sueed, T. f *667 

south Africa, Rolling Stock for 261 

Snow Plow (Peckham) '644 

Special Work: "769 

Solid cast Steel, at Stelnway, N. Y '494 

Splicer for Soft Drawn Copper Wire '540 

Springfield, Mass., Street Railway Co.: Annual 

Report 140 

Parlor Car '493 

Sprinkler with 40 It. Spread '311 

Sprinkling Car, The Kensington '786 

Standardizing of Electrical Equipment 022 

Standard Underground Cable Co., Annual 

Meeting 201 

Staten Island Electric Railroad Co., System of. '275 
Statistics ot Growth ot Electric Railways In 

Southern New England '639 

Steam Motor Cars (SerpoUet) '191 

Steam Railroads in Southern New England, 

Effect on, of Klectrlc Railways '539 

Steam Truss In Car Construction c 528 

Stelnway (N. Y.) Railway Co.: Coal Pocket.... *135 

New Vertical Engine for '660 

Repair Shops c*236 

Solid Cast Steel Special Work '494 

Sterling company, Changes In 261 

Stock and Bond Quotations 76, 144, 2io, 270, .330 

Stockholm Convention of International Street 

Railway Association 4.50 

Stokers, Experiments with Automatic Mechan- 
ical "308 

Storage Batteries: Chicago, In 321, "748 

P.arls Line, Statistics ot 190 

Philadelphia, In 741 

Practice In the United States 40 

Regulator ot Voltage on Long Lines, as a, 

C167 c285 

Strap Handle, Sanitary *433 

Street Cleaning by Electricity '441 

Street Railway News. 69, 1.36, 198, 265, 272, 331, 553, 788 

Street Sprinklers (American Car Sprinkling Co.) 137 

Kensington *7?6 

Taunton '311 

Studies In Economic Practice: 

Chicago City Railway '402, '408 

Milwaukee 524 

St. Paul-MInneapoUs '282, '346 

Suburban Lines, Use of Storage Batteries as 

Boosters c 167, c 2.35 

Surface Planing Machine *495 

Switchboards: Circuit Breaker Alarm on 237 

Panel Equalizer '489 

Value of Gas Lights on 233 

Switches. Kept Clear of Snow by Kerosene c857 

Safety c288 

See also Track Switches. 
Syracuse Street Railway Co., Electric Fountain 

for '130 

Telegraphy, Possibilities of 137 

Tenoning Machine, New Double (Fay) '253 

Testing Rail Bonds, New Method ot 257 

Testing Stations ( l^oston) '243 

Texas Street Railway Association, Annual 

Convention of 198, 262, 319 

Third Rail Experiments at Nantasket *435 

Thayer & Co 497 

Thompson, A. C "607 

Three Phase Electric Railway at Lugano 307 

Ticket Punch, New (Woodman) *194 

Tickets, Engraving of (Bradley) 71 

Tie Plates as Tie Preservers "Tso 

Ties, Carbollneum as a Preservative 63 

Tower Wagon, Convenient (Leonhardt) *030 

Track Cleaners: (Ulckley) '66 

Adjustable Holder for (Ohio Brass Co.) *193 

Track Construction: Chicago, Metropolitan and 

Norihwestern E'evated Roads '259 

Distance Between Tracks c 107 

Maintenance and *093 

New York, Third Avenue Railroad Co., 

Practice ot 53S 

Practice In the United States *28 

Richmond, Substantial *489 

St. Louis '596 

Tie Plates as Tie Preservers '786 

Three Different Methods, Cost of '118 

Track Joints, and '097 

T Rail, Why not Satisfactory on Paved 

Streets In San Francisco '181 

See also Rail Bonds, Rail Joints, Roadbed 
and Special Work. 

Track Joints: Opposite vs. Broken 50, 304 

Track and '697 



Track Switch, Electric (Wood) 443, '492 

Traction, Limiting Grades for 780 

Trade Catalogues. . . .201, 367, 327, 393. 447, .500, 5,57, 794 

Trade Journals consolidate 65 

Trafflc, How can It be Incrtiased? 706 

Transfers: 618 

Abolition of, In Phlladephla 13 

Proposed, with Minute Check c 18 

Transfer Systems and Long Distance Riding 

In American Cities 415 

Transfer Table, New (Hathaway) '655 

Transition Curves: Location of Trolley Wire on cMU 

Street Railway c'857, C413 

Transmission Line, High Voltage at Buffalo- 
Niagara Falls '488, '773 

Trenton, N. J.: Power Station Records at c 2,34 

Wheel Records in 169 

Trolley, New (Walker) '491 

Trolley Base and Wheel (Duncan) *647 

TroUey Wire: Correct Location on Curves.. *.J67, *428 

Correct Location on Spiral Curves c '411 

High Speed Lines, tor •378 

Novel Method ot Stringing 410 

Trucks: Brooklyn Bridge '166 

Cars and (Brill) *628 

Combined Electric Locomotive and Passen- 
ger (McGuire) '1.35 

Design and Application of (Peckham) *642 

Diamond Frame *431 

Diamond Swivel '6.54 

Extension Lever (Bell) ... '383 

Imperial Swivel '047 

New (Du Pont) '310 

New Motor (American) '375 

New Motor (Curtis) '1.33 

Perfect '430. c 627, '784 

Recent Orders for 197 

Repairs, Cost of 104 

Turbine Governor 314 

Union Car Co., Works ot '6.38 

United States, Street Railway Cars in '609 

Upshaw, Gen. A. B 791 

Utlca Belt Line, Car c '411 

Valves, Improved (Crane) '194 

Varese, Italy, Electric Railway at '745 

Veneer Car Roofs and Sides 738 

Veneer Panels for Car Bodies 530 

Versailles, France, Electric Railway in 489 

Walker Company Recent Generators and 

Motors '44 

Reorganization ot 263 

Works ot '624 

Washington: Baltimore & CatonsvUle Construc- 
tion Co., Work ot 262 

Metropolitan Railroad Co., Improvements 

adopted '299 

Motor Wheel Lift •763 

Notes 89 

Operating Expenses 234 

Wheel Grinding Machine *290 

Washington, Georgetown & TennaUytown 

Railway Co., New Station of 137 

Washington, Alexandria & Mt. Vernon 

Electric Railway Co., System ot ... '301 

Wason Manufacturing Co., Works of *255 

Water Cooling Tower (Barnard) '651, '741 

Wattmeters: Dials for (General Electilc Co.). . . *1S4 

Recording, in Railway Practice 'BOS 

Wells & Fj^nch Co., Works ot '63 

Wheels: 0»UBes'l!»'tiie Breakage of '17 

Difiicilty In Standardizing Sectluua it;9 

Effector Improper Flanges on Ralls c 107 

Flat; Notes oa c 235 

Sjind Boxes and 410 

"Gh^t Chill" In 580 

Loss In Regrlndlng ■ . . . ■ . 4T8 

Notjs 108, 170, 

Method of Removing from Cars •762 

St. Louis, in......... *6S6 

Wheel Grinding Machine *S9q 

Wheel Manufacture: Cleveland, In (Dorner & 

Dutton) '60 

Extensive (Grlffln) *312 

Missouri Car & Foundry Co 632 

St. Louis Car Wheel Co *634 

Wheel Records: Comparative, from Western 

Road S87 

Evansvllle, Ind c 527 

St. Louis ; '636 

Trenton, N. J 169 

Wire, Disposition of Old Trolley and Magnet.. 129 

Woodlilne for line Poles 639 

Young, David '554 

Young, E. F. C '554 



Street F^ailway Journal. 



Vol. XII. 



JYEW YORK AJVD CHICAGO, JAJYUARY, 189 G. 



J^o. 1. 



THE SYSTEM OF THE DETROIT RAILWAY COMPANY. 



During the last few years the city of Detroit has been 
the scene of many interesting and exciting incidents from 
a street railway standpoint. For several years the local 
election has been waged largely upon the basis of an 
effort to secure a reduction in the charges made on the 
street railway lines of the city. The present mayor, who 
has held office for several terms, has been one of the 
prime movers in this direction. At the time of his elec- 
tion to the mayor- 
alty the street rail- 
way system of the 
city was almost en- 
tirely in the hands 
of one cpmpany, the 
predecessor of the 
present Detroit Citi- 
zens' Street Railway 
Company. The 
length of life of the 
franchises of this 
company was then 
under litigation, and 
an effort was made 
to secure from it 
certain reductions 
from nickel cash 
fares in considera- 
tion of franchise ex- 
tensions. The com- 
pany, however, pre- 
ferred to carry its 
case on the length of 
life of its franchises 
to the courts, with 
the result that it has 
been confirmed in 
its ownership of 
them for the original 
time for which they 
were granted. 

Defeated in this 
direction, an effort 
was made by the 
authorities of De- 
troit to induce other 
capitalists to con- 
struct other lines in 
the city. After con- 
siderable negotiation an agreement was finally reached 
between the representatives of the present Detroit Rail- 
way Company and the city, granting the former impor- 
tant franchise rights and other privileges over certain 
streets upon condition of certain reduced rates of fare. 

The franchises heretofore granted by the city had 
exacted the laying of pavements and the care of the 
same between tracks, and in some streets as far as two 
feet nine inches beyond. In addition, a payment to the 
city of a tax of from i to 3 per cent, of the gross receipts 
was required of certain companies. 

The rates of fare were not to exceed five cents, or six 
tickets for twenty-five cents, though the latter was not 
obligatory, and for one hour in the morning and one hour 
in the evening, when the working class were traveling. 




FIG. 1.— EXTERIOR OF POWER STATION— DETROIT RAILWAY. 



eight tickets for twenty-five cents were required to be 
sold. 

FRANCHISES. 

The Detroit Railway franchise has been so often mis- 
stated, and is so generally misunderstood, that an ab- 
stract of some of its principal features is necessary for an 
understanding of the present status of the company. 

The original ordi- 
nance accepted by 
the managers of the 
new company was 
dated December 4, 
1894, and granted to 
Greene Pack, Albert 
Pack and Henry A. 
Everett, their asso- 
ciates.successors and 
assigns, in organiz- 
ing a corporation 
named the Detroit 
Railway Company, 
right to build, main- 
tain and operate an 
overhead trolley 
railway. The track 
was to be laid -with 
grooved girder rails 
of not i e s*s than 
seventy-seven and a 
half pounds to the 
yard, and was to be 
constructed under 
the supervision of 
the Board of Public 
Works. 

All paving, re- 
paving and repairing 
of pavement upon 
any streets occupied 
by the tracks of the 
company is done at 
the expense of the 
city. The company, 
however, when it 
disturbs existing 
pavement for repair- 
ing its tracks is 



obliged to put the pavement back in good condition. 
It has also to pave all tracks and spaces between double 
tracks in streets which may be already paved at the time 
of the first construction of the tracks. 

The city undertakes to keep the pavement between 
the rails cleaned in the same manner as the rest of the 
street, but all snow and ice is removed from the tracks by 
the railway company. 

The poles within a two mile circle from the center of 
the city must be of iron, and outside may be of wood. 
Rates of fare are as follows; cash fare, five cents; tickets 
good between 5:45 a.m. and 8 p.m., eight for twenty-five 
cents; tickets good between 8 p.m. and 5:45 a.m., six for 
twenty-five cents. Special tickets are sold to the Police 
and Fire Departments in books of 100 at fifty cents a 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



book. No free passes are required or allowed except to 
employes of the company. A universll transfer is given 
on all lines of the company. 

Taxes are paid on real estate and personal property 
owned as in the case of an individual, but the franchise 
and earnings are not subject to taxation. 

At the expiration of thiity years the city of Detroit 
is to have the right to purchase the entire plant of the 



FIG. 2.— SECTION OF TRACK WITHOUT TIES. 



for the faithful performance of this ordinance by the 
grantees of a certified check for $50,000 and a bond in the 
sum of $100,000. 

Construction was soon commenced after the ap- 
proval by the mayor of this ordinance, and last summer 
the railway was put in operation with rented power. On 
December 4, 1895, the city authorities were so well sat- 
isfied that the company had fulfilled the conditions of 
the original ordinance that the deposit of $50,000 was 
returned and the bonds for $100,000 were reduced to 
$25,000. 

THE company has now in 
operation fifty miles of 
track, measuring one mile 
of double as two miles of 
single. It is laid with 




-5-0^ 



—5-0'^ — 



-5-0— 



FIG. 3.— SECTION OF DOUBLE TRACK WITH TIES. 



Street Railway Joureal 



company. The value of the plant is to be determined by 
a Board of Arbitration consisting of nine members, three 
of whom are to be members of the Common Council of the 
city of Detroit and appointed by the mayor, three are to 
be appointed by the railway company, and these six are 
to select three others. If the six are unable to agree upon 
any one or more of the remaining three members of the 



eighty-five pound girder rail. The two methods in use 
are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The construction varies ac- 
cording to the condition of the streets through which the 
line runs. 

Of late years all of the paving in Detroit has been 
laid upon a concrete foundation. On the streets paved 
with asphalt or brick — see Fig. 2 — a system of trench 



PETROIT MICH. 

SHOWING 

PETROIT RAILWAY 




FIG. 4.— MAP OF DETROIT, SHOWING LINES OF THE DETROIT RAILWAY. 



Board they are to be appointed by the Circuit Court for 
the County of Wayne. In arriving at the price at which 
the purchase is to be made, the ordinance states that the 
Board of Arbitration " shall not take into consideration 
the value of the franchises or grant, but shall allow for 
the property of the grantees its fair value for street rail- 
way purposes, taking into consideration its cost and nat- 
ural depreciation." The ordinance required the deposit 



work v/as adopted. The trench was cut fifteen inches 
deep and one foot wide. A layer of concrete, composed 
of one part Portland cemen.t, four parts Louisville cement, 
eight parts sand and sixteen parts broken stone, was laid 
in the bottom of the trench to the depth of six inches. 

The rail is a seven inch eighty-five pound grooved 
Cambria section and is placed in the trench. The two 
inch space between the top of the concrete and the bot- 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XIL . No. i. 



torn of the rail, together with the space on each side, is 
filled up to the bottom of the pavement with grouting, 
composed of one part Portland cement, one of sand and 
three of clean fine gravel. The rails are bound together 





Station of the Detroit 



FIG. 6.— ECONOMIZERS. 

with tie rods placed ten feet apart, and on brick paved 
Streets the interstices are fitted with Portland cement. 

On unpaved streets and paved streets without the 
concrete foundation the method shown in Fig. 3 was 
adopted. The street was graded out the full width of 
the ties to a depth of nineteen in- 
ches below grade. Six inches of 
concrete of the same proportion as 
that in the trench was laid and al- 
lowed to harden for five days. The 
track was then laid and a cushion 
of sand one inch thick tamped 
under the ties. This not only les- 
sens the jar of the cars but enables 
the company to get a perfect surface 
on the rail. The track was then 
filled with concrete of the same 
quality to within one-half inch of 
the pavement. A layer of sand one- 
half inch thick was then spread 
over the whole and the pavement 
laid and cemented with tar. The 
ties are of white oak, five inches 
thick, eight inches wide and seven 
feet long, and are placed two and 
one-half feet from center to center. 
The rail is all eighty-five pound 
seven inch groove except the special 
work. This, with one or two ex- 
. ceptions, is ninety pound seven inch, 
side bearing, girder Cambria or 
Wharton sections, with a bolted 
guard, and was made by the Cleve- 
land Frog & Crossing Company. 

The cost of construction is 
very much less in the first method 
than when ties are used, as about 
50 per cent, of the cost of removing 
and replacing pavement is avoided. 
Both so far seem to be standing 
up equally well under the traffic. 

The joints are made with ten bolt splice bars, using 
one and one-quarter inch bolts and five and one-half inch 
plates. Tie rods are not used when ties are employed. 
The track is laid with broken joints. 



RETURN CIRCUIT. 

The Benedict & Burnham bond is used at each joint. 
Double bonds are employed with wires and the rails are 
connected by an overhead return at every twelfth 
pole. 

THE power station 
is located at the 
corner of Atwater 
^^cyT&ri0\UiM^P^ and Riopelle 

Streets, close to the 
Citizens' Street Railway 
Company and on the bank of the Detroit River. 
It is of brick, and attracts attention from the river 
and city on account of its handsome and lofty 
stack. 

The engine room contains at present four 
direct connected units, of Walker generators and 
Allis engines. 

Two of the generators are of 400 k. w. and two 
of 800 K. w. capacity, the latter being the largest 
yet built by the Walker Manufacturing Company. 
Elsewhere a detailed description and engravings 
are given of these machines, so that a full account 
of their construction is unnecessary here. It should 
be said, however, that the generators run very 
quietly and without spark and are doing their 
work well. Upon a recent occasion, when one of 
the 800 K. w. units was temporarily shut down on 
account of a hot crosshead and before the other 
had been put in place, the two smaller machines 
supplied 3,000 amperes without difficulty. The 
officers of the company speak in the warmest terms 
of their performance, and have just ordered two 
additional 800 k. w. machines. 
The engines operating the 400 k. w. units are cross 
compound, with cylinder dimensions 20 in. and 40 in. X 
48 in. stroke, and with cut-off at one-half stroke de- 
velop 750 H. p. The two larger units are of a similar 
type with cylinder dimensions 24 in. and 48 in. X 48 in. 




FIG. 7.— SECTION OF BOILER ROOM. 

Stroke, and with cut-off at one-half stroke develop 1,200 
H. p. Both run at about eighty-seven revolutions per 
minute. 

The switchboard is of the General Electric panel 
type and is located in an alcove specially [built for the 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



5 



purpose at the side of the engine room. The engine 
room is served by a twenty ton traveling crane manu- 
factured by Alfred Box & Company, of Philadelphia. 
The crane is supplied vi^ith ball bearings, making it very 
easy for one man to operate it, although it weighs some 
fifteen tons. 

The interior of the engine room is well lighted and taste- 
fully finished with a frieze of 
Milwaukee brick around the 
walls. There are long windows 
and doors at each end, and 
plenty of natural light is afford- 
ed by a glass monitor roof. 
When completed the floor will be 
finished in hard maple. 



of corbels at the crown, giving a handsome appearance, 
and on tlie river side the letters uei roit railway appear 
in light colored brick built into the stack. The stack is 
200 ft. in height from the top of the foundation to the 
top of the cap, and is twenty feet nine inches in diameter 
at the base and fourteen feet eight inches at the crown. 
The inside diameter is ten feet. The flue from the Vjoil- 



KOILER ROOM. 

The boiler room, which is 
separated from the engine room 
by a fire brick wall, contains at 
present four batteries, of two 
boilers each, of the Stirling type. 
Each boiler generates 500 h. p. at 
140 pounds pressure. Centennial 

rating. The boilers are equipped with Murphy furnaces, 
and according to the officials of the company are giv- 
ing excellent results. The station is fitted with Green 
economizers and Davidson single condensers and pumps. 

The coal is received by railroad cars on a siding 
close to the boiler room and is discharged into coal 





FIG. 8.— WARREN STREET CAR HOUSE. 

ers is oval, eleven feet nine and three-quarters inches in 
longest diameter, and eight feet three-quarters inch 
shortest diameter. The stack has a four-inch fire brick 
lining to a height of fifty feet above foundation. In 
general construction it is similar to that of the Toronto 
Railway Company illustrated in our last issue. 





FIG. 9.— INTERIOR OF BOILER ROOM. 



storage bins which have a capacity of fifteen tons. From 
these it will be delivered as required to the boilers 
through automatic chutes, as shown in Fig. 7. At pres- 
ent,. however, coal is dumped into conveyor cars and fed 
to the furnaces by hand. The Hunt conveyor system is 
used. 

To secure the necessary foundations a cofferdam 
was required, and the foundations extend down to a depth 
of fifteen feet. 

STACK. 

Reference has already been made to the stack. This 
is a very prominent feature of the station. It has a row 



The company has two car 
houses, one at the corner 
of Concord and Kerche- 
val Streets, and one on 
Warren Street. The ex- 
terior of the Warren 
Street depot is shown in 
Fig. 8. It is of brick with 
cement floor, and is sup- 
plied with pits and other 
necessary appointments of 
a car house. The repair 
shops of the company are 
also at this point. The 
company has not as yet 
found much occasion for 
making repairs, and has 
equipped its shops with 
the following tools only: 
a thirty-eight-inch lathe, 
fourteen-inch lathe, 
twenty - six - inch shaper, 
upright drill, emery wheel, 
grindstone, wood lathe, 
band saw and hydraulic 
wheel press. Since it has 
been in operation, the com- 
pany has not been obliged 
to rewind any armatures 
and but a few field coils. 
In the electrical repair 
shop is a baking oven, and to the careful use of this the 
company attributes a large share of the immunity from 
accidents which it has enjoyed. 

The company is employing in its repair shops an in- 
genious method of removing car wheels. The method 
employed is so simple that it can be easily accomplished 
by two men in a short space of time. Sections of eight 
feet of the rails on each side of a pit are tied together by 
rods, and are easily removable by two men. The car is 
then run over the pit and jacked up on each side, so that 
the wheels are released from the boxes. The sections of 
rails are then removed and the wheels are let down 
through the opening thus made into the pit by means of 



6 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



a hand hydraulic iack which runs on wheels in the base 
of pit. When in the pit the axle is turned through an 
angle of ninety degrees so that it is parallel with the rails, 
and being mounted on the jack it can be carried to 
the wheel press or to any other part of the shop re- 
quired. 

THE company owns seven- 
ty-six cars, of which seven- 
ty-four are required to 
-i^ handle the traffic in the 
busy parts of the day. 
Twenty-five additional cars and equipments are ordered. 
The company has also two construction cars, two 




The use of the side aisle prevents the employment of 
much concavity in the lower panel, giving a somewhat 
square and box-like appearance to the cars. In service, 
however, they are giving very satisfactory results, and 
the management is very enthusiastic upon this style of 
car. 

Each car is equipped with two Meaker registers, one 
for recording the cash fares and the other the tickets re- 
ceived. They are painted different colors and one is 
marked in large letters " 5 cents " for five cent fares and 
the other " 3 cents " for three cent fares. Both are oper- 
ated by the same rod, it being turned in one direction for 
ringing one kind of fare, and in the other direction for 
the other. 

The equipment of each car also includes Con- 
solidated electric heaters, De Witt sand boxes 
and Crawford fenders. 

The company is using the wheels of a number 




FIG. 10.— VIEWS ON THE LINE OF THE DETROIT RAILWAY. 

sprinklers, two Brill sweepers and two plows. The cars 
are all mounted on Brill trucks, and are equipped with 
Westinghouse No. 12 A motors. The sweepers are 
equipped with Westinghouse No. 50 motors. 

The car bodies were built by the St. Louis Car Com- 
pany, and are of the well-known Kuhlman type, which is 
used generally on the roads in which the syndicate con- 
trolling the Detroit Railway is interested. The charac- 
teristic of these cars, as will be seen from Figs. 15 and 16, 
consists in the fact that they have cross seats, with side 
aisle and three doors all of which are on the same 
side of the car. This permits quick discharge'and ingress 
of passengers. By removing the windows the cars can be 
operated as open cars in summer, so that the same rolling 
stock is available for summer and winter service. The 
length over all is thirty-one feet, and that of the car body 
twenty-two feet, giving four and a half foot platforms. 
Upon the back of each seat is a push button, connected 
with battery and bell on the rear platform, so that any 
passenger can signal the conductor to stop. The central 
door can be opened and closed by the conductor from the 
back platform by means of a lever. 




of makers, but its cars have been in service for only a 
short time, so that no comparative results of the wear of 
wheels could be secured. 

ACCORDING to the terms of 
the company's franchise, the 
poles within the two mile limit 
>v\->jiN.3 iwiN^ i are to be of iron ; outside of 

""^*«^ III' that wood can be used. As a 

matter of fact, however, nearly 
all of the company's poles are of iron, and with thfe ex- 
ception of about a mile where center poles are installed, 
the span wire construction is employed. The poles are 
from the works of the Pennsylvania Tube Works. 

The overhead line materials were supplied by both 
the Ohio Brass Company and the H. W. Johns Manufac- 
turing Company, the former furnishing the straight line 
hangers, etc., and the latter strain insulators. The hang- 
ers are the " type C," which is somewhat heavier 
than the ordinary form. The overhead switches are of 



I 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



the Dupont straight underrunninp; type, with groove on 
each side and adjustable approaches. 

The overhead trolley and feeders were furnished by 
the Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Company and 
the Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company. The 
feeders are of 300,000, 500,000 and 700,000 circular mils 
capacity. The longest transmission of electric power at 



gone extensively into the subject of amusements, which 
have been found to add materially to the receipts of the 
line. In Figs. 11, 12 and 13 are presented views of a spec- 
tacular performance which was presented at this park last 
summer under the supervision of Pain, the well known 
fireworks expert of New York, and Imre Kiralfy. The 
piece was called Lalla Rookh, several hundred pcrform- 






FIGS. 11, 12 AND 13,— GRAND STAND AND SCENES OF PLAY PRESENTED AT BOULEVARD PARK. 



present is four and one-fourth miles, but when the exten- 
sions contemplated for next summer are built, current 
will be transmitted ten miles from the power station. 



THE company owns a 
tract of some five acres 
on the corner of the 
Boulevard and Four- 
teenth Street, and has 



ers participated, and a fine ballet was presented. The grand 
stand seated 8,000 persons. This winter four and a half 
acres are being transformed into a skating rink, to which 
a small entrance fee will be charged. 




mm- 



THEofficers of the company 
are: president, G. W. 
Pack; vice-president and 
general manager, H. A. 



8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XIL No. i. 



Everett; secretary and treasurer, A. Pack; assistant sec- 
retary and auditor, F. Starring; superintendent, L. E. 
Beilstein; electrical engineer and purchasing agent, W. 
E. J^avis; mechanical engineer, J. F. Randall; civil en- 
gineer, A. P. Ruggles. 

THE fact that the company 
'lNi?^iHC3^li^t^£^^^3 pioneer in this coun- 



try among those operat- 
ing in large cities to 
charge low fares makes the question of financial results 
in operation one of great interest. These so far have 
been very satisfactory to the owners of the line. A 



The business done during the first ten days of De- 
cember was as follows : 






Cash 


8 for 


6 for 


Sp6cla.l 


1 NO. 01 
\ cars. 


Avge. 


Mtrge. 


CtS. car 


Pass. 


Cts. 




recpis. 


25 CtS. 


25 CtS. 


Tickets 


per car 


mile. 


carried 


pass. 


1 


246.85 


613.94 


115.04 


1.60 


56 


17.50 


9,263 


.105 


27,250 


.0356 


2 


196.50 


1,116-63 


105.33 


2.08 


60 


23.67 


10,007 


.141 


42,291 


.0335 


3 


200.60 


1.140.63 


123.00 


2 06 


61 


24.03 


10,062 


.145 


43,564 


.0386 


4 


213.50 


1,153.22 


l!d7.16 


2.26 


60 


24 93 


10,034 


.149 


44,338 


.0337 


5 


223.10 


1,153.65 


137.21 


3.52 


62 


24.45 


10,122 


.149 


44,798 


.0338 


6 


204.70 


1,06^.5!) 


136.33 


2.50 


59 


23.83 


9,852 


.142 


41,494 


.0338 


7 


307.35 


1,267.35 


180.50 


2 60 


60 


29.30 


9,981 


.176 


51,174 


.0343 


8 


290.20 


726.06 


125.60 


1.70 


56 


20.06 


9,263 


.121 


31,735 


.0354 


9 


214.55 


1.168.28 


118 83 


2.94 


61 


24.65 


10,098 


.148 


44,663 


.0336 


10 


220.85 


1,142 84 


137.08 


2.76 


61 


24.64 


10,001 


.150 


44,416 


.0338 




Sli eit R;iil« .iy Joui-nal 



FIG. 14.— SECTION OF POWER STATION— DETROIT RAILWAY. 



statement of the business done up to the present does not 
really show the capabilities of the system from the fact 
that the line up to October 28th was hiring a large part 
of its power, and up to within recently the most paying 
branches of the line had not been completed. The traffic 
was considerably greater, too, than had been anticipated, 
and although cars have been added as rapidly as pos- 
sible, the earnings would have been undoubtedly greater 
if the rolling stock had been adequate in numbers to the 



The average rate of wages paid conductors and 
motormen is 20.2 cents per hour. The other wages for 
help are in about the same proportion. 



The Rapid Railway Company. 



A new suburban high speed line which has re- 
cently been opened in the neighborhood of Detroit and 




FIGS. 15 AND 16.— EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF CAR— DETROIT RAILWAY. 

traffic. The following totals for the last three months, which possesses a number of novel and interesting feat- 

however, show very interesting results: ures is that extending from Detroit and Mount Clemens, 

RECEIPTS ^ large lakeside resort on Lake St. Clair. The line is 

^ operated by the Rapid Railway Company and is largely 

Passengers carried 6.31,457 646,021 906,024 owned by C. M. Swift and C. J. Reilly, prominent rail- 

l^^^^^iengei:::::::::::::::.:::::::::::^''''!^ ^^'''l.i! way capitalists who Uve in Detroit. Entrance to the center 

Cents per mile .' i2!6i 10.18 1K88 of Detroit is made over the lines of the Citizens' Street 

Per cent, casli receipts 33.2 21.4 19.9 -i r ^.n, <. 

Per cent, ticket receipts 76.8 78.6 80.1 Railway Company of that city. 



January, r896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



9 



The line is fifteen and one-half miles in length and 
is practically without grades or curves for its entire dis- 
tance. These conditions permit the maintenance of a 
high speed in operation and suggested to the railway 
company the advisability of following steam railway 
practice largely in the construction of its roadbed and 
cars. The schedule time between termini is twenty 




1^' ^1 





FIG. 17.— POWER STATION AND CAR HOUSE— RAPID RAILWAY 

miles per hour, and that maintained between stops con- 
sequently often as high as thirty miles per hour. For 
part of the distance after leaving Detroit, the tracks are 
laid on the company's own right of way, but for the 
greater part of the distance are on the highway connecting 
the two cities. 

The roadbed is ballasted with gravel, thoroughly 



with span wire construction are used. The feed wires are 
of 420,000 CM. capacity. 

The power station and car house are situated mid- 
way between the two termini and are shown in Fig. 17. 
The buildings are of brick supported by steel columns and 
trusses with iron roofs. Ample provision is made for any 
increase likely to occur during the next twenty-five years. 

The power station measures 80 ft. 6 ins. 
X 50 ft. 6 ins. It contains two 330 h. p. high 
speed automatic engines, each belted to a 200 
K. w. Walker generator. The switchboard, 
which is of considerable magnitude, is of slate. 
The bpilers now in use are of the horizontal 
tubular type. The stack, is of steel seventy- 
two inches in diameter and reaches to a height 
of ninety feet above the grate bars. The 
foundation is 12 ft. 6 ins. X 21 ft. high and is 
of brick piling, resting on concrete. 

The motors cars are thirty-three feet long 
and eight feet wide, are vestibuled at both 
ends and are mounted on double trucks hav- 
ing wheels thirty-three inches in diameter. 
They are similar in appearance to steam rail- 
road cars and have straight sides. The seats 
are arranged at right angles to the length of 
the car, leaving a center aisle eighteen inches 
wide. The seats are fitted with springs and 
spring backs and are upholstered in cane. 
The trail cars used in summer are of the 
dijuble truck eight bench type, each having a 
seating capacity of fifty persons. The cars 
and trucks were furnished by the Jackson & 
Sharp Company. The motors are of the 
Walker fifty type ; two are used on each car, 
making an aggregate capacity on each of 100 h. p. They 
are giving good satisfaction. 

Light freight and express will form an important 
department of this line's transportation business, and a 
new combination car has recently been ordered. It is 
thirty-eight feet in length and divided into two compart- 
ments for passengers and baggage respectively. The 





FIGS. 18 AND 19.— VIEWS ALONG THE LINE OF THE RAPID RAILWAY. 



tamped and packed hard under and between the ties. 
The rails, which are T in section, weigh seventy pounds 
to the yard and rest on ties spaced two feet between 
centers. The joints are six bolt, double angle, with 
three-quarter inch bolts, and each is supported by a 
longitudinal as well as cross tie. Near Mount Clemens, 
where the railway crosses the Clinton River, the com- 
pany has built a three-span steel truss bridge upon stone 
abutments and iron and cement piers. 

A very good idea of the kind of overhead line con- 
struction used is given in the two engravings. Figs. 18 
and 19. Bracket poles made extra heavy are used exclu- 
sively with General Electric overhead appliances. In the 
city of Mount Clemens ornamental wrought iron poles 



passenger compartment will seat twenty-seven persons, 
and the baggage compartment will carry the ordinary 
baggage for this number of people. When this is in op- 
eration the company will sell through tickets from its 
termini to all important commercial centers. 

The average number of car miles/un per car per day 
is 250. 

The financial results of operation are said to be so 
far very satisfactory, although the line was not put in 
operation until July 14, 1895, and so did not secure all 
of the summer traffic between Detroit and Mount Clem- 
ens. The fare charged for the trip of twenty miles from 
Mount Clemens to the center of Detroit is twenty-five 
cents. 



lo STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XII. No. i. 



Urban Growth and the Electric Railway. 



By Louis Bell, Ph.D. 



The revolution that has driven the horse out of the 
street railway business is now an accomplished fact. 
Now and then one hears a rheumatic dame mourn over 
the good old regime of horse cars as she scuttles across 
the street fifty feet from the nearest car, or a fussy old 
gentleman grumbling because driving is not so easy as it 
was twenty-five years ago, but for the most part people 



have accepted the change thankfully and thought little 
more about it. 

To-day the work of substitution is complete enough 
to enable one to intelligently look over the results and 
form some idea of their effect on the social economics of 
a large city. 

In studying the subject, Boston affords, perhaps, the 
fairest example, since here the change is quite complete 
and in large measure took place long enough ago to per- 
mit of fairly accurate conclusions. On the other hand, 
the situation, with a cramped business center and plenty 
of railroad crossings, drawbridges and other obstacles, is 
not unduly favorable, while the competition from sub- 
urban steam trains is at least up to the average. 

What, then, has been the effect of the introduction of 



electric traction on the available area, values and living 
conditions in and about Boston ? Have the tramway 
companies given value received for their favors from the 
municipality and their financial winnings ? 

Tramways are essentially democratic and their for- 
tunes are linked with those of plain everyday people. 
They profit little from the gentleman who drives to his 
office at ten o'clock behind a pair of over fed cobs, and 
thanks Heaven that the Back Bay, at least, is free from 
electrics. 

To the great mass of humanity, however, it makes 

no small difference to gain 
a quarter of an hour morn- 
ing and evening in going 
to and from the city, to go 
for one fare where for- 
merly two were charged, 
or to find a new home as 
easy of access as the old 
one at a few dollars less 
per month. 

Thus the increase of 
the area available for res- 
idence in a given time or 
for a single fare is a matter 
of great civic importance. 
The facts with respect to 
this increase are easily 
found and are set forth in 
the annexed map. 

This shows Boston 
and the surrounding re- 
gion for an average radius 
of somewhat over five 
miles from the business 
center. On it are plotted 
four irregular curves, 
marking out four oddly 
shaped areas. The inner 
one of these, bounded by 
a heavy dashed line, shows 
the limits of a fifteen 
minute ride in the horse 
cars in 1888, starting from 
the middle of things as 
business goes. 

A time radius is taken, 
since, at least within the 
region of uniform fare, 
time is the considera- 
tion that limits the pos- 
sible region within which 
one can live and yet work 
in the city. Half an hour 
from house to work is as 
much time as many a man 
cares, or can afford to 
spend. This means, with 
allowance for a short 
walk at each end of the 
route, barely a quarter of 
an hour in the cars. Few, 
even of those who keep 
relatively easy hours, are 
satisfied to spend more 
than forty-five minutes in 
transit from home to business, and while the more pros- 
perous, with whom railroad fare within a half hour's ride 
is of little account, can gain the open country in that 
time, by far the greater number are practically limited 
to the region that lies within thirty minutes, as trolley 
goes. 

Recur now to our fifteen minute line. It includes 
essentially old Boston (except a small part of the South 
End), a morsel of South Boston just across the draw- 
bridges, a narrow, dingy strip of Cambridgeport, the 
southernmost corner of Charlestown and, across the 
North Ferry at two cents extra fare, a liberal slice of 
East Boston. It comprises an area of 3.1 square miles, of 
which nearly one-third is taken up by business blocks, 
the Common and Public Garden and the Back Bay dis- 




Strtet Railway Journal 



January, 1.896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



II 



trict, these being excluded from the effective residence 
district so far as those who work long hours are con- 
cerned. The greatest distance of any part of this area 
from the center of the city is two miles, and the least dis- 
tance barely over one mile. 

The shape of the area tells an interesting story. Go- 
ing south along Washington Street, the fifteen minute 
line is reached just beyond the one mile circle, telling as 
plainly as possible the story of tedious blockades in the 
great shopping district, where many car lines were con- 
centrated in three narrow streets. Westward, however, 
the area expands almost to the two mile limit, in the re- 
gion of wide avenues and the residence streets of the 
Back Bay. Just across the Charles, the extreme limit is 
reached, thanks to the long Cambridge Bridge, far 
enough up stream to keep the draw from being trouble- 
some. The northern Cambridge Bridge, however, is a 
very different matter, for its inner terminus is reached 
only through streets often obstructed by teaming and 
the draw is often used, so that schedule time must needs 
be slow. Thus the fifteen minute line dips in until it 
almost touches the one mile circle at this point. Charles- 
town is but little better off and for the same reason, but 
across in East Boston where the streets are fairly clear, 
a good wide area is taken in. The fifteen minutes here 
includes the ferry, which is not liable to constant inter- 
ruptions, as is a drawbridge. 

Just beyond the area we have been discussing lies a 
heavy solid line bounding a narrow strip of additional 
territory, for the most part less than a quarter of a mile 
in width. This line is the present fifteen minutes limit 
of the electrics. It is closely parallel to the horse car 
limit, and the small gain of the electrics is at first sight 
somewhat extraordinary. 

But in seven years the increase in the total number 
of cars that must be forced into the center of the city has 
been very great, and the bridges are as much of a nuisance 
as ever. It was evident before that the main delays were in 
getting fairly out of the city beyond the region of block- 
ades. So long as the running time is limited by the possi- 
bility of working through crowded streets the change in 
motive power makes little difference in the time table, for 
even the horse cars were compelled to creep. Only in East 
Boston, where the cars start at the ferry, is a material gain 
manifest. Here the electrics have doubled the previous 
speed and the previous area. ^ 

' In spite of the small increase in speed by the intro- 
duction of electrics, the gain in available residence area 
accessible in fifteen minutes is not altogether insignifi- 
cant. . The strip we are discussing amounts to 1.15 square 
miles, and the total of the previous district has been in- 
creased by 37 per cent., or by fully one-half of its prac- 
tical amount. 

The speed of the horse cars for the first fifteen min- 
utes was at the rate of nearly five and three-quarters 
miles per hour, while the present electrics do a shade 
less than six miles per hour in the same time of run. At 
only two points has the gain in speed been noticeable — 
in East Boston and in the run along the edge of the 
South Bay toward Dorchester. 

The subway now under construction will only help 
matters to a moderate degree as regards these inner 
areas, for while the result will be a great extension of 
the fifteen minute line toward the southwest, the condi- 
tions in the northern suburbs, South and East Boston 
will be little changed. The narrow streets of old Boston 
and the drawbridges are stumbling blocks in the way of 
rapid transit. 

Altogether, the net result of electric service, aside 
from the greatly increased number of cars, has been to 
add a little over a square mile of useful territory to the 
district which can be reached in a quarter of an hour by 
the street cars. 

Far different are the results when we take up the 
country beyond, all that which lies within half an hour's 
run, or about forty-five minutes from home to business. 

The outer dashed line shows this time limit for the 
horse cars in 1888. It bounds an area of 14.6 square miles 
exclusive of water and includes almost the whole of East 
Boston, Chelsea and Charlestown, a liberal amount of 



Somerville and Cambridge, part of Brookline and most 
of Roxbury. Perhaps the most striking thing about this 
area is its very great regularity of width beyond the fif- 
teen minute line. It is quite obvious that the cars were 
free to run at their best working speed when once they 
had escaped from the impeding conditions encountered 
in the city proper. 

At only two points is the distance covered during the 
second fifteen minutes subject to much apparent reduc- 
tion — toward Brighton and in the central part of Somer- 
ville. In both these cases the difference is only apparent, 
since the Brighton cars go around through Central 
Square, Cambridge, and a large part of the Somerville 
cars go far out of their way through Charlestown. The 
schedule time during the second quarter hour averaged 
almost exactly at the rate of 6 2-3 miles per hour. 

The half hour area had a mean radius of a trifle over 
three miles in 1888. Beyond this the street car service 
was comparatively infrequent and the suburban popula- 
tion showed a tendency to mass itself along the lines of 
steam railroad, leaving great intervening gaps quite un- 
settled. So much for the regime of horse cars. 

The outermost solid line on the map gives the pres- 
ent half hour limit on the electric cars. There is here a 
great change for the better, and the superior speed of 
the electrics begins to tell effectively. The actual added 
area is 8.3 square miles, all of it valuable territory, 
an increase of fifty-seven per cent, over the space 
previously available in the same time. A gain of this 
magnitude is an important benefit from almost every 
point of view. The betterment of social and hygienic 
conditions alone is of great value to the public. During 
the past seven years there has been, of course, a general 
increase of population, but it has not kept pace with the 
increase in area. In the period considered, the popula- 
tion has increased about twenty-five per cent., while it 
has from the electrics alone, fifty-seven per cent, more 
space to live in. 

The character and shape of the half hour limit for 
electrics is of no little significance. It takes in consider- 
able sections of Dorchester and Roxbury, a still larger 
portion of Brookline, nearly half of Brighton, a narrow 
strip of Cambridge and no small part of Somerville. It 
stretches across the Mystic so as to give easy access to 
Everett and then is ended somewhat abruptly, since 
nearly all of Chelsea and all of East Boston was included 
in the half hour limit even for horse cars and the districts 
beyond are somewhat inaccessible even now, except by 
the steam roads. 

The average speed of the electrics for the second fif- 
teen minutes of their run shows decided improvement. 
It is very near to nine and a half miles per hour, rising to 
a maximum of about twelve and a half miles on the line 
to Chestnut Hill reservoir, which, by the way, was the 
first extended bit of electric road in the system and has 
never been anything but electric. The minimum gain in 
speed is found in Cambridge where the schedule time 
drops to less than seven miles per hour. This is due to no 
unusual physical conditions, but to the shortsightedness 
of the city fathers in that worthy old town, who have pre- 
scribed by law a maximum speed of eight miles per hour 
for all street cars. This law has been observed and Cam- 
bridge is rewarded by the same time of transit to Boston 
that it had seven years ago. Cambridge appears to en- 
tertain peculiar views of rapid transit, anyhow. It flirted 
for several seasons with the fickle storage battery, cher- 
ished its horse cars long after they should have been rel- 
egated to a museum of curiosities and even now may be 
safely depended upon any time to limber its rheumatic 
self for a kick at trolley extension. The result of all this 
is sufficiently evident on the map and in other ways that 
will be mentioned presently. 

Across the Somerville line quite other conditions 
prevail, and there has been a great gain of useful terri- 
tory. The speed of the electrics is above the average 
amount, and growth is unrestricted. 

On the Winter Hill line particularly is the speed 
well maintained, since it has the advantage of running 
through a strip of park, which is always a material ad- 
vantage. Nowhere is this better shown than in the quick 



12 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. i. 



time made on the Reservoir line, running as it does 
through the Back Bay park system. Every bit of unob- 
structed space thus gained is of direct value to the com- 
munity. 

The effect of the electric service on the growth of 
Boston and its environs is not altogether easy to esti- 
mate. The growth of a city is often curious and myste- 
rious in its eccentricities, often bearing no perceptible re- 
lation to physical causes that ought to influence it pro- 
foundly. There are so many factors in the conditions of 
growth that the effect of any one is usually slight. The 
natural effect of improved conditions of transit is to pro- 
duce a shifting of the population into what one might 
call the lines of least resistance. This w^ould result in an 
efflux toward the most available suburbs, so that these 
would tend to grow at the expense of the city proper. 
The absolute population of the latter is tolerably sure to 
increase so that the effect really appears in altered ratios 
of growth in city and suburbs. Thus Boston shows an 
increase of 26.59 P^f cent, in the last decade, a less per- 
centage of growth than any of the surrounding towns and 
cities, except Chelsea, in which the transit conditions 
have been almost unchanged in point of time. And this 
in spite of the fact that Boston includes really suburban 
regions like Roxbury, Dorchester and Brighton. While 
the absolute increase in Boston has been 103,000, that 
merely in the suburbs shown on the map has been more 
than 80,000, although their aggregate population is little 
over two-fifths that of the city proper. This perhaps was 
to be expected, but it certainly is not without significance 
to note that, barring Chelsea, Cambridge has by far the 
smallest ratio of growth of the nearer suburbs. The in- 
crease there in a decade has been but 36 per cent, against 
74 for Somerville, 75 for Brookline, 218 for Everett, 81 for 
Maiden and 60 even for Medford, far past the half hour 
limit though it is. Great stretches of vacant lots and un- 
occupied land in the western part of Cambridge bear 
mute but effective witness to the foresight of those who 
devised the eight mile law, while two-thirds of the growth 
of Somerville has been'in the western half. 

Brighton, accessible by electrics chiefly through Cam- 
bridge, enjoys equally slow service, since the available 
half hour is mostly consumed in crawling through the 
latter. Incidentally, it has barely kept up to the average 
of Boston in growth. Likewise Watertown, with indiffer- 
ent steam service and until very recently reached through 
Cambridge only by horse cars, has enjoyed a growth even 
less rapid than that of Brighton. 

Of course increase of population is more easily 
traced in particular localities, if data are obtainable^, than 
in averages over large areas. Marked local growth, due 
directly to better street car facilities, can be distinctly 
traced in parts of Dorchester, Jamaica Plain and Brook- 
line. Exact figures are not easily obtainable, but the net 
result is very striking to the eye. The same effects are 
seen outside of the present half hour limit. Every point 
on the map save the extreme northwest corner in Med- 
ford and Arlington can be reached for a single five cent 
fare, so that the whole region shown is more or less in- 
fluenced. 

As regards values, relative and absolute, exact data 
are not easy to obtain and lack significance in many in- 
stances when secured. 

The life history of a street is very curious. It begins 
as a row of surveyor's stakes, and passes slowly through 
successive stages of residence until it reaches the zenith 
of its career in solid blocks of broad mansions. Then the 
insidious dentist arrives, and finally the evil day comes 
when Jo/ie, Modiste, appears on a big brass door-plate. 
That is the beginning of the end; the mansions turn to 
boarding houses, the butcher, the baker and the candle- 
stick maker open their respective places of business, and 
in due time our street degenerates into a thing of old 
clothes, bargain shops and "loan offices." Or, with better 
fortune, business still marches through it, and it becomes 
an alley of office buildings and tall warehouses. 

Meanwhile the values undergo a like evolution. They 
increase rapidly for awhile, then more and more slowdy, 
and finally they may even decrease. Now the effect of 
rapid transit is in general that of a stimulant driving the 



street more rapidly through its successive stages. When 
streets are young the effect is to hasten their growth; 
when they are old it may be to speed their decadence. 

Real estate dealers seem to be of one mind regarding 
the effect of the electric lines in the neighborhood of 
Boston. Their net result has been to greatly increase 
values. Sometimes the fact appears in a general rise in 
valuation, from which it is hard to segregate the influ- 
ence of any one factor. Often, however, there is noticed 
a great and immediate rise in values on the advent of 
the trolley car. This is generally most marked in cases 
where land just outside the range of convenient habita- 
tion is brought within it by the extension or quickening 
of street car service. The region just within the half- 
hour line for the electrics, as shown on the map, abounds 
in such instances, where the price per foot has risen 50 or 
100 per cent, in a few months after an extension. All 
this is a matter of common knowledge around Boston or 
any other "electrified " city, and quite goes without say- 
ing. 

It is of more interest, therefore, to examine the re- 
verse of this picture and inquire into the circumstances 
under which it is possible for a change of motive power 
to lower the relative or absolute value of property. Such 
an occurrence, though rare, is not unknown. At first 
sight it is not altogether obvious how increased accessi- 
bility can depreciate property, either relatively or abso- 
lutely, yet sometimes it may be so. Take for example a 
suburban region at or near the limit of convenient access 
by the horse cars. Under favorable circumstances it is 
likely to develop into a fine residence region, since it is 
most available to those whose hours of business are short 
or to those who keep carriages and can thus depend on 
somewhat unhandy steam service. The man who carries 
the dinner-pail has to make his home nearer the city, 
where his long day will not be further lengthened by a 
protracted car ride. His home will, therefore, be found 
in the flats and tenements that skirt the city more closely. 

Now comes the electric car and pushes the half-hour 
limit out a mile or two further. Gradually, but surely, 
working out across the dismal fringe that forms the back- 
yard of most cities, the man with the dinner-pail, who 
appreciates a good situation as much as anybody, invades 
the new territory, and just so surely the man with the 
check book edges away toward regions less painfully 
accessible. In theory, we are a democratic people; in 
practice, as far from it as our means will permit. 

The process just described has gone on to a limited 
extent in certain parts of Brookline. It would probably 
be hard to find a case of absolute depreciation in value, 
but here and there one could come very near it, while, 
relatively speaking, some localities have obviously suf- 
fered considerably. 

Incidentally such an outward migration of popula- 
tion must have the effect of lessening the demand for 
accommodations in the belt from which the migration 
takes place, unless the growth of population keeps pace 
with the increase of available Hying room, which it has 
not done in the case of Boston, as has previously been 
shown. Hence, until the inner area feels the effect of in- 
creasing demand for business purposes, it is likely to be 
at a disadvantage, temporary, it is true, but still existing. 
There may be therefore, here and there, traces of a de- 
cadent zone inside a zone of growth. In most cases it is 
not conspicuous and it eventually works out its own sal- 
vation. 

There sometimes exist, however, fairly good resi- 
dence areas which have managed to preserve something 
of their social integrity in spite of the inroads of cheap 
flats and tenements in their immediate neighborhood, 
perhaps on parallel streets. To such districts, the com- 
ing of rapid transit may be the last straw. The sur- 
roundings deteriorate in response to the emigration out- 
wards, and the last state of that street is worse than the 
first. Monument Square, Charlestown, is a striking case 
in point. Forty years ago there could scarcely have been 
a residence section with brighter prospects. To-day, 
save for the homes of a few old and conservative fami- 
lies, it is a forlorn wreck of its former self, unhonored 
and depreciated. It was quite too accessible, and the 



January, 1896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 13 



humble horse cars had compassed its downfall before 
electrics were thought of. There are other localities, 
less conspicuous, in which the same causes have accom- 
plished similar results. Thence come, often enough, 
wails over the disaster brought by the deadly trolley. 
The trolley is not at fault; it has simply hastened a little 
the progress of a perfectly natural urban evolution 
against which no protests can avail. 

With these facts in mind one could pick out, in any 
city with which he might be familiar, the residences of 
three-quarters of the protestants at the average anti- 
trolley mass meeting. What happens is perfectly nat- 
ural, however, and the increase in aggregate values is 
enormous compared with the decrease in specific ones. 

One more thing must not be forgotten in looking 
over our map — the enormous total saving in time^ — the 
time available for human industry or recreation. The 
West End system carried, in the year ending September 
30th last, an average of 425,000 passengers per day. What 
proportion of these are carried to and from the suburbs 
is not exactly ascertainable, but as nearly as it can be es- 
timated from the increased traffic of the early morning 
and late afternoon it is safe to say that 100,000 daily are 
carried into and out of the city proper. Assuming that 
one-half of this number gain but twelve minutes a day 
each from the increased speed of the electrics outside the 
city, we have a total gain of no less than 10,000 more 
hours per day — the equivalent of a full regiment working 
ten hours a day every day in the year. Putting this in 
terms of money at the very reasonable figure of a dollar 
and a half per day per man, the total saving amounts 
to $547,500 per annum, more than enough to pay the in- 
terest on the entire funded debt of the West End com- 
pany. Utilized for work or not, this time saved to the 
people has a human value for some good not incommen- 
surate with its money yalue. Every change that lifts the 
burden of labor for even a few minutes per day is a gain 
on the whole for civilization, and the reclaiming of waste 
time is of social importance far greater than reclaiming 
waste land in that it deals more directly with all people 
in all places. 

Notes from England. 

{By our London Correspondent^ 

An extension of recently opened electric tramways 
in Bristol is already in progress. The local tramjway 
company have much encouragement to proceed, as, con- 
trary to what is the state of matters in many towns, 
the Town Council are very friendly to the company, and 
make reasonable and equitable arrangements with them. 

The new extension of the Brixton (London) cable 
tramway is now complete and in working order. The 
street construction is of the same type as that designed by 
Mr. W. N. Colam for the older section of the line, and his 
original plans of the power stetion provided for this exten- 
sion. As, however, it had been contemplated that the new 
portion when built should be single line, and as, through 
a widening of the street, it has been found possible to 
construct a double track, there was a good deal of diffi- 
culty in radically altering as well as enlarging the pit 
under the tracks in front of the power house without in- 
terfering with the running of the cars on the old section. 
The contractors, Messrs. Dick, Kerr & Co., and their en- 
gineer, Mr. James More, Jr., were successful in carrying 
out this work without any interference with the car 
traffic. The tramway is now the longest cable road in 
Britain, being three and a half miles in length, or seven 
miles reckoned by single track. Two cables are em- 
ployed. One of the ropes manufactured by Messrs. Cra- 
dock & Co., Wakefield, was recently taken out after a 
service of twenty-eight months, during which it was re- 
sponsible for no less than nearly 1,800,000 car miles. 

The steam tramways in Huddersfield, which are 
owned and worked by the Town Council of the borough, 
again show a loss on the result of operating during the 
year ending September 30th last. Many English local 
authorities, however, are slow to take a lesson, and still 
desire both to own and work the lines within their areas 
of jurisdiction. 



There is a considerable renewal of activity in the 
promotion of new tramway schemes ; when the time 
expired on November 30th for lodging plans of undertak- 
ings to be pushed in the next session of Parliament it 
was found that fifteen Parliamentary bills are to be 
presented. Some of these are promoted by town councils 
and others by companies who have made or hope to make 
satisfactory arrangements with these authorities. Power 
is taken in many of the schemes to use either horse 
traction or mechanical power, though two " tall " 
schemes, one for Sheffield and the other for Dublin — both 
promoted by companies — propose the wholesale intro- 
duction of electricity. There seem to be considerable 
local obstacles to carrying out these schemes. Swansea 
Town Council propose to buy up the lines in the borough, 
introduce electricity and lease them to the company. 
The cable scheme in Newcastle promises now to go for- 
ward. The substitution of electricity for steam on the 
North Staffordshire tramways is in prospect. In London 
there is at present much talk of introducing electricity, 
but so long as the county council maintain their present 
attitude nothing can be done. 



Transfers in Philadelphia. 

The abolition of free transfers in Philadelphia, and 
the establishment of an eight cent transfer rate, has 
aroused great public indignation, and has, doubtless, tem- 
porarily caused the loss of considerable traffic to the 
surface lines, in favor of the steam railroad suburban 
trains; in fact, so strong is the opposition that, in one or 
two cases, ministers have from the pulpit recommended 
people to walk and to practically boycott the surface 
lines. The railroads' side of the case is that they have been 
losing money heavily in the granting of free transfers, 
particularly on the absurd plan of allowing an hour for 
the use of a transfer ticket, and that they must find some 
way of reimbursement for the $14,000,000 claimed to have 
been expended by the street railways in paving the streets 
from curb to curb, which was made a condition of their 
obtaining the electric franchise. 



Air Brake Records. 



The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad 
Company has been carefully studying the air brake ques- 
tion, with a view to determining to what extent the use 
of air brakes on its freight trains has been directly and 
indirectly profitable. For the last two years all through 
freight trains have been controlled by the air brake 
entirely. A reduction in the number of brakemen has 
been made, resulting in a direct saving in operating ex- 
penses of somewhat more than $95,000 >per annum. The 
only additional expense offsetting this saving is the cost 
of repairs and maintenance of the air brake equipment, 
which has been, for the freight cars only, about $26,000 
per annum. The net saving in operating expenses has, 
therefore, been about $69,000 per annum, which is stated to 
be equal to over 6 per cent, interest on the cost of equipping 
with air brakes all the freight cars in service. As the 
company pays only 4 per cent, upon its bonds, and about 
5 per cent on its stock, it is apparent that there is a de- 
cided direct profit over and above interest charges, due 
to the use of air brakes. In addition to this direct profit, 
and far exceeding it in importance, is the reduction in the 
accident account which has been 50 per cent, in number, 
and 65 per cent, in cost, largely, no doubt, on account of 
the air brakes, though partly because of the fine block 
signal system recently introduced. As a result of this 
experience, the air brake service will be largely extended 
over all the company's allied lines. 



The Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company expects to 
have ready for use by January ist three parlor cars for 
renting to theatre parties. The cars will be twenty-five 
feet in length, mounted on double trucks, and will be very 
handsomely furnished and decorated. The summer trol- 
ley parties last season proved so very popular that the 
company anticipates a large demand for these cars. 



I 



14 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XH. No. i. 




Street Railway Repair Shops. 



By C. F. Uebelacker. 



Seventli Paper — Repair Shops of tlie Consolidated Trattion 
Company of New Jersey. 

As electric roads grow in size and the various lines 
composing one system grow more reumerous, it becomes 
necessary for the sake of economy in handling traffic to 
separate the car sheds belonging to the various lines, lo- 
cating each at the point most convenient for the territory 



shop, and in place of them new or repaired parts are 
returned. 

The shop about to be described was laid out to fit 
the above system. The main requirements were sufficient 
pit capacity for both the monthly overhauling and emer- 
gency repairs, a carpenter shop, electrical repair shop, 
paint shop, a machine shop sufficient to handle the work 
of the whole system, and track room enough to hold a 
working reserve of rolling stock. In addition, space was 
provided in the same building for the stock room, from 
which all the supplies of the whole system are issued. 

The plans of the building show quite plainly the 
general lay out. The first floor contains the pit room, 
carpenter shop, paint shop and blacksmith shop, also 
two machine tools which were too heavy to be carried on 
the second floor. On the west side of the building thir- 
teen double doors open on to as many tracks, which are 
connected with a siding from the main line by a transfer 
table forty feet away from the building. This span of 

forty feet gives room for a 
car to stand outside the doors. 

Inside the building the 
three rear tracks extend the 
entire width, 120 ft., making 
the paint shop. The capa- 
city here is figured at ten 
cars, and is just enough to 




FIG. 1. —VIEWS IN 
CONSOLIDATED 



served by the cars housed 
there. With this subdivision 
of the cars comes at once 
the subdivision of repair 
work and the question as to 
how much of this work 
should be centralized in a 
general repair shop for the 
whole system. There are 
two general solutions of the 
question, each with as many 

minor variations as there are roads. Large city roads 
with few sheds and a large number of cars in each 
are to keep all the work possible at the separate 
divisions, sending to a general shop only such work as 
winding, belting, fitting wheels, painting, heavy carpen- 
try, etc. Smaller roads, and those also whose cars are 
more widely scattered or whose shed limits are smaller, 
are apt to gravitate toward the other extreme and send 
all repairs as nearly as may be to the main shop. 

On any road whose rolling stock is at all divided cer- 
tain work must be done at the car sheds ; the question of 
how much would scarcely be in place here. In the case 
of the Consolidated Traction Company sufficient force is 
kept at each division to keep up all the daily inspection 
and cleaning necessary, also to make such minor repairs 
as require only the replacing of the smaller interchange- 
able parts. 

AH the heavy repairs are made at the main shop. 
Armatures and wheels are changed there. In addition 
each car must come to the repair shop once a month for 
overhauling. 

All the broken, burnt or worn out parts removed 
from cars at the division sheds are sent to the repair 



take care of the equipment, on the basis of revarnishing 
once for every twelve months' service, with a liberal allow- 
ance for the repainting required on smashed panels, etc. 

Between track 11, the last in the paint shop, and 
track 10, the first in the pit room, there is a space of six- 
teen feet, giving room for a 36 in. X 42 in. X 10 ft. planer 
and a sixty inch swing horizontal boring mill in the pit 
room, also bench and floor space in the carpenter shop. 
Track 10 is not pitted, being considered as part of the 
carpenter shop and set aside for such cars as require ex- 
tensive repairs to woodwork. 

Beginning at the partition wall blocking off the paint 
shop, another partition runs to the front of the building, 
blocking off the pit room and blacksmith shop, seventy- 
five feet wide, from the carpenter shop forty-five feet 
wide. Tracks 9 and 10 run through an arch in this 
wall and into the carpenter shop, making room for two 
cars in that shop itself in addition to the space on track 
10 in the pit room. 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



15 



In the carpenter shop toward the street from track 
9 are ranged the wood working machines: a borer, 
shaper, planer, band saw, circular saw, mortiser, and 
router. Along the wall under the windows run the work 
benches. 

On the west side, the pit room occupies the space 
from the paint shop to the front of the building, and in 
this room between tracks 5 and 6 lies the blacksmith 
shop. Here are five forges covered with hoods connected 
into, an eighteen inch galvanized iron stack running up 
through the roof. The draft for these forges is supplied 
by a power fan. There are also in this shop a sixteen- 
inch power feed drill, an emery wheel and a rotary pres- 
sure blower from which air at twenty pounds pressure is 
piped to all parts of the shop. In the paint shop it is used 
for'cleaning out corners, dusting, etc.; in the pit room for 
blowing out motors and sweeping cars, while on the 



there are no clumsy horses or tripods to be carted in and 
out. 

The large hoist is considerably more complicated 
and is used for mounting or dismounting mcjtors with- 
out taking the truck from under the car body. It con- 
sists of a table raised and lowered by two " Barret " jacks 
similar to those used in the smaller hoist. As these jacks 
furnish but two points of support, recourse was had to 
two racks, each meshing into the pinion, the two pinions 
being keyed to the same shaft. This prevents any ten- 
dency toward tilting' the table if the load happens to be 
out of center. Over this pit loops are provided in which 
ordinary triplex tackles are swung for raising car bodies. 
This is a temporary arrangement until regular car hoists 
can be built. It works much quicker than jacks and 
blocking, however. 

Another simple device which comes in very handy 




I 






P/1//VT SfiOp J 


1 PIT 














1 P.T 1 



□ □ 

DD □ 
£ D 



'11 I I I I III no 

^ ° bi^ci\smith' shop 




WHECL 

PLATFORM 



STORAGE SHEDS 



Q 



Ct 
C5 



1 



TRANSEER TABLE 



FIG. 2. 



r0STF{E€T 

-PLAN OF SHOPS— CONSOLIDATED TRACTION CO. 



second floor, in the machine shop and winding depart- 
ment, its uses are too numerous to mention. It is an all 
around labor saver and convenience. 

Running on tracks in the pits are two classes of 
hoists. Of these the smaller is used in handling motors, 
and is for removing the armature from below. 
These hoists have a head for the reception of an arma- 
ture. The top of this head is provided with two rollers, 
which carry the weight of the armature, permitting it to 
revolve slightly as the teeth of the pinion engage or dis- 
engage. The jack by which the raising or lowering is 
accomplished is the regular " Barret 3," supplied with a 
rack some ten inches longer than the standard. This 
gives a hoist of twenty-six inches, which is ample to 
carry an armature from under any car. To enable the 
men to work the hoist from either end, the whole jack is 
set upon a swivel. The foot is riveted to a three-quarter 
inch iron plate, through which a hole is cut to clear the 
long rack. Into this hole is screwed a piece of two inch 
pipe, which passes through clearance holes in the upper 
and lower plates of the frame and acts both as a pin for 
the jack to swivel upon and a receptacle for the extra 
length of rack when the hoist is down. The whole ar- 
rangement is very simple and can be gotten up in any 
blacksmith shop at small expense. It saves a great deal 
of time in handling Westinghouse armatures, while the 
interior of the car body is less liable to be disfigured, as 



for transferring m-otors from one place to another con- 
sists of two pairs of wheels connected to a rectangular 
timber frame, on which is mounted a horse swinging a 
3,000 lb. tackle. A motor is raised a few inches clear of 
the floor by the tackle and readily transferred to any 
portion of the pits. 

Connecting pits 5 and 6, also 7 and 8, are a pair of 
overhead travelers used for swinging motors in and out 
of snow machines. Last year the work of handling the 
motors in the cramped limits of a snow plow cab was 
found slow and dangerous, so this year the bull was taken 
by the horns and traps cut in the roofs of all the plows. 
The motors are now taken from one pit, where they 
have been stripped from the open cars, carried by the 
traveler over to the plow on the next track, set down 
there on a platform of suitable height while the sling is 
passed through the trap in the roof, then picked up again 
and set in place on the countershafts. 

The ground and second floors are connected by two 
elevators. A large one opens onto the ground floor op- 
posite track I and on to a platform in front of the 
building, reached by a side track. Its capacity is six 
tons and its platform 8 X 12 ft. It is driven by an open 
and crossed belt driven by an open and crossed belt from 
a countershaft run by an old Thomson-Houston S. R. 
G. motor with shunt wound fields. It is used mainly in 
taking material up and down from the stock room. A 



i6 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



smaller elevator — 5,000 pounds capacity and 6 X 6 ft. plat- 
form — stands opposite track 4 in the motor room and 
is used as a communication between the delivery win- 
dows in stock room and the ground floor, as well as to 
take material to and from the machine shop and winding 
rooms. This machine is run by a Thomson-Houston 
S. R. G. motor belted direct to the worm shaft and con- 
trolled by a rheostat operated by the starting rope. 

On the second floor, one-half the space is occupied 
by the store room and offices, while the other half con- 
tains the machine shop, winding shop, tin shop, etc. 

The winding shop occupies the front of the building, 
and here also the repairing of controllers, canopy 
switches, etc., is done. The only unique features here 
are the dryer and the armature clamp shown in Fig. 
3. The clamp is used to. hold armatures while 
opening the front end of the commutators. Grounds are 
frequently found here, and with the aid of the clamp can 
be removed without disconnecting the armature. The 
dryer is simply a galvanized iron box with double sides, 
fitted at one end with a compartment containing a small 
car stove. The smoke pipe from this is led once around 
the inside of the dryer laefore going to the flue. A small 
opening atthe end away from the stove gives circulation ; a 
slow fire in the stove keeps the temperature at about 200Q 
F., which has proved ample for drying. The armatures 
and fields are put into this dryer uncovered and each 
morning are tested for grounds with a voltmeter. When 
they .show less than ten volts deflection with 500 volts 
they are considered all right, removed and covered while 
still hot. 

In the machine shop are two lines of tools reaching 
nearly the length of the building. The inside row be- 
gins with the lathes — one thirty-eight inch, one twenty 
inch and two eighteen inch. Next comes a seventeen 
inch shaper, following which are a 3 universal milling 
machine, a bolt cutter, a buffing lathe and finally a 150 
ton wheel press. 




FIG. 3.— ARMATURE CLAMP. 



In the outer row next to the wall stand three drills — 
two power feed drills and one three spindle sensitive drill 
— next an emery grinder, a power hack saw, a universal 
cutter grinder, and finally a screw machine. 

The tinsmiths occupy a bench at the rear end of the 
shop, where they repair headlights, lamps, smoke jacks, 
etc., beside keeping up the general work of the system. 
Register and commutator repairs and general machine 
work occupy the bench down the side of the building. 

In laying out the shop with the necessity of using the 
second floor in view, the bulky work was assigned to the 
ground floor, while the longer jobs went to the second 
floor. It seemed better, with ample elevator capacity, to 
make the length of time that work remained in the shop 
the deciding factor in its location rather than its weight. 

In assigning the work, each department takes all of 
the work in its line that comes to the shop. If there is a 
thread to be cut or a brass to be scraped in the motor 



shop it goes straight to the machine shop, while a new 
or repaired piece takes its place on the car. If a con- 
troller needs overhauling or a canopy switch needs a 
handle, it goes directly to the winding room where a 
duplicate is given out in its place. An old or worn out 
part is in each case a requisition for a good though 
not necessarily a new one. Each part as it comes from 
a car is tagged with the number of the car, and this 
serves as an order number against which the work 




FIG. 4.— YARD OF REPAIR SHOPS-CONSOLIDATED 
TRACTION CO. 



is charged. Work other than repairs to cars must all 
pass through the engineer's office before being started 
in the shop, and each job is there recorded and a card is- 
sued to the proper foreman, giving such directions as may 
be necessary and assigning an order number against which 
the work is to be charged. 

Standard tools are the rule throughout the shop. 
The nature of the work which must be done is so varied 
that few, if any, special tools would pay for themselves. 
A few simple jigs will fit standard tools for repeating 
almost any operation accurately and quickly. Fig. 9 
shows the block of a G. E. brush holder yoke. Prac- 
tically all the work on this was done on the machines in 
the carpenter shop. The jigs required were a few tem- 
plates for locating the holes and recesses and some blocks 
for holding the piece at the proper angle. 

The line must be drawn carefully on the class of work 
to be done in such a repair shop. On the one side, a large 
saving can be made by handling suitable work in the 
company's own shop. The machine and carpenter shops 
should be equipped to take care of all the small jobbing 
required on the system. The larger the road, the more 
complete should be its shop facilities. 

On the. other h-and, a large expense can be incurred 
by attempting to go into a general supply manufactur- 
ing business. The sphere of the shop is repairing, not 
manufacturing. Making new articles at prices that com- 
pare favorably with the market necessitates getting out 
large quantities at a time — quantities much larger than 
the ordinary road can afford to carry in stock. There is 
one marked exception to this statement, namely, a 
number of articles going to make up electrical equip- 
ment which cannot be obtained in the general market. 
The lack of competition puts the prices on many of these 
so high that they can be economically manufactured 
even when shop facilities are not very complete. A 
simple piece like a controller cover can be gotten out for 
about one-third of the purchase price, but it does not 
follow that on a complicated mess of drilling and tapping, 
like a controller back casting, any such percentage of 
saving can be shown. On the contrary, unless two or 
three dozen go through at a time, the balance is likely 
to be on the wrong side of the books. 

The motor shop is under the direct charge of the 
foreman of car repairs. Here all the work on repairing 
and overhauling motors and trucks is done, also all the 
odds and ends of carpentry, painting, etc., which are con- 
tinually needed and which can be carried on at the same 
time with the motor work. 

The unit here is not the single man, but the "crew" 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



17 



of three. Two of these men confine themselves to the 
motors and trucks, while the third goes over controllers, 
wiring, etc. A car comes in, either for its regular 
monthly overhauling or for emergency work, and is 
turned over to one of these grews. The parts which need 
repairing are removed and turned over to the appropriate 
departments, while other repaired pieces take their places 
on the car. The car is then turned over to the inspector, 
who gives it a run of about a mile, after which, if pro- 
nounced all right, it goes back to the line from which it 
came. 

As far as possible each man is assigned his own ]>ar- 
ticular branch of the work and kept at it. The changing 
of gears even is done by men who are employed on that 
all the time. Wheels are kept on hand fitted with new 
and partly used gears, and the crews on removing a pair 
go to the wheel platform and pick out one or the other 
as they have to match a new or an old pinion. 

The arrangement of the pit room with a large num- 
ber of short pits is a decided advantage, as a car when 
completed does not have to stand filling space uselessly 
until two or three ahead of it are ready to move. This 
arrangement, however, calls positively Tor a transfer 
table. Special work would be too expensive and take up 



lines on which repair work is to be done, but in general 
it can be said that any central shop sh<juld be able to 
take care of the heavy repairs for the whole system; that 
it always pays to make special arrangement for the hand- 
ling of heavy work and to substitute power for main 
strength; that in tlie ec[uipment of a shop much cheap 
home made apparatus can be gotten up which will answer 
the purpose just as well as expensive hoists and cranes; 
and, finally, that to make any system successful, each 
man must be broken in- to, and kept at, some one branch 
of the work. 

The Breakage of Street Car Wheels. 



By R. J. McCarty. 




TRANSFER TABLE AT REPAIR SHOPS— CONSOLIDATED TRACTION CO. 

too much room. A transfer table is unfortunately liable 
to breakdowns, and when the break occurs it cuts off the 
access to all pits until repaired. With rigid inspection, 
however, and by making repairs as soon as any sign of 
weakness is observed, the transfer table becomes a very 
reliable piece of apparatus. The one at the shop under 
discussion is a simple frame of channel iron 23 ft. long, 
on which are laid T-rail. Eight wheels running on four 
rails support the frame, while two additional wheels sup- 
port a platform on which is placed a Thomson-Houston 
S. R. G. motor. This motor has the regular ratio of 
gearing doubled by the addition of an extra train. A 
stub shaft in the axle bearing acts as an intermediate, 
carrying on one end the standard axle gear and on the 
other a pinion which drives the additional two to one train 
to the transfer table axle. This reduction of nine to one 
from armature to axle, together with the small 12 in. 
wheels used on the transfer table, gives the single motor 
plenty of power to handle the heaviest cars and at the 
same time cuts the speed down to the proper figure — 
about 300 ft. per minute. To collect current an ordinary 
trolley stand is mounted en a length of four inch iron pipe 
with a flange coupling top and bottom. A block of wood 
secured to the upper flange insulates the trolley stand. 
The trolley wire, encased in hose, runs down inside the 
pipe. The tension springs on the trolley base are slacked 
until just able to keep the trolley to the wire. With this 
precaution it is possible to run back and forth without 
turning the trolley. 

The shops described were laid out for a road cover- 
ing a large territory and operating many small lines. 
The local conditions must always determine the exact 



Judging from the extensive correspondence recently 
published in the Street Railway Journal, some street 
railway managers have much trouble from broken wheels. 
In many instances the manager, in attempting to locate 
the difficulty, seems to have confined himself to the wheel 
itself and to have removed the annoyance by increasing 
the weight of the wheel, some going so far as to use a 
350 lb. wheel, thirty inches in diameter, under a thirty 
foot car. 

Experience indicates that on a track proper- 
ly constructed and maintained, a 200 lb. wheel, 
thirty inches in diameter, if properly designed, 
manufactured and installed, will stand up under 
a four-wheeled motor car, twenty-six feet long, 
with heavy traffic, until the tread of the wheel is 
worn out, and that no appreciable trouble or 
delay from breakage will result. 

This indicates that the use of a 350 lb. wheel 
under a thirty foot car is not necessary, except in 
cases where, owing to danger to life and prop- 
erty, it is absolutely necessary to provide against 
the possibility of a broken wheel. Wheels should 
of course be made amply strong to resist all 
strains resulting from the heaviest traffic over a 
track properly constructed and fairly well* main- 
tained, but in most instances it is not wise to go 
beyond this point. Assuming that the weight of 
a wheel has been properly adjusted to its work, 
its breakage may result from any one of the fol- 
lowing causes: 

Improper design. 

Improper material and manufacture. 
Too much pressure in placing on axle. 
Too wide gauge of wheels. 
Improper lining of trucks. 

.Improper construction and maintenance of track. 
There are at least one-half dozen manufacturers in this 
country whose stamp is a sufficient guaranty that their 
wheels are well designed and manufactured. If wheels 
of proper weight are purchased from such manufacturers, 
pressed on a three and three-quarters inch axle with a 
pressure of from twenty to thirtj^ tons, properly gauged 
and lined, there should result no breakage, unless it arise 
from imperfections in the track. 

It is almost impossible to avoid slight variations in 
the gauge of the most substantial tracks. If the wheels 
are gauged to fit the track gauge snugly they will become 
cramped wherever the track may be narrow. This will 
bring a powerful transverse strain upon the wheels and 
axle. The stiffer the axle the more liable the wheel is to 
be broken. 

It is of course true that low joints tend to shorten 
the life of a wheel, as well as that of all other parts of the 
car, but it is not probable that the ordinary low joint 
causes the fracture of many good wheels. 

Railroad crossings if improperly constructed may 
cause the breakage of many good wheels. This is par- 
ticularly true if guard rails are used and the throat for 
the flange is not sufficiently wide. This point is prob- 
ably too well understood to need discussion. 

It is probable that the breakage of wheels arises 
principally from the improper construction and mainte- 
nance of curves. In the case of a curve of radius 50 ft., 
angle 90 degs., the length of the outside rail is 82.23 ft., 



i8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



and that of the inside rail is 74.85 ft., a difference of 
7.38 ft. This, of course, means that the outside wheel 
must travel 7.38 ft. further than the inside wheel, while 
the car is traversing such a curve. This result must be 
accomplished either by causing the outside wheel to 
slide forward on the rail or by causing the inside wheel 
to move forward with a speed less than that due to its rota- 
tion. The guard rail contjibutes simultaneously to the 
production of both the above results and seems to be the 
most practicable device for the purpose, notwithstanding 
its objectionable features. 

Let ab (Fig. i) represent the line of contact of the 
guard rail with the flange of the wheel, usually about 
the same elevation as the tread of the rail. Let c d be 
the line of contact of the flange of the wheel with the 
guard rail, assumed to be one inch larger in diameter 
than the tread of the wheel. With a thirty inch wheel, 
the distance ef would be about four inches. Now, given 
a four-wheeled car and its load weighing 20,000 lbs., the 
weight on one wheel would be 5,000 lbs. Assuming the 
co-efficient of friction between wheel and rail to be .15, a 
force of 750 lbs. would be necessary to slide the outside 
wheel. The moment of this force about the point of 
contact of the inside wheel and rail would be (for a four 
foot eight and a half inch gauge) 750 X 56}^ = 42,375 
inch pounds. The pressure at the point f necessary to 

slide the outside wheel would, therefore, be = 

4 

10,594 pounds — not counting the force necessary to con- 
trol the inertia of the car and load. 

It is manifest that the strains produced in a car 
wheel by this force at / must be very severe, since they 
are transverse. It is also evident that these strains are 
greater in proportion to. the suddenness with which force 
at / is brought into play. 

Aside from tending to twist the truck into proper 
position by causing the outside wheel to slide, the guard 
rail at the point / obstructs the forward motion of the in- 
side wheel and thus causes it to slip upon the rail by rea- 
son of its rotation. This causes the outside of the truck 
to swing around. 

It is evident that the strain upon the wheel would be 
diminished by raising the line a b (Fig. i) to some such 
position as a' b\ the effect being to diminish the force at /. 
There are, of course, limitations to this plan and the ex- 
tent to which it can be carried is very small. Neverthe- 
less it is good practice to carry it to the farthest limit. 




FIG. 2.— PROPER AND IMPROPER PLACING OF GUARD RAIL. 

It is evident that the forces which produce the differ- 
ence in motion between the inside and outside wheels 
should be brought to bear as gradually as possible and be 
given the maximum time in wliich to do their work. This 
makes it of great importance that the guard rails should 
be set properl}^ particularly at the entrance of the curve 
where the speed of the car is usually greatest. 

Let Fig. 2 represent the inside rail at the entrance of 
a curve in Avhich c d \s the guard rail, h k the track rail, 
and f g the developed line of contact of the flange of the 
wheel with the guard rail. With the guard rail set as 
shown in a, it is evident that the wheel will get an un- 
necessary shock as it strikes the guard rail at and that 
this shock is more serious because, as has been stated, the 
car is usually running at a greater speed at the entrance 
than at any other point of the curve. By drawing the 
guard rail close to the line e f, as is shown in b, it is evi- 
dent that the shock may be greatly reduced. There are 
several ways of doing this when the guard rails are bolted 
to the track rails. In cases where the guard rails and track 



rails are in one piece it must be done by widening the 
gauge. This is as it should be, because the gauge of 
every curve should be wider than that of tangents. 

Except where necessary to prevent the rear wheels 
from getting off on the inside of the curve, guard rails 
should never be used on the outside rails. 

It is safe to state that whenever there is undue wear 
upon the track rails there is undue wear and strain upon 
the wheels, and this is particularly true at curves and 
crossings. As this undue wear proceeds, the strains upon 
the wheels become greater and greater and must event- 
ually necessitate an increase of strength in the wheels 
unless the track is put in proper shape. Thus it may 
happen that an incompetent roadmaster may cause an 
unnecessarily heavy wheel to be used. In such a case 






































y 



























FIG. 1.— DIAGRAM OF COMTACT OF WHEEL AND GUARD RAIL. 

the heavy wheel will continue the destruction of the 
track and the track will retaliate by destroying the other 
parts of the car. 

It seems therefore that on any street railway where 
a broken wheel would not be dangerous the proper wheel 
is that which is amply strong to carry the heaviest traffic 
over a well appointed track, but which may break when 
the track is greatly neglected. Such a wheel is perfectly 
safe on a good track and is a first class track inspector. 
It may be said that it is not a good plan to depend upon 
broken wheels to announce the bad condition of the track. 
This is perfectly true; but it is also true that if the mana- 
ger keeps his track in good order and condition the 
lighter wheel will answer his purpose just as well if not 
better than the heavier. 

The weight of wheels for any street railway system 
must of course depend to a great extent upon the speed 
with which cars are to be run around curves, so that it is 
important that this speed should be established in the first 
instance and under no circumstances be exceeded by the 
motorman. 

It is of course impossible to lay down any general 
rule for determining the proper weight of street car 
wheels for every system. Such determination must be 
made from the circumstances surrounding each particu- 
lar case, and in view of the fact that wheels too heavy 
are almost as objectionable as wheels too light it is evi- 
dent that the problem of determ ining the proper weight 
of wheel for any system is worthy of the most careful in- 
vestigation and effort. 



Settlement of Damage Claims. 



The legal department of one of the large street rail- 
way companies of the West, operating about 300 cars, has 
been handled with such skill that during the last nine 
years it presents the following remarkable statement of 
results: . 

The damages claimed in all the suits brought against 
the company during the nine years amounted to a total 
of $1,729,655. Of this claimed amount $1,064,596 was 
settled out of court for the sum of $39,029. Of the re- 
maining claims, $665,059, judgments were rendered for 
$44,932, which judgment claims were subsequently 
settled for $30,559. The total disbursements of the com- 
pany, therefore, on account of damage suits were $69,588, 
an .average of less than $8,000 per annum. 

The value of good legal advice is well shown in this 
statement. 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



19 



LETTERS AND HINTS FROM PRACTICAL MEN. 



(T) i\ ■ A Transfer Check. 



J San Francisco, Cal., Nov. i, 1893. 

Editors Street Railway Journal : 

It is of great importance to street railway companies 
to adopt a legal transfer, good only on connecting cars 
or within the time indicated. A transfer of this kind, 
which may be called a "Minute Check," is suggested 
herewith as having met with the approval of eminent 
lawyers in this section of the country. The diagram ex- 
plains itself. Yours truly, 

Plaf J. Hanssen. 



"EXPIRED FRASCHISE RAILWAY COMPANY." 

GOOD FOR A CONTINUOUS TRIP ONLY. 

(This clieck ni^t transferable.) 

It will not be honored unless received by holder from 
conductor of connecting car and presented within ihe time 
and upon the line for which issued ■ — as indicated by 
punch marks. 



Secretary. 

. Lubricating Cable and Track Machinerj-. 

The following report, made by the superintendent of 
a large cable road to his general manager, is of interest: 

" In answer to your letter requiring a report of the 
methods adopted in lubricating cables and track ma- 
chinery, I submit the following: 

When a new cable is put in I immediately commence 
to fill it, in doing which I use three parts pine tar to one 
part raw linseed oil, this ratio being maintained until the 
spaces between the strands and individual wires are 
filled up. The quantity used each day is governed by the 
quantity which the cable will carry without throwing 
any off in passing over the cable and track machinery, 
the object being to fill the cable as quickly as possible 
without any waste of material, and at the same' time give 
the filling time to harden sufficiently, so it will not stick 
to the track machinery when passing over it. If there is 
no oil used in the process of filling a cable the tar will 
get hard and dry, and in wet weather the water will per- 
meate the filling and cause it to shed a great deal more 
readily. This, indeed, I consider to be one of the causes 
of the wholesale shedding of the filling which we so often 
have when the filling has been in the cable any consider- 
able length of time. This w^as also what in my opinion 
caused the compound which we once used to be a failure; 
it was a fill and not a lubricant and had not sufficient oil 
in it to keep it in a condition when it got old to resist the 
water. The manner in which it shed and the condition 
in which it left the cable after it shed, I think, will prove 
my theory. 



When the cable has been filled, I change the ratio of 
tar and oil to two parts tar to one part oil, or to equal 
parts of tar and oil, according to the condition of the out- 
side of the filling. If the filling is dry and hard, I use oil 
and tar in equal parts; if in good condition, two parts tar 
to one part oil. Where the cable has been filled there 
should only be enough tar used to replace the tar lost 
from friction on the grips and from loss in passing over 
track machinery and enough oil to keep the cable well 
lubricated. 

The quantity used when cable is filled is about six 
gallons to every 23,000 feet of cable per day, this to be 
divided into four or five parts and distributed evenly over 
the surface of cable four or five times per day. 

The tar and oil should be heated to the consistency 
of a thick cream before being applied. 

In lubricating curve pulleys I use No. 2 Royal grease 
in the bottom boxes and fill them three times a year. In 
filling them I have all the grease removed from the box, 
saving all the grease that will do to use over again, and 
clean all the dirt and gum out of the box as well as it is 
possible to do so with the shaft still in the box, and then 
fill it up with grease again. When for any reason it is 
necessary to remove a pulley, I then have the box given 
a thorough cleaning and refill with fresh grease. In 
some few instances it is necessary to fill the bottom boxes 
oftener than three times in a year; for instance, where, 
in case of a heavy rain, the water will overflow the boxes, 
in which case they are immediately cleaned out and 
refilled. 

The quality of lubrication and the length of time 
grease will last in a bottom curve pulley box depends to 
a great extent on how w"ell the box is kept covered to 
prevent dirt from getting into it. 

In lubricating the top boxes of curve pulleys I use 
No. 3 grease in summer and No. 2 grease in winter, and 
have them filled twice each year, in spring and fall. 

I have no record of the quantity of grease it takes to 
refill the curve pulley boxes. 

In the spring of each year I rebabbitt all the carrier 
pulley boxes and fill them with No. 3 grease, of which it 
takes about 500 lbs. Late in the summer I have them 
gone over again and refilled, at which time it takes about 
175 lbs. In going over them this time we find a great 
many boxes not requiring any more grease, also a great 
many where the grease has bridged over, in which case 
we push it down again and refill the box. Early in the 
w'inter we go over them aa^ain and refill them with No. 2 
grease, using about 150 to 175 lbs., and this leaves them 
in good shape until time to commence rebabbitting again 
in the spring. 

Like bottom curve pulley boxes, the covers in carrier 
pulley boxes should be kept in good condition. On this, 
and on the manner in which the boxes are packed, depend 
to a great extent the quality of the lubrication and the 
length of time the grease will last." 



Duties of a Car House Force. 



The following is a statement showing the duties of 
each man around a car house of a Western road operating 
about thirty-five motor cars: 

The assistant superintendent, at $50 per month, takes 
in and gives out cash and registers; checks up the read- 
ing of registers with conductors when cars come into 
house; keeps trainmen's time; makes out daily car reports 
and gives orders as to the general conduct of the work 
during the absence of the division superintendent. His 
hours are from 12 midnight to 12:30 p. m. 

The motor inspector, at $55 per month, examines 
motors and sees that they are not running hot or low; 
examines brush holders and properly adjusts them to 
commutators; cleans all commutators; repairs all con- 
trollers, reports immediately any defects that he may 
observe in any part of the car. This man spends nearly 



Good 


Only 


nt 


tIcctiiiK I'nint with Transfer L.tne, anil 
Connerlin^ Car. 


to 


Sept. 
18 


South 
ot 

Post St. 
Line. 


I, the holder, received from the con- 
ductor this check properly punched, as 
indicated by punch marks. 


From Post St. Line. " Expired Pranclilse Hallway Company " 


Meeting 
points 


To 1 To 1 pn,T.°c,f 1 To 1 To 1 To 
(••■•) 1 (••■•) Llnl 1 (X) |(..-.) 1 (....) 


T^ 
(....) 



See time of 
connectlDg car. 



A I 5 I 10 I 15 I '20 I 25 I 311 1 35 I 4n 1 45 I 50 I ^5 | X 



J I 8|3|4|5I6|7|^|3IX|11I13 
P I 5 I 10 I 15 I s;U I as I | ;^5 | 4'i | 45 | .'iO 1 .55 I ivi 



20 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



\_voL. xn. No. I. 



all his time on the road, going from car to car, and his 
hours are from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. 

One man, at $1.75 per day, repairs and changes trolley 
wheels, poles and stands; examines armature axles, gears, 
bolts and boxes; assists in putting on all new gears and 
in repairing car bodies and trucks. His hours are from 
7 A. M. to 6 p. M. 

One man at $50 per month repairs and adjusts 
brakes, puts on new shoes, tightens up bolts on trucks, 
repairs fenders, sand boxes, broken glass in doors and 
windows, and assists in putting on all new gears and 
repairing cars in general. His hours are from 7 a. m. to 

6 p. M. 

Two m.en, one at $50 per month and one at 1I40 per 
month, change all armature and axle bearings, and all 
armatures on account of any defects, and wipe and clean 
motors. Their hours are 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. 

One man at ^40 per month acts as night inspector, 
switching cars, oiling and greasing motors, car axles, 
boxes (motorman oils trolleys), does all necessary re- 
pairing of cars on road after day men leave, and starts 
cars out of car house in the morning. His hours are 

7 p. M. to 6:30 A. M. 

One man at $1.25 per day sweeps office and car barn, 
cleans headlights and washes cars inside and out. His 
hours are 7 a. m. to 7 p. m. 

Two men, one at $55 per month and one at $40 per 
month, do all line repairing. Their hours are 7 a. m. to 
6 p. M., but they are subject to call at any time without 
extra pay. It is stated that these two men would not be 
necessary if the cars were properly equipped with trolley 
stands, and if the overhead line work were properly con- 
structed. 



A Novel System of Keeping Repair Accounts. 



The following table is intended to show the relative 
frequency with which trouble occurs with the various 
parts of electric railway rolling stock. It is taken from 
the daily reports of the shed crews of divisions A, B, C, D, 
E, F, G, H, I of a large electric road, operating about 350 
cars on regular schedules. 

The conditions on the various divisions vary some- 
what. C and D have some improved apparatus, while G 
is entirely equipped with it. On the other hand, divi- 



sity for greater care or inventive ingenuity in overcoming 
increasing troubles with, for example, the controllers 
is clearly shown by such a table as this, and the efficacy 
of the methods employed can be gauged with consider- 
able accuracy over a long period of time. 



The Life of Gears and Bearings. 

The following information was recently obtained 
from an electric road still operating double reduction 
motors. The figures in the first column show the num- 
ber of bearings, gears, etc., of which the car mileage given 
is an average: 

Average Life 
Car Miles. 

Axle bearings, babbitt 62 13,190 

brasses 22 37,335 

" " " still in service, having 

made so far 32 57,028 

Armature bearings, babbitt 90 10,372 

" " brasses 17 12,209 

Intermediate bearings, babbitt 87 19,884 

Axle gears, iron 75 17,658 

Intermediate gears, iron 86 19,233 

" pinions, steel 37 17,310 

" " raw hide 3 6,339 

" " bronze 2 11,225 

" " corrugated steel 8 21,002 

Armature pinions, steel 13 27,369 

" " raw hide 22 16,353 

" " bronze i 11,782 

All the above records were made upon cars averag- 
ing about 134 miles per day. , , 

^».o.^ (r . I , 

The Lessons of the Cleveland Viaduct Disaster. 



By Harold P. Brown. 



A few days after the frightful viaduct disaster at Cleveland, the 
writer was employed to make a thorough examination of the condi- 
tions which made possible the fatal result, and to suggest methods 
of securing absolute protection in the future. As many of the most 
serious faults were noticed neither by the daily papers nor by the 
coroner, the facts should receive careful attention from the technical 
press before the terrible incident is forgotten. Had the designers of 
the viaduct and the men in charge of the drawbridge deliberately 
planned to cause this accident they could not have done more 
thorough work, for " blunder " is the only word that properly de- 
scribes every detail of the protection of open draw, the position 



TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF CAR MILES RUN FOR EACH SPECIFIC TROUBLE CAUSING 

SENDING OF CARS TO SHOP. 



Division. 


Controllers 


Armature 
and Field. 


Gears 
and 
j Pinions. 


Trolleys. 


Miscel. 


Brakes. 


Journals. 


Wheels. 


Miscel. 


Sand Box. 


Glass. 


Fenders. 


Miscel. 


Totals. 


A 


8,189 


11,394 


58,239 


14,879 


20,159 


4,063 


11,912 


74,879 


524,158 


262,079 


524,158 


30,832 


8,516 


126 


2 


B 


5,635 


17,396 


44,457 


26,674 


17,369 


1,569 


11,114 


26,674 


200,056 


80,023 


13,000 


71,440 


67,820 


66 


9 


C 


14,885 


8,372 


267,934 


53,587 


33,492 


7,443 


33,492 


267,934 


267,934 


267,934 


267,934 


9,238 


20,610 


173 


9 


D 


11,360 


27,260 


136,347 


45,050 


40,904 


7,052 


9,739 


409,042 


409,042 


409,042 


136,347 


40,904 


11,986 


180 


I 


E 


6,655 


18,303 146,425 


29,285 


11,263 


3,853 


24,404 


24,404 


73,212 


29,285 


146,425 


36,606 


12,202 


116 


2 


F 


7,456 


16,494 


36,288 


32,018 


17,010 


21,772 


272,156 


544,317 


181,436 


544,317 


41,870 


27,015 


7,456 


18 


2 


G 


6,514 


23,342 


70,028 


40,016 


14,605 


4,668 


35,014 


83,371 


70,028 


280,115 


46,689 


18,672 


14,743 


130 


8 


H 


51,362 


18,940 


205,449 


123,269 


68,483 


25,681 


616,348 


88,051 


41,089 


616,348 


154,087 


123,269 


29,340 


37 


6 


I 


6,632 


9,671 


17,409 


12,056 


11,230 


2,668 


31,652 


21,761 


139,272 


99,480 


6,695 


4,299 


6,508 


6 


8 


Averages. 


8,749 


14,219 


46,246 


30,340 


1,913 


4,384 


17,170 


53,954 


125,313 


1,942,356 


24,278 


12,332 


9,960 


12- 


08 



sions A, G and I operate very much heavier cars than the 
others. Division I also has heavy grades, and a consider- 
able portion of its track is poor, while division A, operat- 
ing the same class of equipment, has few grades and a 
solid nine inch girder construction its whole length. 

For the rest the figures speak for themselves. They 
are averages of four months' work, and are obtained by 
dividing the total car miles run on each division during 
that time by the number of cases of trouble occurring, 
causing the withdrawal of the cars from service. 

The same system of keeping comparative accounts 
is highly useful in showing the improvement (or other- 
wise) from month to month throughout the year in 
respect to the different classes of accidents. The neces- 



and operation of the danger signals and the lighting of the viaduct. 
The following points will, I think, fully justify the use of even a 
more severe word than " blunder." 

1. The gates used on the edge of the abutnients are absurdly 
weak and are not sufficient to check a runaway horse. They should 
be strong enough to withstand maximum concussion. 

2. The fastening is inadequate; it is merely a square vertical 
bolt on the gate, dropping a few inches into a hole in an iron plate 
on floor of approach between the tracks. On the afternoon of 
Monday, November i8th, I saw a policeman open this gate while the 
bolt was down, by pulling the top of the gate. The gate racked at 
the outer edge to an angle of nearly 20 degs. from the vertical and 
dragged the bolt from the socket. The officer evidently thought this 
easier than lifting the bolt. Had the meeting gates been hooked 
together at top and bottom they might possibly have stopped the car. 

3. The gates opened toward the bridge instead of away from it. 
Had they swung in the opposite direction against a strong post be- 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



tween the tracks, the accident would not have occurred. The only 
apparent reason for this almost incredible piece of folly seemed to be 
that in swinging inwards the long ends of the gates lapped a few 
feet on the bridge. The designer of the gate may have deemed this 
to be an important feature, since if the man at the approach failed to 
close the gates before the bridge moved, one gate would be partly 
closed and the other broken off by the motion of the bridge. This 
proves that the gates were partially closed at the time of the disas- 
ter, since otherwise the gates toward which the bridge turned would 
have been wrecked or the opposite railing on the bridge lor'n off. 

4. The gates were too close to the river. If the city neglected to 
make the gates and their locks strong enough to fulfill their evident 
purpose, it should at least have given the occupants of a runaway 
vehicle a few seconds in which to escape after the failure of their bar- 
rier. Had even this flimsy contrivance been one hundred ft. away 
from the edge, many if not all of the passengers might have been 
saved. 

5. The bridge tender was on the wrong side of the gate. The 
swinging of the gates in the wrong direction and the fact that the 
bolt was on the outer side, forced him to either move backward as he 
closed the gates and then reach through the lattice to move the bolt, 
or to shut himself between gates and river, where he could be of no 
possible service in case of emergency. 

6. The gates were not painted white. It is well known that 
white is the color most visible at night. Hence all crossing signs 
and fences, gates and signal posts are painted white. The dark 
color of the gates makes them invisible at night from the derailing 
switch. 

7. To make matters even worse, an arc lamp is placed on a 
post near the gate, so that the gate itself is in the heavy shadow of 
the lamp base. The lamp also serves to render the red signal lamps 
less distinct. This was demonstrated by the light-house board some 
years ago, when the arc lamps on the Hell Gate tower were ordered 
discontinued; also when method of lighting the statue of Liberty 
was determined. 

8. The use of clear glass instead of opal globes on the viaduct 
arc lamps is another serious error. It is true that an opal globe cuts 
off about 40 per cent, of the light when measured by photometer, 
but the effect upon the eye is very different. The electric arc when 
seen without a globe or through clear glass, not only dazzles the 
eyes, but also causes a contraction of the pupil, thereby reducing the 
amount of light reaching the retina. This reduction of visibility far 
more than offsets the reduction caused by the use of an opal globe. 
On the other hand the opal globe diffuses the light, cancels the 
shadows under the lamp from globe holder and side rods, and 
softens the outlines of other distant shadows. 

9. The confusion of vision is increased by suspending the lamp 
so that it swings in the wind, casting heavy moving shadows on the 
roadway. The lamps should be rigidly fixed on poles or mast arms. 

10. While the viaduct is glaring with arc lamps, the bridge itself 
is left in darkness. In rain or fog, it is impossible to distinguish 
the bridge from the derailing switch. The bridge should be bril- 
liantly lighted at center and ends with fixed lamps that show white 
when closed and red when open. As a further precaution all arc 
lamps on the viaduct within 500 ft. of the bridge should have re- 
flectors or opaque screens on the land side, so as to keep the direct 
light from the eyes of motormen on cars approaching the bridge. 

11. The red lamps on the gates are placed so low that a waiting 
vehicle or a man with an umbrella would hide them from sight. 
They should be higher than any possible obstruction. As the 
testimony at the inquest shows that a number of people were near 
the gate at the time of the disaster, it is quite possible that the lamp 
was obstructed in this way. 

12. The red lamps are so close to the draw that they are easily 
hidden by the smoke, or steam from passing boats. On the night of 
November i8th they were at four different times within an hour so 
hidden when boats were passing under the bridge, that I could not 
see the red light while standing at the derailing switch. Once the 
obscuring lasted for fifteen seconds and I walked within twenty ft. 
of th» gate before I could distinguish the signals. The danger sig- 
nals should, as in steam railway practice at drawbridges, be placed 
so far away that a car at full speed could come to a stop on a slippery 
track after passing the signal post, for a fog may be so dense that the 
light cannot be seen until almost passed. 

13. It is also ordinary practice to have the locking wedges of a 
drawbridge so arranged that they cannot be moved to open the 
bridge until after the distant signal has been set to danger. 

14. The red lamps on gates showed just as much (or just as little) 
when the gates were open as when they were shut, since they were 
merely placed on top of the gate with no side screens whatever. A 
red lamp on a drawbridge should mean danger whenever exposed. 

15. The locking wedges of the bridge should be arranged so that 
they could not be unlocked until after the gates were fully closed. 

16. Shutting the motorman in a closed vestibule is another seri- 
ous error. I am informed that this is required by city ordinance or 
State law. In this closed box a man is unable to hear calls or warn- 
ings and cannot see clearly during rain, fog or snow. In bad 
weather arc lamps ahead of the car make the drops on the glass a 
series of dazzling rays. The courts would deal severely with a rail- 
way company which employed a man as locomotive engineer, know- 
ing him to be absolutely deaf and of defective vision. And yet this 
law deliberately deafens and at times half blinds a man, and then 
assumes to hold his employer responsible because he fails to hear 
cries of warning and to see signals of danger. 

I should advise the removal of the glass in central front window 
of vestibule and in side windows if any. For protection from weather 
a vertical strip of glass can be put in the central front window to 
cover the left half of the window, but the other half should be left open. 



17. Pending permanent changes the gates across the approach 
should be painted white; the arc lamps should be rigidly fixed on 
poles or mast arms and provided with opal globes, instead of clear 
glass. Each bridge should be lighted with brilliant lamps v/hich 
show white from the ends and red from the sides. 

For permanent protection the first requisite is a pair of strong 
and substantial entrance gates for the roadway only, closing toward 
the river and meeting at an angle of about 45 degs. with the center 
line of viaduct. When closed, the meeting ends should bear against 
a heavy steel I beam between the tracks. All of this structure 
should be calculated to withstand the blow of a motor car and trailer 
at full speed and should be located at about 150 ft. from the draw- 
bridge. About fifteen ft. from the edge of the draw should be 
placed a second pair of gates closing both sidewalks and roadway. 
These gates can Ije made much lighter and should swing in a verti- 
cal plane or toward the draw, meeting firmly on a center post and 
locking securely. Heyond the entrance gates, and thirty ft. nearer 
the river, should be a derailing switch, and two rail lengths from 
this a post with signal arm and lamp and, if desired, an alarm bell. 
A further function of this signal arm will be described later. To 
make the operation of the signals, gates and bridge as near to abso- 
lute safety as possible, the following apparatus is required: 

1. An air compressor and reservoir located in engine room of 
bridge. This compressor should be operated by steam, and prefer- 
ably be of the type built by the Westinghouse or the New York Air 
Brake Company. Iron service pipes lead to auxiliary reservoirs in 
each bridge-tender's cabin on the viaducts, with flexible connections 
of the air brake type. 

2. Iron service pipes leading to pneumatic cylinders at the sig- 
nal post, the derailing switch and the distant gales. 

3. Electrically controlled valves at each cylinder operated from 
the cabin, so interlocked that they can be operated only in one defi- 
nite sequence. It is also so arranged that after a car has passed the 
derailing switch, the bridge cannot be opened until that car has 
passed over the bridge and passed the lighter gates. 

4. An automatic device on each car which will stop within two 
rail lengths any car that runs 'past the danger signal. This appara- 
tus is simple, cheap and durable, and will stop the car in spite of 
any action of the motorman, and from any position of controller or 
reversing switch. The stop though rapid is cushioned and will take 
effect within the distance for which it is adjusted, whether car is 
empty or loaded. The conductor by closing the derailing switch 
also holds the safety brake from operating as the car passes. It is 
not possible for the motorman or conductor to prevent the operation 
of this brake if car runs past this post without stopping; the former 
may be drunk or asleep, but the car will nevertheless be stopped 
and motor circuit opened, so that car cannot again be started with- 
out resetting the apparatus. This can be done only by means of a 
special lever which is kept in bridge-tender's cabin. 

On the other hand, for an emergency stop to prevent a collision 
or to keep from running down a person, the motorman with a single 
movement can operate the brake by a lever entirely separate from 
the automatic device. A single motion cuts off current and applies 
the brake for an emergency stop. When applied in this way the 
motorman can release the brake without complication. 

The operation for the interlocking apparatus is as follows : 
When a boat whistles for the bridge, the watchman at each cabin 
closes an electric circuit which leads to the signal post and derailing 
switch. This operates a magnet controlling the valve of each pneu- 
matic cylinder, sets signal arm to danger and locks the derailing 
switch. The same movement opens the gate fastening and permits 
the attendant there to close the heavy gate on the roadway leading 
toward the bridge. As long as there is a car on the track between 
this heavy gate and the light gate on the far side, the watchman can- 
not tinlock the bridge ivcdgcs. As soon as the last car left on the 
bridge by the closing of outer gates on approaching tracks has gone 
two rail lengths on the far side, both light gates can be closed, the 
wedges withdrawn and the bridge then opened. The signals and 
gates cannot be again moved until the bridge has shut and the wedges 
been thrown. Then the light gate can be opened and this unlocks 
the heavy gates; opening the heavy gates drops the signal arm to 
safety and releases the derailing switch. With this arrangement it 
is impossible for the bridge to be opened after a car has passed the 
derailing switch until a car has crossed or has been sent hack beyond 
the switch. 

I am informed that several times this fall bridges have been 
opened when approaching cars were under headway outside the 
switch. In each case I am told that nothing but prompt reversing 
saved the car. This is one of the reasons which leads me to regard 
opening the trolley circuit near the bridge as a very dciugeyous pro- 
ceeding which sJioiild not be permitted^ unless the grade to the bridge is 
so light that a car under full speed will lose headway and stop be- 
tween the circuit breaker and the bridge. 

The interlocking pneumatic switches and signals, with elec- 
trically controlled valves, are extensively used by many of the lead- 
ing steam railroads of this country, and are manufactured by the 
Union Switch & Signal Company, of Swissvale, Pa. 

The changes necessary in their standard apparatus to adapt it to the 
above requirements can easily be made. The automatic brake is my 
own design and would obviate the danger arising from the use of 
derailing switches at drawbridges and railway crossings. 

The upsetting of a car by a derailing switch, in order to prevent 
an accident, would be a very unfortunate occurrence for the railway 
company if any lives were lost thereby. But with this brake the 
only function of the derailing switch would be to force every car to 
come to a halt at a safe distance from the bridge or crossing, or, in 
case of failure to stop, to check the reduced headway of any car that 
runs by the danger signal. 



22 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 

LEGAL NOTES AND COM/VIENTS * 



[Vol. XII. No. I. 



Edited by J. Aspinwall Hodge, Jr., and George L. Shearer, 

OF THE NEW YORK BAR. 



Few subjects are more important to the operators of 
street railways than the law which governs their birth, 
existence and death — the law which relates to their 
incorporation, their operations, liabilities, duties, privi- 
leges, franchises, their consolidation and d,issolution. 
The subject, therefore, is scarcely secondary to the 
problems which relate to the mechanical and commer- 
cial operation of the street railway, and, in fact, is so 
interwoven with those subjects as to be a part of them. 
Hence no apology is needed for devoting several pages 
of the Street Railway Journal to this subject. 

The breadth of the subject makes it preposterous to 
assume that, in the small space that can be devoted to it 
each month, any comprehensive view of the law, or of 
any part of it, can be given. The decisions relating to 
street railways are so overwhelming in their number and 
in the variety of the questions involved, that a complete 
digest of the cases decided during the month cannot be 
attempted. The cases relating to the negligence of com- 
panies alone occupy a very considerable portion of the 
time of our courts — some courts devoting at least one- 
half of the time they give to jury cases to trials of causes 
of this nature. 

It will be the endeavor of the editors -of this depart- 
ment to select carefully those decisions which are typi- 
cal or novel, or which, for some other reason, present a 
state of facts or conclusions of law which appear to be 
of unusual interest to the operators of street railroads, 
and in commenting upon the events of the month in the 
legal department, it will be their endeavor, not to theo- 
rize or to write treatises upon well established principles, 
but rather to call to the attention of the street railroad 
world the decisions which seem to modify or develop 
the ancient body of the law. 

The law which regulates the common carriers of 
the passengers of the nation is chiefly corporation law, 
for in few states is it possible for an individual to ob- 
tain a franchise, and in none is it common. 

Among the subjects which it will be proper to discuss 
are, the incorporation of street railroad companies, 
franchises, the right to eminent domain and to the use of 
streets and highways, the speed of cars, the right to 
change motive power, liabilities to the owners of abutting 
property, to passengers, the public, and employes, the 
joint use by different companies of street tracks and 
motive power, taxation, and the relationship of street 
railway companies to other users of the streets and 
highways and to other common carriers of passengers 
and goods. A large portion of the law that affects the 
street raihvay is patent law, but that part of the subject 
can only be now and then referred to in these columns. 

Perhaps no department of law is receiving such at- 
tention and undergoing such rapid development during 
this last decade of the century as street railway law, 
by reason of the immense increase in the amount 
of street raihvay traffic, and of the vast changes that are 
taking place in the methods of operation. The horse 
car is almost as much a relic of the past as the omnibus, 
and in its place is a car propelled ultimately by steam, 
although directly by cable or electricity. So long as a 
street railway confines itself to the transfer of passengers 
within the city and does not erect anything to materially 
obstruct the light, air and access of abutting owners, the 
law of the new vehicle does not materially differ from the 
law of the horse car. But when its speed increases; when 
it becomes more than intraurban, more than suburban, 
and even interurban; when it runs its cars upon tracks 
raised above the surface of the highway, or crosses pri- 
vate property by virtue of the right of eminent domain; 

•CommunlCtttlons relating lo this department may be ..ddressed to th editors, 
No. 32 i^assau Street, New lork. 



when it establishes stations along its route, accepts 
freight and becomes the carrier of the U. S. mail; when 
it runs trains of two and even more cars; and when it 
crosses from one state into another, uniting cities whose 
traffic comes within the definition of interstate com- 
merce; the boundary, which heretofore has been clear 
and definite between it and the steam railroad, begins to 
vanish, and both by legislative enactment and by judicial 
decision a body of law is created to follow the road as 
it develops from a horse car to a common carrier, on a 
larger scale, of both passengers and goods. 

In such a development of commercial operation, 
there is an immense stimulus to the development of new 
principles of law, or rather the application of old princi- 
ples to a new state of facts, and in forty odd jurisdic- 
tions, the decision in one of which is not binding upon 
any other, we expect and find a variety of opinion and a 
seething mass of decisions not yet crystallized, but which 
is fast shaping itself into forms which will endure. 

The importance of the subject can scarcely be exag- 
gerated. It affects to the largest possible degree the 
commercial prosperity of the nation, and this, not merely 
because millions of dollars are invested in street railways, 
but because they form the veins and arteries of all our 
great cities, and are fast assuming the function of trans- 
porting the life blood of the nation from one city to an- 
other, and their mismanagement or anything that retards 
their development is a national calamity, while every- 
thing which advances their proper and successful opera- 
tion adds to the nation's wealth. 

In conducting the department the editors will be 
pleased to receive suggestions from readers and sub- 
scribers, and where inquiries are such as can be properly 
answered from these columns, they will receive attention. 
Not only will decisions and legislation be digested and 
discussed, but text books relating to the various phases 
of the subject will be noticed and reviewed. H. 

CHARTER— STATUTORY POWERS— ORDINANCES. 

Georgia. — The General Law of Georgia (Code ^ i68ga. et. seq.) 
for the incorporation of railroad companies is not applicable to street 
railroad companies. The general assembly has power to grant a 
special charter to a street railroad company and authorize it to ex- 
tend its line to a point beyond the limits of the town or city in which 
the same was to be located. — (Dieter v. Estill, 22 S. E. Rep. 622.) 

New Hampshire. — General Laws, c. 269, >J 14, providing that 
no person shall ride through any street in the compact part of any 
town at a greater speed than five miles an hour, applies to a street 
railway company. So held, though the company's charter provided 
that the mayor and aldermen should have power to regulate the rate 
of speed, in the absence of any such regulation by the mayor and 
aldermen. — (Bly v. Nashua St. Ry. Co., 32 At. Rep. 764.) 

Connecticut. — The legislature may authorize an electric street 
railway company to cross a steam railroad at grade along a high- 
way, without providing compepsation for the injury to the railroad 
occasioned thereby. — (N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. v. Bridgeport Trac- 
tion Co., 32 At. Rep. 953.) 

Texas — A street railway may have a discretion as to its route 
between certain fixed points, but having exercised that discretion, it 
cannot change the location without legislative authority, though a 
city ordinance permits it so to do. — (Denison & S. Ry. Co. v. Deni- 
son L. & L Co., 32 S. W. Rep. 332.) 

California. — A provision in a city ordinance which grants a 
right of way on its streets to a street railway company regulating 
the rate of fare to be charged outside the limits of the city, is void. — ■ 
(South Pasadena v. L. A. T. Ry. Co., 41 Pac. Rep. 1093.) 

Pennsylvania. — Though the 'legislature enacted (Acts 1870, P. 
L. 997) that a bridge owned by a county, but situated within city 
limits, should be free of all tolls for all purposes, a street railway 
company permitted by the city to construct its road on a street con- 
nected by the bridge has no right to lay its tracks on the bridge after 
the county has prohibited it from so doing, because the bridge was 
not of sufficient strength. — (Larue v. Oil City St. Ry.Co., 32 At. Rep. 
977-) 

New York. — The requirement of Laws 1886, c. 65, that the privi- 
lege of constructing a street railroad shall be sold by the city. at pub- 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



23 



lie auction is dispensed with by Laws 1890, c. 565 (Railroad Law), 
which declares that every railroad corporation has the power to con- 
struct its road in any hiia;hway, subject to the limitations and re- 
quirements of that chapter, but which contains no re(|uirement that 
such privilege shall be sold at auction.— (Adamson v. Nassau F:1cc- 
tric R. Co., 34 N. Y. S. 1073.) 

New Jersicy. — A street railroad company having", l)y Rrant, re- 
ceived by Act March i6, 1893 (V. L. p.' 342), the rif;ht to construct 
and operate its railway on a turnpike, is not exempt from the per- 
formance of the conditions precedent to the construction of such 
railways imposed by Act May 16, 1894. — (Stockton v. Atlantic High- 
lands R. B. & L. B. Electric Ry. Co., 32 At. Rep. 680.) 

New York. — Const. Art. 3, 18, providing that no street railroad 
shall be constructed without first obtaining the consent of the owners 
of one-half in value of the property abutting on the street, does not 
require the consent of the property owners to the use by a street rail- 
road company of the tracks of anotiier company, already constructed 
and in operation in the street. Pratt, J., dissenting. — (Ingersoll v. 
Nassau Electric Ry. Co., 34 N. Y. S. 1044.) 

New York. — In a proceeding to acquire the right to construct a 
railroad in a street, the only prerequisite to tiie appointment of com- 
missioners to determine whether such road ought to be built is that 
the consent of the property owners cannot be obtained (Laws 1890, 
c. 565, S 94); and the question whether or not the municipal consent 
alleged in the petition to have been obtained was for the construction 
of the railroad, as described in the petition, is immaterial, as the con- 
sent of the municipal authorities is, by Laws iSgo, c. 565, 5^ 90, a pre- 
requisite only to the construction or operation of the road. In re 
Crosstown St. Ry. Co., 22 N. Y. S. 818, 68 Hun. 236, distinguished. 
— (In re Auburn City Ry. Co., 34 N. Y. S. 992.) 

New Jersey.— a street railway company must obtain the con- 
sent of the Township Committee to the location of its tracks under 
the Act of May' 16, 1894, as %ell as the consent of the body having 
control of streets or highways therein under the Traction Co. Act 
1893. — (Bergen Traction Co. v. Township Committee of Ridgefield, 
32 At. Rep. 754.) 

EJECTION OF PASSENGERS. 
(See also excessive damages below.) 

New Jersey. — Where a street railway company established, by 
practice, a right in its passengers to change, without a transfer ticket, 
from one car to another, in completing their journey, it could not 
change the practice without notice to the passengers, so that it was 
liable for ejecting a passenger who changed from one car to another 
without obtaining a transfer. — (Consolidated Traction Co. v. Taborn, 
32 At. Rep. 685.) 

Maine. — Where a passenger in a street car laden with passengers 
of both sexes, on being requested by the conductor to stop using 
oaths in his conversation, denied using same, and on being contra- 
dicted called the conductor a "damned liar," he was rightfully re- 
moved from the car for a breach of the peace, and could not recover 
for his ejection. — (Robinson v. Rockland, T. & C. St. Ry. Co., 32 At. 
Rep. 994, 87 Me. 3S7.) 

New Jersey. — Where a passenger entitled to remain in a car was 
ordered by the conductor to leave it, and obeyed on the car being- 
stopped, it constituted an ejectment by the conductor, for which an 
action will lie. — (Consolidated Traction Co. v. Taborn, 32 At. Rep. 
685.) 

California. — Civ. Code, § 488, requires every conductor to wear 
on his cap a badge, and provides tfeit no conductor without such 
badge is authorized to receive fare from a passenger. Held, that 
where a passenger who refuses to pay fare recognizes the conductor 
as such, and does not refuse to pay fare because of the absence of 
such badge, and the conductor puts him off the train, the company is 
not liable because such conductor wore no badge. — (Cox v. Los An- 
geles Terminal Ry. Co., 41 Pac. Rep. 504.) 

RIDING ON FRONT PLATFORM. 

New York. — To ride upon the front platform of a street car is 
not, in the absence of other and usual circumstances, /ivjt-, such neg- 
ligence as will prevent recovery. — (Vail v. Brooklyn R. R.,147 N. Y. 
337; Taft v. Brooklyn Heights R. R., 14 Misc. 410.) 

EXCESSIVE DAMAGES. 

New York. — A verdict for $10,000 to a husband for the loss of 
services of his wife is not excessive, where the wife was a woman of 
thirty-eight years of age, strong and healthy before the accident, and 
in consequence of the injuries received had become a confirmed 
invalid and would be so permanently. — (Cannon v. Brooklyn City 
R. R., 14 Misc. 420.) 

New York. — Where the plaintiff, who was earning $12 a week, 
was confined to a hospital for a year by his injuries, and was ren- 
dered incapable of doing any heavy work on account of the increased 
size of his right leg and of varicose veins, a verdict for $15,000 was 
held excessive. — (Chapman v. Atlantic Ave. R. R., 14 Misc. 404.) 

Utah. — A verdict of $10,500 in favor of a girl three years old 
for loss of a foot is not excessive. The Court say: " They attempt to 
reason out the earning capacity of the plaintiff in her crippled con- 
dition, after her majority, and thus demonstrate that the verdict is 
excessive. The amount of injury sustained by an infant cannot be 
reckoned or calculated by any rule of arithmetic any more than her 
body can be made whole by dollars and cents. If the plaintiff was a 
male the verdict would not be excessive and the loss of a limb to a 
female is infinitely greater." — (Chipman v. U. P. R. R., 41 Pac. Rep. 
562.) 



U TAll.— A verdict for $3,300 in favor of a section man for the 
loss of two fingers and permanent injury to two others of the left 
hand, so that they are without strength, is not excessive. — (Cha[)- 
man v. South Pac. Co., 41 Pac. Rep. 55.) 

Texas. — A traveling salesman, lorty-three years of age, earning 
$190 a month, was injured Ijy defendant's negligence, being seriously 
cut in various parts of the body and having his eyesight so impaired 
tjial it was gradually failing. A verdict of $5,000 was held not ex- 
cessive.— (M. K. & T. Ry. v. Buff, 32 S. W. Rep. 551.) 

TI'.xas. — A verdict of $9,119 against a R. R. Co. for the loss, 
through its negligence, of a forearm by a brakeman thirty-five years 
old receiving fifty-five dollars a month, is not excessive. — (M. K. & 
T. R. R. v. Kirkiand, 32 S. W. Rep. 588.) 

Texas.— For permanent and serious injuries to a healthy, vigor- 
ous man greatly impairing his health and decreasing his earning 
capacity, preventing him from doing any work for nine or ten months, 
a verdict for $6,500 is not excessive. — (G. H. & S. A. Ry. v. Waldo, 
32 S. W. Rep. 7S3.) • 

Nevada. — For a compound comminuted fracture of the ankle 
bones of one leg, where 100 pieces of bone had been removed and 
bones were still working out twenty months after the accident, and 
the plaintiff had been confined to her bed for six months, had 
paid $2,345 for physicians and nurses and would be permanently 
lame, a verdict for $15,000 was held not excessive. — (Engler v. 
Western Union Tel. Co., 69 Fed. Rep. 1S5.) 

Texas. — Where plaintiff has been changed by his injuries from 
a healthy energetic man earning a competency for himself and fam- 
ily to one impaired in mind or wrecked in body, unable to earn a 
support, a verdict for $6,500 though large is not excessive. — (A. T. & 
S. F. R. R. v. Click, 32 S. W. Rep. 226.) 

Minnesota. — A verdict of $14,500 was not excessive for injur- 
ies received by a young man in a railroad accident, which left him 
permanently maimed. — (Howe v. Minneapolis, St. P. & S. S. M. Ry. 
Co., 64 N. W. Rep. 102.) 

Ohio. — A verdict of $7,500 for personal injuries causing great 
suffering, and resulting in permanent disability of a man who had 
previously been earning $300 a month, is not excessive. — (Lowry v. 
Mt. Adams & Eden Park Incline Plane Ry. Co., 68 Fed. Rep. 827.) 

New York. — A verdict for $10,000 for the loss of a foot by plain- 
tiff, who was a laborer twenty-four years old and accustomed to 
earn about $1.50 a day, is excessive where it does not appear that the 
case differed from the ordinary case of the loss of a foot, or that there 
could not be in plaintiff's case as complete a recovery as is expected 
in such case. — (Peri v. New York Cent. & H. R. R. Co., 34 N. Y. S. 
1009, 87 Hun. 499.) 

Book He views. 



A Treatise on the Law Rea'ing to Electricity, by Simon G. 
Croswell. Little, Brown & Company, Boston, 1895. 

This is a book on corporation law. A book with the above title 
must necessarily devote a number of its pages to the subject of 
street railway law, for it must treat of the application of electricity 
to the business of the common carrier in and between our cities. 
But a portion of its pages must also be devoted to the three other 
kinds of corporations which are users of electric power — the tele- 
graph company, the telephone company and the electric light com- 
pany — the first two very closely related to each other — one the elder 
brother of the ether, and the third being (if we may adopt the 
opinion of the New York Court of Appeals) a manufacturing cor- 
poration. 

Where a book is made up, as this book is, of the decisions of the 
various courts and a review of them, we shall expect to find the 
larger portion of the work devoted to the oldest of the four com- 
panies, and accordingly we find that out of the 860 sections of the 
work over 600 sections are devoted to the law of the telegraph and 
incidentally to the law of the telephone, while a portion of the re- 
maining 200 or more sections are applicable to all four of the com- 
panies. 

As a text book upon the law of the telegraph and the telephone 
we need say nothing here, except to commend it as being full and clear. 
The portion devoted to electric street railway is not as full as might 
be desired, but is extremely valuable in that, apparently, great care 
has been taken in the selection of the cases which it quotes, to cite 
only those cases which are peculiar, not only to the street railroad, 
but are peculiar to the street railroad propelled by electricity. It is 
also valuable in the synopsis which it makes of the statutes in differ- 
ent states relating to the subject. We find what is only to be ex- 
pected in the first edition of a work of this sort — considerable uneven- 
ness or want of proportion in the care that has been bestowed upon 
different subjects. 

Perhaps no subject is of more importance in such a work than 
the question of the rights of an electric railroad in the streets and 
highways. Section 106 of the work, the heading- of which is some- 
what misleading, which reviews the New York decisions, holding 
that the street railroad is sometimes an additional servitude, 
should cite the recent leading cases which are immensely valuable as 
elucidating the law of the earlier cases which are cited, ,:.o-., Forbes vs 
R. R., 121 N. Y., 20. 

The index is voluminous and useful, although some haste is 
shown in its general construction and in some of its titles, as, for 
example, under the head of "Evidence of Gross Negligence," we 
find the sub-heading, " Incorporation of Electric Company." I doubt 
the utility of such index headings as "General Characteristics" and 
" Youth." But these are minor flaws in a work of considerable excel- 
lence and of great utility. 



24 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 




JAISXJARY, 1896. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE STREET RAILWAY PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

HAVEMEYER BUILDING, 
26 CORTLANDT STREET, NEW YORK. 

Western Office : 
MoNADNOCK Block, Chicago, III. 
European Office : 
36 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, England. 

Long Distance Telephone, " New York, 2664 Cortlandt," 
Cable Address, " Stryjourn, New York." 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

In the United States a^^d Canada $-1.00 per annum. 

I $G.i 

In all Foreign Countries, per annum -j -^^.^'l^^. 

Subscriptions payable aIwa^s^n advance, by clieck preferred), money order 
or postal note, to order 01 C. E. Whittlesey, Treasurer. 

EDITORIAL NOTICE. 

Papers and correspondence on all subjects of practical 
interest to our readers are cordially invited. Our columns are 
always open for the discussion of problems of operation, 
construction engineerini^. f nance and invention. 

Special effort will be made to answer prooip ly, tind 
■without charge, any reasonable rajuest for information which 
may be receii'cd from our readers and advertisers, answers 
being given through the columns tf the Jhuknal wlien of 
general interest, ol herwise by letter. 

Street railway ne7us anil all information ^ regarding 
changes of officers, new equipment , e.xlensious financial changes, 
etc., will be greatly appreciated for use in our Directory , our 
Financial Supplement, or our news columns. 

All matters intended for publication in the current issues 
must be received at our office not later than the twenty-fifth of 
each month. 

Address all communications to 

The Street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building. 26 Cortlandt St., New York. 

THE question is often asked: Why have so few books 
been written on street railway practice? Why is it 
hard to get a comprehensive idea of street railroad prob- 
lems ? The answer is that, for six or seven years past, street 
railroad managers and experts have been making his- 
tory, not recording it, and until recently there has been 
so little established practice that the book of to-day has 
become the book of yesterday almost from the moment 
of leaving the press. In the columns of the technical 
papers, and, we think, of the Street Railway Journal 
in particular, can be found the continuing records of 
daily practice from which books can, and will be written 
on the important problems of street railroading, and it is 
with a view of making these records as complete and val- 
uable as possible that we have decided to present to our 
readers during the coming year a collection of serials, 
articles and special features which is unprecedented 
in value, we believe, in technical journalism. Experts 
in nearly every branch of street railroading have been 



engaged to contribute to our columns the results of their 
wide and well digested experience. We shall diligently 
seek for special " Letters and Hints from Practical Men," 
reflecting their daily experience in operating methods ; 
we shall record, as usual, every advance in constructive 
practice ; we have established a department of " Legal 
Notes and Comments," edited by able and experienced 
lawyers ; and our regular deoartments of " Finance," 
"Street Railway News," and " New Inventions," will be 
continued and made constantly more and more valuable 
by special efforts for improvement in all directions. 



UNTIL the little "war scare" which came in the 
latter part of December, the prospects for improve- 
ment in all lines of business affecting street railway con- 
struction and operation were daily growing brighter, and 
a business for 1896 at least 50 per cent, better than that 
of 1895 was confidently anticipated by most of our lead- 
ing manufacturers. Then came the setback in the finan- 
cial markets due to the President's Venezuelan message, 
and at this writing it is difficult to say whether the future 
is to be long overcast with clouds of international compli- 
cations, resulting in uneasiness §nd such a general with- 
drawal of foreign capital from American investments, as 
will lead to " tightness of money," or whether the present 
upward turn in securities means a revival of confidence 
in the wisdom and sound common sense with which the 
American people will deal with these complications. An 
actual war between Great Britain and America is almost 
unthinkable and quite impossible. In investment matters, 
nowever, we have to deal not with things as they are but 
with what investors think they are, or are going to be, 
and it is much to be feared that there will be a generally 
uneasy condition of business for several months to come, 
postponing that revival w^hich would otherwise be almost 
inevitable after so long a period of comparative prostra- 
tion. 

* * * * 

It appears probable, moreover, that comparatively 
few entirely new street railway enterprises will develop, 
in 1896, from "paper schemes" into actual operating 
roads. The character of many enterprises which are 
being more or less actively promoted in financial cir- 
cles is such as to indicate, in the clearest possible man- 
ner, the fact that all, or nearly all available locations in 
large and small cities alike are now fully occupied.. Prob- 
ably 60 per cent, of our cities have already too much 
mileage for profitable operation, and attempts to occupy 
additional streets, would, in almost all cases, lead to little 
increase in the total volume of traffic, but rather to a 
division of earnings and increase of total operating ex- 
penses such that competition might easily mean 
the breaking down of both competing systems. The 
attention of promoters is now given largely to inter- 
urban lines, and it is probable that in some cases fran- 
chises are being secured, with the idea of compelling 
their purchase by steam railroad companies to avoid 
electric railway competition. Many of these projects 
cannot hope to be self-supporting, as they contemplate 
the construction of too many miles of road to serve too 
few people. 

* * * * 

There are still nearly two thousand miles of horse 
railways awaiting conversion to electricity, and there is 
yet much to be done in replacing early and imper- 
fect types of apparatus and material with the latest and 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



25 



best. The rail manufacturers will be busy in turning 
out the deep girder rails which have been proved much 
superior to the chair construction of former days; direct 
connected engine generator units will replace the less 
economical belted plants running in many cities; the 
stronger and heavier cars which have been found neces- 
sary through hard experience with the lighter, will be 
largely purchased, and the more powerful, more efficient, 
and more perfectly protected motors will replace those 
which have done good service in their time, but which 
are now incapable of satisfying street railway managers 
under the demands for greater speeds and heavier loads 
which they have helped so largely to create. Altogether 
there is much yet to be done in street railway lines before 
reaching that highest economy in operation which is dili- 
gently sought for by all conscientious managers, and the 
enterprising manufacturer has no reason to feel dis- 
couraged at the general outlook. 



PERHAPS the gravest problems which the manager 
himself will have to meet during the coming year 
are those connected with the difficulties of satisfying the 
public and his stockholders at the same time. A demand 
for a reduction in fares is beginning to be heard here and 
there among our large cities. This is, in general, the 
outcome of political necessities, an "attack upon monop- 
olies" being the war cry of a certain class of demagogues 
who try in this way, and often with success, to win popu- 
lar sympathy and support. In the city of Detroit is 
found to-day almost the only illustration in the United 
States of a street railway system of any importance car- 
rying passengers at rates materially less than five cents, 
viz., at eight tickets for twenty-five cents from 5.30 a. m. 
to 8 p. M., and six tickets for twenty-five cents during the 
remainder of the twenty-four hours. How can they do this 
and prosper? is the question asked by all street railway 
managers who know the difficulties of making a fair profit 

at a five-cent rate. 

^ % ^ ^ 

In the first place, this system has been in operation 
but three months and it is, of course, much too early to 
know from experience at what percentage of the gross 
receipts it can be permanently operated. A large pro- 
portion of the travel has naturally left the older system 
(which still charges a five-cent fare) wherever the lines 
are in competition. The new system occupies streets in 
the very heart of the city radiating in somewhat zigzag 
routes from the business center to points not over three 
miles in any direction. It is, therefore, in the best posi- 
tion to capture the short distance riding and is not bur- 
dened with the long and thinly settled suburban lines of 
the older company. Again, its contract with the city 
expressly relieves the company from any expense for 
maintenance of pavements or for their first cost, except so 
far as pavements are disturbed by their original construc- 
tion or repairs of track. The city even bears the ex- 
pense of laying a foundation of six inches of concrete 
below the company's ties in streets which are unpaved 
at the time when the ties are laid. (Compare such a 
contract with that under which the Philadelphia com- 
panies, for example, are operating. They are obliged, in 
consideration of their electric franchises, to pave from 
curb to curb all the streets through which their tracks 
run, at an average cost of perhaps $50,000 per mile, and 
to maintain this pavement in perpetuity). Again, the 
new Detroit company is relieved of all taxation, except 



the usual taxation on real estate and personal property. 
Under all these favorable conditions it is not impossible 
that, if present conditions continue^ the new company may 
earn a reasonable return upon its actual net investment, 
especially, as it has had the advantage of purchasing 
the most modern plant and equipment of every kind at 
the lowest prices which have ruled for years. 

* * * * 

Suppose, however, that present conditions do not 
continue. Suppose that the older company, finding its 
traffic gone, decides, as it must almost inevitably do, to 
reduce its fares to those of its new competitor. What will 
happen then ? What ca)i happen other than that the old 
company — being in possession of the best streets, and 
being able to give longer rides than the newer — will win 
back its lost traffic so that the new company's cars will, 
in turn, be empty. The immediate and inevitable result 
will, therefore, be that both companies will operate at a 
loss, the new company, because it has lost its traffic, and 
the old company, because it cannot, burdened as it is, 
carry its passengers at a three-cent fare with profit. 
There will doubtless be some increase in the total num- 
ber of street railway riders in the city, due to the reduc- 
tion in fares, but in all probability this increase will fall 
far short of an ^.moMwX. per car mile sufficient to leave a fair 
margin over operating expenses. The inevitable outcome 
of such a condition of affairs is financial disaster to both 
systems similar to that which overtakes railroad corpora- 
tions when competition leads to a war of rates. The im- 
possibility of avoiding such an outcome may be more 
clearly seen, perhaps, by noting the fact that this exten- 
sive parallelling of the older system by the newer really 
means overbuilding of the city's street railway mileage 
since there can be no traffic necessity for operating par- 
allel lines so close together. If, then, it is found difficult 
for corporations which have inherited, through various 
consolidations, a large amount of useless mileage, to re- 
main solvent when fares are at a five-cent rate, how much 
more difficult must it be when fares are but three-fifths 
of that amount, and what must be the inevitable result 
to the people at large of such a cut-throat competition but 
some form of armed truce finally declared between the 
competitors which shall mean a general deterioration of 
service in an attempt to bring some sort of financial sol- 
vency out of disaster ? 

* ^ ^ ^ 

If such a melancholy state of affairs were confined 
to a single city only, the two combatants might well be 
left to fight the matter out to their own satisfaction. But 
a serious, and indeed alarming condition threatens the 
street railway industry to-day in more than one city. 
The Detroit example is already being cited as worthy of 
imitation — a cry for three-cent fares is being raised — 
and under guise of public benefactors, syndicates are 
trying to push competing systems into a number of our 
larger cities, some of which already have more mileage 
now than can be profitably supported, and are seeking 
franchises similar in terms to those of Detroit. Their 
arguments are specious and plausible. They will un- 
doubtedly succeed in more than one city, and this will 
certainly be the case if the present companies pursue an 
illiberal policy towards the public, or refuse improve- 
ments of service and the reasonable demands of their 
patrons, and if they do not, in addition, prepare them- 
selves to educate the taxpayers and the people as to the 
real meaning of the franchises asked for. The three-cent 



26 

fare, without taxation of franchises, is a burden on the 
taxpayer, since his contributions to the city treasury 
must be larger, if they are not reinforced by contribu- 
tions from the street railway corporations. An appeal to 
the fairness and justice of the people should be made, 
however difficult it may be to obtain justice for what 
are popularly supposed to be "grinding monopolies." If 
the deliberate purpose of a municipality were the wreck- 
ing of all the street railwaj' interests within its borders 
to the end of purchasing the lines at its own valuation, 
this purpose could hardly be better accomplished than 
by the granting of franchises to competing corporations, 
in much the same way as has been done in Detroit. The 
problem of meeting such tactics as are possibly to be 
used in this field is serious indeed, but it is not improb- 
able, fortunately, that it will in most cases be solved by 
the refusal of bankers to place their money in such pre- 
carious investments. 



THE difficulties of making power station tests, or of 
keeping power station records, so as to show the 
exact relation between the coal pile and the current 
supplied to the overhead line, are considerable. The 
practical manager is often confronted with the fact that 
there is a considerable loss somewhere between the two 
points, based on the published records of other stations 
operating similar roads. Or, perhaps, he does not know 
whether any such difficulty exists, but is anxious to know 
whether his station is operating under the most econom- 
ical conditions. The common method of calculating the 
electrical output by means of volt and ampere readings 
every five or ten minutes, or less frequently, can hardly 
be said to throw much light on the problem, as, owing to 
the rapidly fluctuating loads, the output thus obtained 
is apt to differ greatly from the true value. Just what 
the error is is hard to say, but in many cases it might 
easily vary from lo to 30 per cent., or more, from the 
correct amount. When there is any suspicion of ineffi- 
cient operation of station or line, the electrical output 
of the station is, of course, the first factor to determine, 
as its relation to the coal consumption will tell the 
investigator whether the loss occurs in the station or 
outside. As ampere and voltmeter readings can hardly 
be depended upon, we must fall back upon the watt- 
meter, and here it may be said that this instrument is 
coming to be regarded by many engineers as an almost 
indispensable adjunct of a power station, as it furnishes 
a permanent and continuous record of the energy dis- 
tributed to the feeders. The commercial wattmeters are 
made sufficiently accurate for practical purposes, and a 
careful record of their readings will often tell more than 
can be obtained in any other way. The following table, 
based on Dr. Emery's figures upon coal consumption of 
different types of engines, will give an approximate idea 
of the maximum amount of coal which should be con- 
sumed per kilowatt generated, as shown by the watt- 
meter. In this table the engine loss in the first case is 
estimated at 15 per cent., and in each of the other three 
cases at 10 per cent, of the indicated horse power. The 
generator loss is figured at 5 per cent, in each case. An 
addition of 30 per cent, is made for maximum economical 
figures, owing to fluctuations of load, except in the case 
of the triple expansion engine, where the allowance is 20 
per cent. If the amount of coal consumed should be 
much above these figures, it will show that there is some 



[Vol. XII. No. 1. 
loss of economy, either in the generators, engines or 



boilers : 

Lbs. coal per 
kilowatt output. 

Simple high speed, non-condensing 6.3 to 8.2 

Compound high speed, condensing 3.6 to 4.7 

Compound low speed, condensing 3.25 to 4.25 

Triple expansion, condensing 2.7 to 3.25 

V -i* 



The proper course to follow next would naturally be 
indication of the engines to determme the amount of 
power delivered to them. Owing to the rapidly fluctuat- 
ing loads which prevail in railway work, however, it is 
extiemely difficult to get any satisfactory results from 
such a proceeding. The ideal indicator for an electric 
railway engine would be one which would give an aver- 
age card or other indication of average power for a cer- 
tain length of time. Such an instrument would be a most 
desirable one, and an inventor who will design it will re- 
ceive the thanks of street railway, and other engineers. 
But with no such means at hand we must do the next 
best thing. This will be either to determine by observa- 
tion, so far as may be possible, the source of trouble, or 
to make a test under conditions which admit of a fairly 
constant load. This can best be accomplished at night 
when the current is not required for the operation of the 
road, and by means of a water rheostat. The construc- 
tion of the latter need not be very complicated, the chief 
point to bear in mind being the necessity of plenty of 
pole surface and a sufficiently rapid circulation and sup- 
ply of water to prevent the sudden evaporation of the 
water. 



Executive Committee Meeting A. S. R. A. at St. 

Louis. 



A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Ameri- 
can Street Railway Association was called by President 
Littell to be held at St. Louis on December 9th. 

The Committee laid out the work for the coming 
convention in St. Louis, selecting the Southern Hotel as 
the official headquarters of the convention, and selecting 
the Olympic Theater, which is directly across the street 
from the hotel, as a place for the meetings. The exhi- 
bition hall has not yet been chosen but will be in the near 
future. The Committee also ddecided upon the follow- 
ing subjects for papers to be presented to the convention 
by the gentlemen named, if their services can be secured. 

A paper on track joints, roadbed construction, main- 
tenance of track and bonding, by M. K. Bowen, of 
Chicago. 

A paper on the selection and management of em- 
ployes, by W. F. Kelly, of Columbus, O. 

A paper on modern overhead electric construci ion, 
by J. R. Chapman, of Chicago. 

A paper on the modern electric railway power house, 
by Richard McCulloch, of St. Louis. 

A paper on methods of increasing the revenue of 
street railway companies, taking into account the collec- 
tion of fares, the selection of suitable registers, the use 
of transfers, and the adoption of tickets, together with 
special attractions for travel, by C. D. Wyman, of Mil- 
waukee. 

A paper on motor trucks, by John N. Akarman, of 
Worcester. 

The local committee are straining every nerve to 
make the convention the most pleasant and profitable 
ever held. Those who intend to be present at the con- 
vention are urged by the secretary to secure hotel accom- 
modations at the earliest possible moment, as Mr. Lewis, 
the manager of the Southern, will make reservations for 
all who may apply. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



January, 1896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY PRACTICE IN THE UNITED STATES. 



27 



In the bustle and confusion of a rapidly growing in- 
dustry, when inventions, new discoveries and applications 
follow close upon the heels of others only recently in 
good repute — when busy brains and skilful hands are at 
work upon the thousand and one problems which are 
brought up with every new conquest made — when all is 
strife and eagerness and emulation — men do not stop to 
ask themselves, "What have we accomplished ?" or 
" Whither are we drifting?" They say instead, " This one 
step must be taken or our rivals win." 

So it has been, and even yet is, in electric railroad- 
ing. Few things are perfect, few can be called standard. 
In spite of all that has been done in these last ten years, 
in spite of the fact that within the last five years not less 





FIG. 1.— 10>^ INCH, -112 LB. 
SECTION— LITTLE USED. 



FIG. 2.-9 INCH SECTION. 





the United States that this article is written. It is a 
mere truism to say that we are leading the world in this 
particular branch of engineering. Our pre-eminence in 
practical results is ungrudgingly conceded by those of 
our foreign friends who do not fail, at the same time, to 
rightly criticise many of the crudities which are found 
in our work, and which they have determined quite as 
properly to avoid. They are profiting by our experience, 
just as many of our own street railway companies have 
profited by the experience of the pioneers in the indus- 
try, and if these pioneers, when taunted with the imper- 
fections of their earlier work, retort, as they often can, 
with a wise smile of satisfaction, that " pioneers some- 
times make money enough by their pioneer work to pay 



ei 





FIG. 3- 



-83/ INCH, 93 LB, 
SECTION. 



FIG. 4.— 8>/ INCH SECTION 




s- 



FIG. 5.-8^ INCH, 94 LB 
SEMI-GROOVED RAIL. 



FIG. 6.— 7j-V INCH, 85 LE 
SECTION. 



than 1,500,000 horse power on electrical machinery has 
been manufactured for railway purposes, the field is 
broadening with every day's new life, the horizon is ever 
receding as we press forward, and few can assume to un- 
derstand how far we shall have to go before we exhaust 
the infinite applications in the science of transportation 
where electricity is to find its mission. 

And yet it is well in the midst of the turmoil and 
agitation of a busy life to pause occasionally and take a 
broad and calm survey of our field of effort from a high- 
er point of view — to see if we can distinguish just where 
our work is dovetailing on to the larger structure — to 
get a measure of what has been done, and to determine, 
so far as our wisdom will permit, in what direction our 
next efforts should be turned for the greatest individual 
and general profit. It is with the hope of taking some 
such general survey of the field of electric railroading in 



for improvements," it only goes to 
show that there are two sides to 
every question, and that farsight- 
edness is often as profitable as con- 
serj^atism. 

In the following pages an at- 
tempt will be made to sift out 
from the mass of conflicting prac- 
tice to be found actually in exis- 
tence in the United States that 
which is__ modern and approved 
from that . which is past and obso- 
lete. In other words, the question 
of how street railways would be 
built to-day, if the work could be 
d one de novo, will be taken up in 
detail, and in some cases proba- 
bilities as to future improvements 
not yet fully recognized as possi- 
ble or desirable will be pointed out. 

THE OVERHEAD WIRE SYSTEM. 

The overhead wire system is the only one which 
has proven entirely adequate and satisfactory in the 
varying conditions found in American cities. This 
system alone has withstood the severest storms of the 
North, and the dry and gritty sands and salt, moist breezes 
of the Gulf States. This system alone possesses that al- 
most infinite power of adaptation and flexibility which 
has enabled it to handle the enormous traffic of our great 
city thoroughfares as efficiently as that in the barren 
wastes of "real estate" in the suburbs, or that of hio-h 
speed rapid transit lines between cities and towns The 
overhead wire system has its faults, and is quite as often 
cursed with bad management as blessed with good but 
against all difficulties and obstacles thrown in its way it 
has triumphed and has won a place in popular regard' 



IG. 7.-7 INCH, T SEC- 
TION. 



28 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. i. 




FIG. 8.— DETROIT ROADBED, WITH METAL TIES. 





Street Railway Journal 



FIG. 9.— PHILADELPHIA ROADBED. 




GRAVEL 4- DEEP- 



Ct PRtSS HLAfjKIN'; 



1 TI-yCK 



FIG 11 —NEW ORLEANS ROADBED. 



-9-6Ji- 



-f4-8M- 



1^ 



FIG, 12.— CHICAGO ROADBED. 1895 











BQQ \UBB \ 




1 




q3 ED cii till 



FIG. 13.— CHICAGO ROADBED. 













1 ill 


1 Brich 

Is' 












ROADBED. 



which makes it certain that 
it will never be displaced 
by any other system offer- 
ing less conveniences or a 
poorer service to the public 

ROADBED CONSTRUCTION. 

The old horse railway 
track construction, with its 
fiat, sidebearing rails spiked 
down to longitudinal string- 
ers, has gone by forever. In 
its place have come forms 
of construction which al- 
most equal in solidity the 
standard roadway construc- 
tion of our best steam rail- 
roads. It is not to be ex- 
pected, however, that the 
working life of any city 
track and roadbed will be as 
great in years as that of 
steam railroads, since the 
traffic conditions have 
come to be far more severe 
than those found on any 
save, perhaps, the most 
heavily traveled steam 
roads. It is a serious matter 
to run electric motor cars 
over a deep, narrow rail 
every thirty seconds and 
to sandwich vehicles in be- 
tween cars — far more seri- 
ous than to run passenger 
or freight trains over a 
stout, thick rail every ten, 
fifteen or twenty minutes. 
Nevertheless, with the latest 
and best forms of street 
railway track construction, 
we are confidently looking 
for a life of at least eight or 
ten years before complete 
renewals will become nec- 
essary through pounding 
down of joints, rotting of 
ties or wearing away of the 
head of the rail. 

The use of concrete as 
a substructure for track 
construction is not as gen- 
eral in America as abroad, 
although in the principal 
cities of Canada and a few 
in the United States it has 
been used with excellent 
results, giving much greater 
solidity and permanency to 
the track than where the 
foundation is the natural 
dirt, gravel or clay. 

Wooden ties are rea- 
sonably plentiful and cheap 
in the United States, and 
are generally used instead 
of metal ties, which, how- 
ever, have been recently adopted in Detroit, Terre 
Haute and a few other cities, chiefly in the West. The 
ties are usually placed close together, rarely exceeding 
two foot, or two and a half foot centers. Creosote and 
other preservative compounds are rarely used, it being 
the general opinion that the life of the tie will be at 
least as long as that of the rail, but not of double 
length, so that in relaying roadbed it would not be advis- 
able to put new rails on old ties, even if the latter 
were in fairly good condition. Gravel or broken stone is 
the usual ballasting material employed, the latter being 
more generally used in interurban lines and the former 
in the city streets, where the street foundations are well 
packed together and reasonably solid. 



Earth 



a 



mm^W 



' liailway Journal 



-30— 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



29 



The manufacture of girder rails for street railway 
purposes has become an enormous industry in the United 
States within the past six or seven years. It is estimated 
that the output of all our mills has, in the last ten years, 
amounted to nearly or quite 1,000,000 gross tons, and the 
present annual product is over 160,000 tons. Originally, 
there were several patented processes of making these 
rails, and the cost was placed considerably above the 
price of ordinary steel T rails, but within the last five 
years the price has dropped, until purchases can now be 
made at substantially T rail prices. 

RAIL SECTIONS. 

Figs. I to 7 illustrate a few of the sections of rails 
most largely rolled by our principal manufacturers. 
Only two or three years ago, six and seven inch rails, 
weighing sixty to seventy pounds to the yard, were con- 
sidered heavy and were the accepted practice even in the 
larger cities. These rails were generally mounted on 




FIG 15.— STANDARD TWELVE BOLT CHANNEL JOINT. 



chairs, in order to reach the ties placed just underneath 
the paving blocks, the latter being generally cut from 
seven to nine inches deep. To-day, however, chair con- 
struction is entirely abandoned. Chairs were found too 
weak to withstand the heavy traffic, particularly at the 
joints, which were rapidly battered down in most cases, 
so that they could be " felt" by the cars after a compara- 
tively short period oi service. Substantially all the new 
construction to-day is with the rails spiked directly to the 
ties, the height of the rail depending upon the dimensions 
of the paving blocks. The greater part of the purchases 
are of eight and one-half to nine inch, deep girder rails, 
weighing eighty-five to ninety-five pounds to the yard, 
but in the smaller towns six, seven and eight inch rails 
are often purchased, the weight varying from sixty to 
eighty pounds per yard. Fig. 3. shows an 83^ inch, 
ninety-three pound rail, recently designed for metro- 




FIG 18.— MANGANESE STEEL FROG. 



politan traffic of an unusually severe type, and which 
is believed to be adapted for the heaviest character of 
work found in American cities. Fig. 4 is a rail with 
stiff and well designed channel joints. Fig. 5 is the 
Buffalo " self-cleaning " grooved rail. But Figs. 2 and 
3 are more generally popular. Fig. i shows a ten inch 
rail, of which a little only has yet been rolled, and repre- 
sents an extreme in the desire for great depth and 
strength. Fig. 7 represents a seven inch T rail, of which 
quite a little is being used, particularly in Western cities. 
It goes without saying that T rail sections are preferred 



by street railway managers in all cases where the neces- 
sary permission can be obtained from municipalities, and 
the latter are coming to recognize the fact that it is quite 
possible to so pave to the T rail that there is no difficulty 
with the vehicular traffic in turning out of the tracks, and 
that the burden of this character of traffic should properly 
be borne by the pavement and not by the rail. 

JOINTS. 

The joint, of course, plays a very important part in 
the construction of a durable track. The best practice 
now is to lay rails close together, allowing no space 
whatever for expansion or contraction, upon the theory 
that the rail is so thoroughly protected by the pavement 
against changes of temperature that there is very little 




FIG. lo.-CASE HARDENED STEEL PLATE IN FROG. 



necessity for making such an allowance. Occasionally, 
however, a small space is left between rails every 250 or 
500 ft. Some managers even go so far as to put in shims 
of rail sections in cases where rails have been laid in 
summer and contracted so as to leave spaces between 
successive rails in winter. A great deal of wear at the 
joints has been obviated by thus butting the rails firmly 
together, and it is believed that the life of the joints has 
been substantially lengthened merely by this practice 
alone. 

Apart from this, however, the joints have been 
strengthened by the more general adoption of longer 
joint plates, and eight and twelve bolt joints, from twen- 
ty-eight to thirty-six inches in length, are the best prac- 
tice to-day. It is difficult to see how there can be any 




FIG. 17.— INTEGRAL SPECIAL WORK. 



serious trouble with such joints, for example, as those of 
Fig. 15. Several special forms of joint have also been 
devised for street railway as well as for steam railway 
use. Very good results have been had with these, if 
we can properly speak of the experience of two or three 
years as " results." 

Substantial progress has been made in electric weld- 
ing of joints, and it is believed that this will eventually 
become one of the best melhods of joining track together, 
doing away as it does with the use of bolts and all their 
attending difficulties, and insuring a better electrical 



3° 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



connection of rail to rail than can probably be obtained by 
other methods. A process called "cast welding " has 
also been put in practice, and appears to have many ex- 
cellent characteristics. If longer experience does not 
bring out unexpected difficulties its use will probably be 
largely extended. In Cleveland riveted joints have been 
used with good results. 

SPECIAL WORK. 

The extensive and widely ramified street railway 
systems of our principal cities make necessary exceed- 
ingly complicated curves, switches, crossovers and turn- 
outs, which are generically termed " special work " and 
which have been the subject of most careful study and 
research in engineering and metallurgical circles. Most 
of the large sys- 
tems have an en- 
gineering depart- 
ment in which are 
kept carefully pre- 
pared drawings 
showing the details 
of every piece of 
special work on the 
lines, each piece 
being numbered. 
Duplicates of these 
drawings are kept 
at the different roll- 
ing mills, and the 
parts may be or- 
dered by telegraph 
if necessary, with 
the certainty of 
getting the proper 
castings or forg- 
ings at short notice. 

There has been a 
great deal of diffi- 
culty with special 
work in securing a 
reasonable life at 
those places where 
there is a veryheavy 
and frequent traffic 
— where, for exam- 
ple, as is often the 
case, cars pass over 
a particular switch 
or turnout every 
fifteen or twenty 
seconds during the 
businessday. To ob- 
viate this trouble 
has been a serious 
problem with track 

engineers and metallurgists. One prominent rolling mill 
has adopted a case hardened steel plate let in at the 
switch points in the frog, and secured in place by zinc 
cast around the plate. Another company uses mangan- 
ese steels in building its frogs; and all the prominent 
companies are strengthening their frogs in some such 
ways at the switch points, where the blow of the leav- 
ing and entering wheels is most severe and destructive. 
It is yet too early to determine just which of these pro- 
cesses is the best, or if any are entirely satisfactory. 
They are certainly steps in the right direction from the 
point of view of the rail maker, although there is some 
question, perhaps, if this specially hardened iron will not 
act as a destructive tool upon street car wheels, thereby 
reducing their life materially and possibly causing acci- 
dents even more serious than the mere shortening of the 
track or wheel life. 

RETURN CIRCUIT. 

Closely connected with the track construction of 
electric railways is the question of the use of the rails as 
a return circuit. The general practice in America, and 
one which is borne out by long experience, is that the re- 
turn current should be confined as closely to the rails as 




Streel Rallwaj/ Journal 



HG. 19— DOUBLE BRACKET IRON POLE. 



possible, little being allowed to find its way back to the 
station through the earth, water pipes or other extrane- 
ous channels. The joint plates themselves, particularly 
where secured to the rail by bolts and nuts, cannot be 
relied upon to transmit the current to the best advantage, 
on account of the difficulty of obtaining and keeping 
good contacts between the rails and the bolts. With 
electric welding or cast welding, this difficulty is obvia- 
ted, as has already been stated; but the usual plan, where 
other forms of joints are adopted, is to supplement the 
carrying power of the joint plates by bond wires of suf- 
ficient section to take care of the current going through 
the track. Many different forms of track bonds have been 
devised for this purpose. Copper is almost universally 
used, on account of its greater conductivity, although the 
difficulties in avoiding electrolysis are somewhat greater 
than where metals of the same kind, such as galvanized 
iron, are used. The principal feature aimed at in the de- 
sign of these bonds is to obtain a water tight joint be- 
tween rail and bond, and hence the joint should be elec- 
trically the best possible. These objects are fairly well 
attained in a half-dozen types now on the market, and 
extremely well attained in one or two. The use of 
special waterproofing paint is desirable in order to pre- 
vent moisture from reaching the joints between bonds 
and rail, and a special paint of this kind is largely 
adopted. Double bonding is usual, and the running of 
track or return feeders on poles to various points where 
heavy currents are carried in the track is coming to be 
more generally regarded as a necessity than was once the 
case, particularly because of occasional troubles found in 
electrolytic action upon water and gas pipes where these 
heavy currents tend to leave the track and take to the 
pipes below. This problem of electrolysis has been most 
carefully studied by competent and able engineers, whose 
conclusions are, in general, that no differences of poten- 
tial must be allowed between the track and water or gas 
pipes, and if such differences are found, the pipes and 
the track must be tied together, and if necessary a 
special feeder run from the negative bus bar so as to 
draw off the current through a better conductor than 
either track or pipes. It is especially necessary to 
guard the pipes in the area near the power station, where 
the heaviest currents occur. 

OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION. 

For city streets, neat and simple tubular and lattice 
work poles have been designed to support the span wires. 
These poles are strong and durable — more so, undoubt- 




FI6, 20— BRACKET FOR IRON POLE. 



edly, than wooden poles, so that there is possibly even a 
sufficient inducement in the matter of first cost and cost 
of renewals to warrant their adoption as against wooden 
poles, though the latter are still largely used in the 



January, 1896.] 



STREE-T RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



31 



suburbs and on interurban lines. On boulevards, in 
parkways and on special "reservations " in the centers of 
many of our finest streets a neat center pole construction 
is frequently found which almost entirely does away with 
the sentimental objections to the overhead construction 
of the electric system. Bracket construction is used 
where the track passes along the sides of the streets on 
country roads, but the length of the brackets is rarely al- 
lowed to exceed five or six feet, it being the belief of 
American engineers that long brackets extending well 
into the streets are much more unsightly than is the regu- 
lar span wire construction. In a few instances where 
buildings are near the sidewalks " rosettes " are fastened 
firmly into the brick work and carry the span wires, the 
use of poles being thus made unnecessary. Property 
owners sometimes prefer this form of construction. 




FIG. 21.— SECTION INSULATOR, 




FIG 22— SECTION INSULATOR. 

The span wires are generally of steel or iron cable of 
great strength for their diameter, which ranges from one- 
fourth to three-eighths inch. Trolley wires are almost 
universally No. o B. & S. hard drawn copper wire 0.325 
inch in diameter. Guard wires were originally used 
quite largely to prevent trouble from falling telephone or 
electric light wires, but they are a great eyesore and have 
been found in so many instances to be useless for the pur- 
poses intended that they are rarely put up at the present 
time. 

The largest solid wire which can be handled to ad- 
vantage by construction gangs is No. 0000. This is 
used in the smaller towns, a number of feeders being 
frequently put up, of course, to provide for the proper 
maintenance of pc>tential in all parts of the line. In 
large cities, however, where overhead feed wires are 
permitted, large and well insulated cables are used 
instead of solid wire, the two sizes most frequently em- 
ployed having a sectional copper area of 500,000 c. m. 
and 1,000,000 c. M. 

The inventive skill and ingenuity which is a well 
known American characteristic has rarely brought about 
better results than in the design and manufacture of the 
overhead line appliances most generally used to-day. 
The early appliances were comparatively crude, flimsy 
and imperfect, and much of the opposition found to the 
introduction of the overhead electric system in various 
cities has been due to unfortunate experiences elsewhere 
with falling wires caused by poor constructive methods. 
To-day it is a rare thing to hear of any accidents in the 
streets from any part of the overhead system. The trol- 
leys show almost no sparking at points of support. They 
take their switches accurately, and the conductors can 
give almost their entire attention to the collection of fares 
instead of to watching the trolley, as used to be fre- 
quently necessary. 

The general principles on which the best overhead 
material is made and the entire structure is erected are 
the following: 

1. — All hangers, switches and other appliances con- 
nected with the trolley wire are supported by the span 
wires as near as possible at the line of the trolley wire. 
Originally this support was several inches above. 

2. — The bending or kinking of the trolley wire in 
appliances is avoided, together with any method of sup- 



port which tends to put sharp and sudden bends in the 
wire in service. 

3. — The strains from service are taken l)y the metal 
parts of the appliances, not by the insulation. 

4 — Frogs, cross-overs, circuit breakers, etc., are so 
constructed that the trolley runs over them smoothly, 
without being obliged to dip and return to wire, as was 
the case with some of the earlier appliances. 

5. — The materials used are strong and serviceable, 
the metal being usually of I)ronze, or, in the cheaper ap- 
pliances, malleable iron, while insulation has been made 
which combines excellent insulating qualities with great 
resistance to breakage in any direction, or by sudden 
blows such as sometimes come from the trolley. 

6. --The wires are so put up as to have several insulat- 
ing points between trolley wire and ground, the first 

being usually the trolley wire 
hanger itself, the second one or 
more strain insulators in the span 
wires, and the third the insulation 
of the pole tops by a wooden plug 
from the lower portions of the 
poles. 

7. — The curve construction is 
much less objectionable than was 
originally the case, owing to a bet- 
ter understanding of the different 
problems involved. 

8. — Almost all street railway 
systems of any size are sectional- 
ized, so that trouble with the over- 
head system on one section will 
not interfere with the operation of 
cars upon all the others. The 
feeders leading to these sections 

are provided with fuses or circuit breakers at the 
staion,t so that a falling trolley wire will instantly 
break the circuit, and the wires from that section will 
become " dead " until the arrival of the emergency wagon. 
Moreover, in case of fire it is possible for the firemen to 
tear down the overhead structure and handle the wires 
thereafter without fear of -shocks. This system of put- 
ting up the wires has done away with some of the most 
serious objections originally urged against the overhead 
electric system. 




FIG, 23— DOUBLE PULL-OFF. 



FIG. 



24.— CAR HOUSE 
INSULATOR. 



A few of the devices which have been found of prac- 
tical value for overhead work are illustrated herewith. 

UNDERGROUND FEEDER WORK. 

In several of the larger cities, the authorities have 
required the burial of the railway feeders in common 
with electric light, telephone, telegraph wires, etc. In 
the principal business streets the railway feeders have 
usually been placed in separate conduits, as the fluctua- 
tions of current tend to interfere seriously with the tele- 
graph and telephone service. Illustrations are given of 
the conduit system used in Philadelphia. The wires are 
drawn in through terra cotta ducts with three inch bore, 
these ducts being laid in tiers. The broken joints and 
manholes are located about every 400 ft. for straight 
work, and at the terminus of every tangent. Each duct 
contains one feeder wire. 

POWER STATIONS. 

Our street railway power stations are built in all 
grades, from the wooden shanty of a "ramshackle" real 



32 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 




FIG. 25.— TROLLEY WIRE HANGER. FIG 27.— TROLLEY W'RE CONNECTOR EAR. 




FIG. 33.— TROLLEY WIRE EAR. 




FIG. 35,-STRAIGHT UNDER-RUNNING SWITCH FIG. 36.-TROLLEY WIRE INSULATOR. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 33 



January, 1896. 

estate line to the architecturally excellent office builclintr 
and power station combined, which is frequently found in 
the business centers of large cities. There have Ijeen, as a 
matter of course, a good many mistakes made in design 
and construction during the tentative period of electric 
railroading, and many millions of dollars must be ex- 
pended before these mistakes are remedied. It is true, 
however, that many things, which in the light of our 
present knowledge we may regard as engineering blunders, 
were really forced upon their authors by the neces- 
sities of dealing with the material at hand, instead of 
that which was to be a development of a later period. 




SECTION ON A B 



Kailinuj Joiirnnl 

FIG. 37.— CROSS SECTION OF MANHOLE, UNDERGROUND 
FEEDER CONDUITS. 

For example, in the enormous power station of the West 
End road, of Boston, may be found a series of dynamos 
and engines which seem small to us now, but which were 
the largest of their kind when originally put in, and 
some of which were, in fact, designed especially for this 
station in an efTort to get larger units than had ever before 
been built. All these machines are to be soon superseded 
by the great direct connected units which are our present 
standards. * 



and small plants, and the unwisdom of buying cheap en- 
gines, " local " boilers and experimental dynamos has 
been so often demonstrated that good work is now the 
rule rather than the exception. 

BOILERS. 

Among the various special types of boilers found in 
railway service the water tube boilers are more generally 
popular than others, although their use is by no means 
universal and many excellent and economical plants, par- 
ticularly in the smaller towns, are found equipped with 
return tubular and other boilers. Every effort is being 
made to burn fuel to the best advantage by the use of 
special grates, mechanical stokers, fuel economizers, etc., 
and much attention is paid in the boiler rooms, also, to 
the saving of labor by the use of coal conveyors and 
other specialties called for by local conditions. In other 
words, the boiler room is made as nearly mechanically 
automatic, particularly in the large plants, as is possible, 
manual labor being reduced to a minimum. Oil is occa- 
sionally, but not often used, the supply of oil having 
now been cut down to a point where there is usually 
little if any advantage over coal. 

Excellent forms of boiler rooms have been frequently 
shown in the current issues of the Street Railway 
Journal, one of the most modern and best being illus- 
trated on page 5 of this issue. 

A Rip Van Winkle of only five years' sleep would 
rub his eyes in amazement, on waking to-day, to see the 
difference between the engine rooms of 1895 and those of 
1890. In the year last named, he would have seen high 
speed engines, belts, jackshafts, countershafts and 100 or 
200 H. p. generators. Now he finds, almost everywhere, 
direct connected units. There are many belted plants, 
it is true, which have not yet been changed over to the 
more modern types. There are a few small roads which 
might even now decide wisely to put in belted plants 
where the total station output is small, where real estate 
is cheap and where the difference in expense is a serious 
item to the builders. There are a few large plants, also, 
which are purchasing belted units instead of direct con- 
nected, for uniformity's sake, their present plants being 
of large and well designed engines belted to large dyna- 
mos — both far too economical to be thrown away or 
exchanged at a serious loss. But the great engine 
builders and electric manufacturing companies have be- 
come firmly convinced of the essential economy of direct 
connected units, and are building machines in sizes of 
from 100 K. w. to 1,500 K. w. — of from 135 h. p. to 2,000 h. p. 

Perhaps the greater number of engines for this char- 
acter of work are of the horizontal type, but there are 
not a few triple expansion, vertical, " marine" engines 
whose work is of the best, but whose cost is consider- 
ably larger than that of the horizontal types. 



TABLE SHOWING PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIRECT CONNECTED ENGINE GENERATORS. 



Speed. 
R. I'. M. 


ENGINtS. 


Weight 
per 
H. P. 


H. P. 

per 
Sq. Ft. 




DYNAMOS. 


Cylinder. 


WpIGHT. 


Floor 
> pace. 

Sq. Ft. 


Weight 

oer 
Sq. Ft. 

Lbs. 


No. 

of 
Pules. 


Weight. 


Floor 
Space. 

Sq. Ft. 


Weight 

per 
Sq. Ft. 


Weight 

per 
E. H.P. 


E. 
H. P. 

per 
Sq Ft. 


Dia- 
meters. 
In. 


Stroke. 
In. 


Engine. 
(Total; 
Lbs. 


Flv 
Wheel. 
Lbs. 


Total. 
Lb=. 


Arma- 
ture. 
Lbs. 


120 


14-26 


36 


90,000 


25,00 J 


485 


186 


353 


.526 




6 


37,000 


14,520 


54 


685 


123 


5-55 


100 


16-30 


42 


120,000 


30,000 


520 


231 


353 


.654 




6 


60,400 


20.720 


78 


774 


151 


5-13 


100 


18-34 


42 


135,000 


40,000 


546 


247 


297 


.£33 




8 


71,440 


30, 580 


90 


794 


•34 


5.92 


80 


20-38 


42 


150,000 


50,000 


600 


250 


329 


.758 




8 


74.250 


3^.480 


96 


773 


139 


5-55 


75 
80 


20-38 


48 


180,000 


60,000 


640 


281 


317 


.886 




10 


87.150 


35,800 


95 


917 


131 


7.01 


26-50 


48 


240 000 


85,000 


910 


264 


265 


• 997 




10 


110,000 


49,440 


115 


956 


103 


9-27 


75 


32-62 


60 


450,000 


150,000 


r,386 


3^5 


250 


1,299 




12 


163,200 


73, '00 


144 . 


1,133 


82 


13.90 



Dynamo 
Capacity. 



Kw. 



225 
300 
400 
400 
500 
800 
1500 



Engine 
Capacity. 



H. P. 



255 
340 
455 
455 
567 
907 
1800 



Boiler 
Press- 
ure. 



Lbs. 



125 

125 
125 

•25 

125 
125 

140 



With the enormous dynamos and engines now build- 
ing for electric and steam railway service it is possible 
to build small and compact powder stations which repre- 
sent perhaps the highest practice yet reached in this coun- 
try or abroad in the economical development of electri- 
city for the distribution of power. It is more and more 
generally coming to be understood that the power station 
represents so small a proportion of both the investment 
and operating costs of a street railway plant that no ex- 
pense should be spared to make it the most perfect pos- 
sible in all its appointments. This is true of both large 



The accompanying table shows the practice of one of 
our best engine manufacturers in the matter of weights, 
speeds, diameter and weight of fly-wheel, etc. 

Corliss valves are perhaps most generally used for 
the large units, though gridiron valves and a number 01 
special types are popular and successful, superior econ- 
omy to that even of Corliss valves being claimed in some 
instances. The difficulties originally met with in direct 
connected work on account of sudden fluctuations of load 
are now entirely overcome by proper proportioning of 
fly-wheels. 



34 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XIL No. i. 



The generators are universally of the multipolar 
type, four, six, eight, ten and twelve poles being used, as 
the machines increase in size. The table of direct con- 
nected unit work on page 34 shows the practice of one of 
our largest electrical manufacturing companies in the 
construction of its machines, this being also work to 
which Americans can point with pride as representing the 
highest attainments in electric railways found on either 
side of the water. 

It is hardly probable, perhaps, that larger units than 
those now built will come into general use in surface rail- 
way work pure and simple. For elevated and steam rail- 
zoo, 



90 



60 



70 



en 














so 


sJ 




C 




q; 


4-0 


u 










30 





20 



10 



97 



10 



30 40 50 60 70 eo 90 /OO 
Percen-t of l^ood 
FIG 38.— LFFICIENCY CURVES OF A SLOW SPEED (75 R. P. M.) 
1,500 KW. GENERATOR. 

ways, however, it is not impossible that our builders will 
have to design 3,000, 4,000, 5,000 or even 10,000 h. p. units. 
The latter size would certainly be needed if such a sys- 
tem, for example, as the Pennsylvania lines from New 



building. Thousands of cars have been shipped by one 
or two of our principal manufacturers to Europe, Asia, 
and South America, and have had no equal among the 
cars of foreign build for combined strength, lightness, 
beauty of outline and finish. It is worthy of note, per- 
haps, that during the horse car regime the cars used in 
America were, as a rule, longer than those common in 
foreign countries. This was possibly due to the almost 
universal double horsing of our cars and possibly to some- 
what superior strength of the American breed of horses 
for this character of work, but proper disposition of ma- 
terial and lightness of the car in comparison with the 
clumsy and heavy foreign cars have also had their in- 
tended effect. 

The street car, particularly with cable or electric 
traction, is or should be built on principles quite different 
from those of railroad cars, as the strains and accidents 
to which they are liable in service are of an entirely dif- 
ferent character. Electric cars mounted on single rigid 
or semi-rigid trucks are forced rapidly around sharp 
curves and are twisted and strained in every conceivable 
direction by this work as well as by oscillation, poor 
track and other disturbing influences which are not found 
in railroad service. Collisions with vehicles have to be 
resisted by the sides as well as by the platforms, and so it 
has happened that the principles of coach building have 
been generally followed. Concavo-convex sides are in 
almost universal use, instead of the straight sided boxes 
characteristic of railroad cars. 

The maximum length of the old horse cars was six 
teen feet, though a great many twelve and fourteen foot 
cars were used. To-day, however, even sixteen foot cars 
are too short and are rarely built for electric or cable 
service, although a great many can yet be found, built 
three or four years ago or more. 

Both single and double truck cars are in general use 
throughout the United States, single trucks, however, 
largely preponderating in numbers. Double truck cars are 
well adapted for high speed interurban service. There is, 
of course, no oscillation of the car body, as is almost 
inevitably the case with long single truck cars running 
at high speeds; the cars take curves and switches with 
greater ease; the carrying capacity is greater for the same 
amount of car labor, and in interurban or suburban work 




FIG. 39.— AN 18 FOOT CLOSED CAR, FOR CITY SERVICE. 



York to Philadelphia should ever be operated by elec- 
tricity, as by no means seems impossible in this rapidly 
developing electric age. 

ROLLING STOCK. 

From time immemorial (in street railway history) 
American street cars have been the world's standard for 
excellence of workmanship [.and correct principles of 



the stops are infrequent as compared with the number 
required for service in the crowded city thoroughfares. 
In cities, however, it is coming to be believed that double 
truck cars are not on the whole as profitable as single truck 
cars, though the former still have a few warm advocates. 
The principal difficulty is a commercial one arising from 
the loss of time required in frequent stops and in letting 
passengers off, the distance through which the latter 



January, 1896. J 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



35 



have to crowd their way making longer average stops 
inevitable. It is partly for this reason that the difference 
between electric and horse railway schedules in Boston 
is so small as compared with the experience in other 
cities, since a large proportion of the car equipment of the 
Boston street railway system is of the long cars. More- 
over, there is sometimes not a little difficulty in obtaining 
sufficient traction upon the four driving wheels of eight 
wheeled cars, and it is especially in city work that the 



bridges are mounted on these roofs, so as to distribute 
the strains of the trolley over several of the ribs of the 
car. 

The open cars in general use are built in what is 
perhaps the most elegant and attractive form possible 
for securing the largest amount of pleasure riding in 
summer. With reversible cross seats the general airiness 
and comfort of riding can hardly be surpassed. "Trolley 
parties" have become a favorite form of amusement in 




FIG. 40.— AN EIGHT SEAT OPEN CAR FOR CITY SERVICE. 



greatest possible traction is absolutely necessary. Many 
attempts have been made to overcome by special means 
the traction difficulties, and some manufacturers have 
been more or less successful in doing this by throw- 
ing a large proportion of the total weight of the car 
upon the two driving axles. Some success has also 
been found with a six wheel truck, in which practically 
the entire weight is carried upon two pairs of wheels, 
between which is a third pair which acts to knit together 
the whole structure and serves as a guide around curves. 

For single truck cars eighteen and twenty foot 
bodies (twenty-six and twenty-eight feet over bumpers) 
are in general use, though it has come to be believed by 
conservative manufacturers and managers that an eigh- 
teen foot closed car is about as long a car as should be 
used with a single truck of six and one-half or seven foot 



many cities, while it is an even more common custom to 
" take a ride around the town" in an electric car on 
summer evenings, or to go out in the afternoons to the 
picnic grounds which have been established in so many 
places by street railway companies. 

There is one great difference between American and 
foreign practice in street car building, and that is in the 
matter of roof seats. For some reason or other, double 
decked cars have never been used to any great extent in 
the United States, though a few cars have been built as 
an experiment. It is not quite apparent why this should 
be so. It is possible that high speeds of electric and cable 
cars in America cause more of a feeling of insecurity to 
roof passengers than is pleasant, but it is more probable, 
perhaps, that the great additional strength and weight of 
the cars required where so great roof strength has to be 




FIG. 41.— AN EIGHT WHEEL CAR FOR INTERURBAN SERVICE. 



wheel base. A car body extending ten feet on both sides 
of its axles requires very strong support at the ends to 
prevent " hogging" or depression of the frame, and it 
is almost impossible to avoid oscillation of such a car, 
especially when running at speeds exceeding seven or 
eight miles an hour. 

Car roofs are made with great strength to support 
the weight of the trolley and the strains due to the work 
which it has to perform. " Monitor" or raised roofs with 
side ventilating windows are widely used, and trolley 



provided are such that, together with the additional pas- 
senger loads, the power consumption and motor strains 
have become too great for practical economy. 

Combination passenger and express cars have been 
built quite largely for suburban or interurban traffic, to- 
gether with a few electric freight cars. Electricity has 
done not a little of this character of work in country dis- 
tricts or where a great deal of light trucking or carriage 
of parcels has to be provided for. There has been hardly 
enough experience as yet to determine the profit in freight 



36 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. i. 



and express service, but more and more is being done 
each year. Another kindred branch of service is that of 
the carriage and delivery of mails between the post offices 
and railroad stations in cities, and between the central 
and sub post offices in suburban districts. Many of these 



has carefully graduated his spring strengths, so as to 
have the different springs come into service one after the 
other as the loads increase or with attempted oscillation 
of the car, and claims that by this means such oscillation 
is nearly impossible and the passenger is relieved of all 




FIG. 42.— A COMBINATION PASSENGER AND BAGGAGE CAR FOR RAILROAD SERVICE. 



cars are so built as to provide for the sorting of mails in 
transit as is done with the regular railroad postal service. 

A number of excellent types of electric snow plows 
— powerful and efficient in the heavy storms of the North 
— have also been built for electric railway service. 

The independent motor truck has been proved a ne- 
cessity in electric work. The essential features of the 
best of these trucks are the following: {d) a rigid side 
frame flexibly supported on the axle boxes and serving 
as a spring base for {b) a system of vertical springs sup- 
porting (r) an upper frame, to which the car body is 



jars and tremor due to imperfections in the track. An- 
other builder places a half elliptic spring over the 
journal box and obtains in that place ease and elas- 
ticity. Others build their axle box frame in a single 
piece, thus providing very great simplicity in the struct- 
ure. Axle boxes have been brought to a high degree of 
perfection and give practically no trouble in several of 
the best trucks, and altogether it may be said that the 
motor truck has been developed to a high degree of ex- 
cellence where few repairs and little attention are re- 
quired in operation. 




FIG. 43. -A MAIL CAR FOR CITY SERVICE. 



screwed or bolted, {d) truss bars or rods supporting the 
ends of the car beyond the spring base, {c) cross girders 
for motor support, (/) brakes and brake rigging. 

There are, of course, a multitude of variations in the 
construction of these essential features. Great attention 
in particular has been given to the design of the system 
of springs with a view to obtaining the greatest possible 
flexibility and " easy riding" qualities. For this purpose 
elliptical and semi-elliptical springs have been found in 
some respects superior to coil springs, as the latter, 
with heavily loaded cars, sometimes become practically 
solid through extreme compression. One manufacturer 



Americans have been slow in adopting improved forms 
of braking apparatus, and hand brakes are still in more 
general use than should be the case with the speeds now 
so common in street railroading. Quickness of applica- 
tion is often of immense importance in avoiding loss of 
life or damage to property, and sooner or later the abso- 
lute necessity of employing air, electric or other improved 
braking apparatus will be brought home to every street 
railway manager by sad experience. An air brake sys- 
tem has been devised with special reference to the needs 
of electric motor cars, and electric brakes are also coming 
into use. 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



37 



The material and special processes used by our best 
wheel manufacturers are such that American steam and 
street railway wheels are, it is believed, equal to the best 
in use in any country. Recent tests have shown that 
certain American wheels have been far above the Austro- 
Hungarian, German, French and American (Master Car 
Builders,) requirements. Our best wheel mixtures are 
now so made as to render the chilled portions of the wheel 
hardly distinguishable from the toughest and finest tool 
steel, and the wearing qualities w ith proper care in the use 
of sand have been very greatly increased. It is not impos- 



twenty-five horse power. The reserve power above this 
figure is of course considerably greater. 

The " controllers " are now universally of the series 
multiple type, by means of which the current is first 
passed through both motors of a car in series, and is fin- 
ally, through a number of permutations, sent through the 
motors in multiple so as to produce the greatest effective 
power. Great difficulty was originally found in prevent- 
ing heavy arcing within the controller when the various 
changes of connection were made, but the latest types of 
controllers to which the magnetic blotv-out principle has 





FIG. 44.— A SPECIAL ELECTRIC OBSERVATION CAR, FOR INTERURBAN SERVICE. 



sible to obtain wheels which will, for example, have a life 
of 40,000, 50,000, 60,000 or even 75,000 car miles, a very re- 
markable result considering the severity of street railway 
service. On the other hand, there are a great many poor 
wheels made and there is far too great carelessness on 
the part of street railway managers in selecting and test- 
ing their wheels to procure the best results, the impres- 
sion seeming to be much too common that a " wheel is a 
wheel." 

The long experience of a number of sharply compet- 
ing companies has brought about the evolution of types 
of street railway motors which are giving excellent satis- 
faction in all material respects. The street railway motor 
has a difficult task to perform. It must propel varying 
loads at varying speeds over all kinds of track and 
grades in all kinds of weather, and through street condi- 
tions which impose the most severe burdens upon its 
mechanical construction, as it is beneath the car, where 
mud, water, sand, paving stones and " m.aterial " of all 
kinds are ready to put it at a 
special disadvantage when occa- 
sion offers. 

The latest motors are built 
nearly water and dust proof. 
Their gearing is carefully encased 
and sometimes run in oil; their 
bearings are designed for constant 
and hard service, and their elec- 
trical properties are such that 
with a maximum efficiency of 80 
to 85 per cent, they still have, at 
slightly lower efficiency, an enor- 
mous reserve power in case of 
need. The characteristic curves 
of a leading type of street railway 
motor are shown in the diagram 
on page 39. 

All street railway motors are 
now built multipolar with drum 
armatures. The coils are wound 
on forms and slipped into position 
with great ease. Magnet wire is 

wound on spools which are slipped over the magnets and 
easily fastened into place. The magnets themselves and 
the frame work of the machines are, in the latest types, 
of mild steel, so that weights have been reduced to a min- 
imum. One of the best motors in the field weighs about 
1,250 lbs., and is wound to exert a constant draw bar pull 
of 800 lbs. when running ten miles an hour with a thirty- 
three inch wheel, this effort being equivalent to about 



been adapted are entirely satisfactory and are beautiful 
pieces of mechanism. 

A few words about the miscellaneous appliances and 
devices which have been found useful on street railway 
cars in America may not be out of place. 

The fender problem is one of the most difficult with 
which street railway companies have to contend. Any 
form of fender which is placed upon the car body itself 
necessarily rises and falls wnth the varying loads in the 
car, or with its oscillation, if oscillation is permitted. 
The proper place for the attachment of fenders appears, 
therefore, to be the lower frame of the trucks, since this 
is, except the axles themselves, the most rigid portion of 
the entire car. The difficulties here, however, are almost 
as great, though of a different character. The fender 
problem is by no means solved. One of the simplest 
forms, and one which has, in many cases, prevented seri- 
ous injury is a mere platform extending out in front of 
the car at a height above the pavement such that no 




FIG. 45.— DIRECTORS' PARLOR CAR (ELECTRIC.) 

amount of oscillation or loading down of the car will 
cause the platform to touch the paving stones. 

The question of heating cars in winter is important. 
In most of the Northern cities, especially on interurban 
roads, electric heating is coming into more general use 
and by many is claimed to be satisfactory in spite of its 
greater cost as compared with the direct expense of car 
stoves. Its convenience and the ease with which the 



38 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



heat can be regulated by proper switches certainly com- 
mend electric heating to those who are generating cur- 
rent on a large scale and where coal is not too expensive. 

The lighting of cars is almost entirely by electricity, 
five, ten and sometimes fifteen sixteen-candle power 
lamps being used in cars, making them very brilliant and 
attractive by night. 

Registers are now more generally used than bell 
punches or other devices for checking fares, and great 
ingenuity has been expended in the effort to prevent the 



Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway Company, of 
Chicago, is due the honor of being the first of the larger 
systems to adopt electricity, although lines in Baltimore 
and Hoboken, in which the elevated sections are merely 
details of great surface systems, had previously equipped 
these elevated, as well as the surface lines. The equip- 
ment of the Chicago system is very complete and perfect. 
The engine plant at present consists of two 2,000 h. p. 
and two 1,000 h. p. direct connected ui.its, together with 
twelve 300 H. p. boilers, which work at a pressure of 165 




FIGS. 46 TO 57.-STANDARD INDEPENDENT MOTOR TRUCKS FOR 16, 18 AND 20 FT. CARS. 



improper handling of registers and the retention of 
money by conductors. 

Street car advertising has become a separate indus- 
try, a few firms having secured contracts for nearly all 
the local companies throughout the country. The indis- 
criminate placarding of cars, however, such as is found 
in many English and European cities is never seen here, 
as all the cards are placed in neat racks near the roofs 
inside. 

ELEVATED RAILWAY WORK. 

New York, Chicago and Brooklyn have extensive 
systems of elevated railroads, but outside of these three 
cities few roads are operated above the ground. To the 



lbs. The rolling stock consists of fifty-five motor cars and 
one hundred trail cars, all built in peculiar fashion well 
adapted to the purpose. The motor cars are equipped 
with two motors, each capable of exerting a draw bar 
pull of 2,000 lbs. when mounted on thirty-three inch 
wheels and running at ten miles per hour — this being 
equivalent to 55 h. p. or no h. p. per car. The motor 
cars are designed with tractive force sufficient to pull six 
double truck trail cars. The third rail system and con- 
tact with sliding shoe are employed. 

The success of this road has been such that the other 
elevated lines in Chicago have determined to adopt elec- 
tricity, and their equipment is being rapidly pushed. The 
New York and Brooklyn roads, however, are still holding 
back awaiting further developments and meaning to 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



39 



profit by the experience gained in Chicago, but in all 
probability the equipment of the New York lines will be 
soon commenced, as the competition with the cable and 
electric surface lines below the elevated has reduced the 
latter's receipts to a point where it is difficult to keep up 
dividends on the capital stock. 

STEAM RAILWAY EQUIPMENT. 

Few great advances in the science of electric rail- 
roading have been more important or have excited more 
100 



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FIG. 



30 35 40 45 50 55 CO 

Amperes Input Slruel Railway Ji.uiual 

58.— EFFICIENCY CURVES OF A STREET RAILWAY MOTOR. 



interest among engineers than the building of the 
mammoth ninety-five ton electric locomotives used on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Belt Tunnel in Baltimore. These 
locomotives have been so recently and so fully described 
in the columns of the Journal that a mere outline only 
will here be given of their characteristic features. 

The locomotive has two four-wheel trucks. Four six- 
pole gearless motors, pyramidal in shape, are flexibly 
mounted on the four axles so that all wheels become 
driving wheels, and the utmost possib 
le traction is secured. Each motor is 
rated at 360 h. p. 

This locomotive has done some won- 
derful work in the tests made upon it 
since regular operation was commenced 
in the spring of 1895, and drawbar pulls 
of 60,000 lbs. have been several times 
obtained without apparently reaching, 
by any means, the limit of power 'pos- 
sible to be exerted. 

Current from the power station is 
conveyed to the locomotives through 
an overhead system, the trolley used 
being diamond shaped and contracting 
and expanding as necessity demands, 
with considerable side motion also. 
Sliding contact is used. The overhead 
conductor itself consists of two three- 
inch iron Zbars three-eighths of an inch 
thick, riveted to a cover plate one- 
quarter inch thick and eleven and one- 
half inches wide. It is made in sections 
thirty feet long and weighs about thirty 
pounds per foot. 

In addition to this great installation 
of electrical machinery in Baltimore 
there have been other interesting incur- 
sions made by electricity in the field of steam rail- 
roading, notably on the Mt. Holly Division of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, and on the Nantasket Beach Division 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. In 
both these cases heavy motors have been placed upon the 
car axles for the regular passenger car, so that the weight 
of the passengers is available for traction. These two in- 
stallations have been entirely successful, and it is in- 



tended to similarly equip other lines in the immediate 
future. 

UNDERGROUND CONDUIT SYSTEM. 

From the very beginning of electric traction in this 
country inventors have been diligently seeking to devise 
some method of doing away with the necessity for over- 
head wires. Naturally, the plan of placing the wires in 
an underground conduit has been the subject of number- 
less inventions and "systems." The first attempts were 
flat and miserable failures, electrically and mechanically, 
the trouble being that the conduits were much too shal- 
low and would easily fill up with water, snow, mud and 
all sorts of street material, so as to short circuit the con- 
ductors or cause excessive leakage of current. Moreover, 
these early conduits were built without sufficient strength 
to resist the slot closing action of frost or other strains 
put upon the yokes in practice. The difficulties in con- 
duit work are such that it may be confidently stated that 
no shallow or cheap open slot electrical conduit will ever 
be successful in Northern climates. 

Within the past two or three years this fact has been 
recognized and electric conduit work has more nearly 
approached cable conduit work in size and strength of 
conduit and yokes, so that much better results have been 
attained. Complete systems of drainage have been pro- 
vided, heavy yokes are now used and manholes are fre- 
quent—in short, the electric conduits in operation to-day 
in New York City are little different from cable conduits 
in principles of construction, and little less expensive in 
first cost. 

None of this later conduit work has so far stood the 
test of passing through a northern winter, although win- 
ter experience has been obtained in Washington and with 
some success. Nevertheless, the care taken in the con- 
struction of these conduits and the perfection of every 
detail in the matter of drainage and cleaning are such 
that much confidence is felt by engineers in the results of 
this winter's experience. 

The New York and Washington conduit construction 
has been recently described in the Journal in much de- 
tail and no extended description is possible here. The 
problem is one less of invention than of skilful engineer- 
ing. Those who are most interested in electric railroad 



REVOLUTIONS OF AXLE PER MINUTE. 

20 40 60 80 100 130 

MILES PER HOUR 33"wHEELS. . 

2-04 4-!i 5(87 S-SS 10-8\ 12- 



180 200 220 240 2C0 280 
^IS-S 301) 22-i; ,'24-5 2(l-S 2; 



300 











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'otor 


























Slow 


Speed 


Motor 















































100 200 300 400 500 



FIG. 59.. 



600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 ICOO 17O0 1800 
Pounds Horizontal Effort 33" Wheels. Etieti RaiUvay joiii-n,-il 

CURVES SHOWING SPEED, CURRENT AND HORIZONTAL EFFORT 
OF A STREET RAILWAY MOTOR. 



conduit construction readily admit that its first cost is 
such that it will be impossible for any except the most 
heavily patronized metropolitan roads to adopt it over 
their systems, for it must be remembered that the expen- 
sive feature of the cable system — the cable conduit itself 
—if joined to the expensive feature of the electric system 
— the motors and power plant — make a combination sys- 
tem far more expensive than either alone. 



40 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol XII. No. i. 



But the open conduit system is not, perhaps, the 
only solution to the problem of doing away with over- 
head wires. Much inventive ability has been devoted to 
the production of several closed conduit systems, differ- 
ing more or less in detail, but much the same in 
general principles. In these systems the "conduits" are 
simply lubes carrying the feed wires and the "main con- 
ductor," all carefully insulated and imbedded, if desired, 
in solid insulating material. These tubes are connected 
with "junction boxes " at intervals of about ten or twelve 
feet, and in these junction boxes are placed electro-mag- 
netic apparatus, whose office is to complete the electrical 
connection between the main conductor in the tubes and 
a series of contact plates slightly raised above the surface 
of the ground, whenever the car passes over these contact 
plates. A long shoe on the car makes connection with 
the contact plates through the motors, and power is thus 
obtained for the propulsion of the car. 

Theoretically this system has many great advantages, 
not the least of which are cheapness of construction, sim- 
plicity, and, of course, the avoidance of overhead wires. 
It remains to be seen whether, in practical experience, its 
obvious faults will be found of no importance. One of 
these faults is, of course, the difficulty of keeping the elec- 
tro-magnetic apparatus in the junction boxes — some 500 
sets per mile of track — in working order at all times. 
This difficulty is partially met by the fact that the 
sliding shoe of the car will touch two of the contact 
plates, and the chances of both being inoperative are 
small. Another possibility of trouble is found in the 
fact that if leakage of current should at any time be set 
up in any of the moving parts or between the contact 
plates, or if the magnet armatures should stick on closed 
circuit, there might be trouble, either from short circuit- 
ing or from shocks to horses or people. Such trouble is 
not likely to happen, perhaps, but a single case might 
cause a public clamor against the system which would be 
difficult to overcome. 

THE STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEM. 

Still another solution to the problem of avoiding 
overhead wires has been diligently sought for by inventors, 
engineers and chemists without number, and the storage 
battery, in spite of many unsuccessful experiences in 
street railway work, has still many firm and confident 
friends. Experiments are now being carried on over 
one of the prominent street railway lines of New York 
City. The intrinsic advantages of storage battery propul- 
sion are very great, and if only it may become possible to 
reduce the weight of the batteries necessary for operat- 
ing a car, and to provide some means of flexible support 
such that the jolting and jarring of the car and the fre- 
quent heavy demands for current due to starting and 
stopping shall not cause a greater depreciation in the 
storage batteries themselves than is the case in lighting 
work, the problem may still be solved. So far, however, 
it cannot be said that those most deeply interested in this 
great extension in the field for. storage batteries are pre- 
pared to recommend broadly their adoption by street 
railway companies, certainly on lines having grades ex- 
ceeding 3 or 4 per cent., or where traffic is exceptionally 
heavy. 

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. 

Will the overhead electric railway system ever be 
superseded by another and better system ? Many a street 
rail-way manager is no doubt seriously asking himself 
and others this question. Many a horse railway company 
abroad is deterred from making the necessary investment 
by the fear that there will be future developments in the 
art which may make it necessary for him to eventually 
throw av/ay much, if not all, of his present outlay. These 
fears are not, by any means, groundless, and yet it is diffi- 
cult to see in just what direction radical improvements 
are likely to come. 

The ideal system is, of course, a self-propelled car 
carrying its own motive power, but compressed air, gas, 
ammonia and steam have so far proved inadequate in 



power, or in other respects not adapted for street railway 
use, and almost nothing is, to-day, being done in this 
direction. One great difficulty in any system of this 
kind is that of providing sufficient motive power to always 
return a car to its source of supply, and in the complicated 
conditions of city street traffic a blockade is a serious 
affair indeed. Nevertheless, new applications of nature's 
forces, or new materials to work with, are constantly 
being brought out, and while it is extremely improbable 
that some entirely new form of motive power will be 
found peculiarly adapted to street car propulsion, it can- 
not be said to be impossible. 

If we put aside, therefore, the present expectation of 
finding a solution of the municipal transportation prob- 
lem in self-propelled cars, we may next consider those 
forms of motive power which are dependent on some 
central distributing point. Here we have the cable sys- 
tem, the electric system, compressed air, and possibly, 
though not by any present inventions or researches, some 
form of gas distributing system. The last two systems 
may be put one side as involving far more expense in dis- 
tribution and more difficulties in engineering than the 
first two. The field for the cable is well understood, at 
least in America, to be limited to streets of great density 
of traffic, since it is only on such streets that the heavy 
first cost of the plant and conduit can be borne. Several 
foreign cities of moderate size are, at present, in the way 
of making a great mistake in the adoption of a cable sys- 
tem, and financial failure is confidently predicted by 
those w^ho have had experience here. 

The electric system, both overhead and underground, 
possesses certain intrinsic advantages which seem to 
make it in some respects the ideal system for street rail- 
roading. The first of these is found in the remarkable 
cheapness with which the motive power can be gener- 
ated. In some of our large stations the entire cost of 
motive power for even a long double truck car has been 
brought down to fo.0125 per car mile, and under favor- 
able conditions to even $0.01 per mile, this cost covering 
coal, water, station labor, lubricants and repairs and de- 
preciation of station plant. 

The motors are, to-day, far more efficient and mech- 
anically perfect than formerly, as will be seen by the 
curves on page 39, and it is doubtful if any materially 
greater efficiency can be obtained for a class of service 
which calls for such widely fluctuating amounts of 
power. 

Altogether, therefore, the electric distribution for 
street railroads, considered from economic grounds, is 
not likely to be improved upon within its own lines of 
development, and the question then becomes what par- 
ticular method of distribution is to be final or best 
adapted to the purpose — the overhead system, the under- 
ground open or closed conduit system or some other sys- 
tem yet to be devised. 

This question can only be answered in a longer 
experience with both kinds of conduit work than is at 
present at our service. The overhead electric system 
has been tested under all conceivable circumstances, and 
has, in every case, proved itself adequate to the burdens 
placed upon it. It handles the heavy traffic of our 
principal city streets, it carries our people to their sub- 
urban homes, it pushes its way out into the country 
and increases land values, and in joining cities and towns 
on lines twenty or thirty miles in length it has proved 
so much more popular than parallel steam railroad lines 
as to seriously alatm railroad magnates and to cause 
their violent opposition to the spread of electric railroad- 
ing. Electric cars are unquestionably popular. In certain 
American cities, well built and formerly successful cable 
lines have found their earnings so reduced by the com- 
petition of electric lines paralleling them a block away, 
that they have actually been forced to throw away the 
enormous investment in conduit and station plants, and 
adopt electricity as a motive power. 

These well known facts cannot be explained away on 
any theory other than that electricity is absolutely suc- 
cessful in street railroading, and is favored by the great 
mass of city dwellers when once they understand what 
electric traction means. 



January, 1896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 41 




Electric Conduit Construction on. Amsterdam 
^ Avenue, New York. 

Ijhe underground electric railway construction of 
the Third Avenue Railroad Company was illustratcfl and 



the Love Electric Traction Company, and the work is 
now practically completed. The section of line to be 
equipped is an extension of the Third Avenue Cable 
Railway on Amsterdam Avenue. Although the actual 
distance upon which the electric underground system 





FIGS. 1 TO 3.— VIEWS OF ELECTRIC CONDUIT CONSTRUCTION ON AMSTERDAM AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

described in the August, 1895, issue of the Street Rail- will be used is comparativeh^ short, the fact that the sys- 
WAY Journal. The work has been carried forward tern has been adopted here is important from the fact 
rapidly during the past six months by the contractors, that it constitutes an integral part of the main Amster- 



42 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



dam Avenue line of the Third Avenue Railroad Com- 
pany, and is at the lower part of what will be a most 
important extension of that road, reaching the upper 
end of Manhattan Island. 

The plans of the railway company contemplate the 



to extend the electric system to the Amsterdam Avenue 
and 125th Street division, which is now operated from a 
separate cable station. 

The new electric railway work on Amsterdam Ave- 
nue possesses an added interest from the fact that to facil- 



1: 




- I 



il I 




-r'-r'xi 



Section AA. 



FIG. 4.~PLAN AND SECTION OF TRACK AT DRAINAGE PIT 

Section 




FIG. 5.— PLAN, ELEVATION AND SECTIONS OF GUSSET POST 



treA Rjilv. ay Jmirmil 



p hnv^rl ti. electric conduit system upon all extensions itate switching, a siding and crossover have been installed 

WtPrnfrn A T '^''J' ^^""^ °" ^''^^^ termiuus, so that the method of construction 

thT TV. 1 A ^'^'^"^^ ^'"^ i^^^ ^^^"^ ^^bl^ c^^s on under these conditions can be inspected.' 

Third AveitT will h't'^' / ''''T' °! ''^th Street and A plan and section of one of the cut out pits, a view 

L rV^fh Z7 .^V^'^'f ^'■''''^ ''^''^^"^ ^^^^ °f ^^hich has not been published in any previous article, 

nassenlpr! wvf. A"^^/^^.f Avenue. In this way is shown in Fig. 4. These pits are located every 500 ft. 

?hanc^?. r. '"^r,^ '"i^'''^ ^"^'^ t° ^0"tain the section insulators and are similar in purpose 

cnange cars. It is the ultimate intention of the company to the section cut out box of the ordinary trolley railway 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



43 



The pits are four and one-half feet long, the distance be- 
tween the yokes, by four feet nine inches wide. They 
are connected by a passageway two feet two inches wide. 
The pits are floored with six inches of concrete and are 
drained. The depth at the lowest point which is at the 
drain pipe is five feet from the top of the slot rail. 
Drainage of the conduit between these cut out pits is 
cared for by special drainage pits, into which each con- 



ductors from water or pieces of metal which might fall 
into the conduit. The top of the slot rail is furnished 
with corrugations to prevent it from becoming slippery. 

A section of the conductor, full size, is given in Fig. 
7. It is a copper bar, with .curved lower and straight 
upper flange, and weighs two and a half pounds to the 
yard. It is in lengths of fourteen and one-half feet. The 
method of insulating, taking up the expansion and con- 




V 



SIJti;l K;iilw;iy Jnnrnal 



FIG. 6.— PLAN AND SECTION OF SLOT RAIL. 



FIG. 7. 
SECTION OF 
CON DUCTOR- 
FULL S 2E. 



+ 




Slixil Railway Journal 

FIG. 8,— YOKE NO. 2 OF CROSSING. 




FIG. 9.— YOKE NO. 3 OF CROSSING. 




Slri-ct Railway J, .ureal 

FIG. 10.— YOKE NO. 4 OF CROSSING, 




FIG. 11.— YOKE NO. 5 OF CROSSING. 

duit is drained separately. These pits in ordinary con- 
struction would be about seventy feet apart, but, owing 
to the particularly favorable conditions on Amsterdam 
Avenue, are there ninety-six and one-half feet apart. 

The yokes on straight track are of cast iron and are 
spaced four and one-half feet apart. The conduit is of 
concrete with lining plate about one-eighth inch thick. 
A section and plan of the slot rail is shown in Fig. 6. 
It is of the inverted U shape, the lip next the slot being 
of greater length than the other lip to protect the con- 



traction and supplying the current to the motors 
was illustrated in our August issue, previously 
referred to. 

In curve construction wrought iron yokes are 
exclusively employed. We present in Figs. 8, 9, 
10 and II sections of the two yokes on each side of 
a point switch, being respectively yokes No. 2, No. 
3, No. 4 and No. 5 of the crossing shown in Fig. 
I. The gusset post shown in Fig. 4 is located 
between yokes 3 and 4, to which it is bolted by 
means of its lower and end flanges. It carries a 
tongue switch for the trolley slot. 

When passing a switch the electric car cannot of 
course take the current for the entire distance. 
The conductors are brought to within a short 
distance of the switch, leaving a few 
feet over which the car must pass by 
momentum. As there is no tension 
on the conductors the insulators at 
these terminal points do not, as in the 
trolley system, differ from those at 
any other point on the line, but the 
conductors terminate in a sort of 
pan or shoe to receive the trolley 
wheels as they pass from one con- 
ductor to the other across the break. 

The steel work in the crossing 
shown was supplied by the Pennsyl- 
vania Steel Works, and all instal- 
lation has been carried on under 
the direct supervision of Major 
McNulty, of the Love Electric Traction Company. 

The Chester, Pa., Traction Company has installed a 
booster at its power house, for the purpose of raising the 
potential on a long line where there is occasionally a 
very heavy traffic, but where the ordinary traffic would 
not be sufficient to warrant the expenditure of a large 
amount in feed wire. This is said to be the first prac- 
tical use of the booster for electric railway work in this 
country. 



Strft-t Raih\ay Journal 



44 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XH. No. i. 



Some Recent Generators and Motors. 



The Walker Manufacturing Company, of Clevelaud, 
O., has recently entered the field as a builder of large sized 
generators, and has put upon the market an 800 k. w. 
machine of which some views are presented herewith. 
Two of these generators have been installed in the power 
station of the Detroit Railway Company, of Detroit, 
Mich. They are similar in design to the generators of 
the 400 K. w. size, built by the same company, so that a 
general description of the 800 k. w. size will be typical 
of the other standard Walker Company's generators. 

The magnet yoke is thirteen feet nine inches in 
diameter by twenty-eight and a half inches wide, and is 
of cast-iron. This material is considered by the 
makers to be superior to steel for this purpose, since, on 
account of the greater section re- 
quired (the section being more 
than twice that of a steel yoke), 
a very much greater rigidity is 
obtained. The poles are twelve 
in number and are of soft iron, 
laminated and cast into the yoke. 
They have pole shoes of cast steel, 
which serve also to keep the mag- 
net spools in position. The yoke 
ring rests upon broad feet at each 
side securely bolted to heavy 
cast-iron girder plates. These 
girders are extended to such dis- 
tance that the yoke may be slid 
along in a direction parallel to the 
shaft sufficiently to be entirely 
clear of the armature, thus allow- 
ing complete accessibility to 
either the magnet coils or arma- 
ture. The girders are laid in con- 
crete and cement upon massive 
capstones, and are secured by 
heavy bo,lts passing down through 




FIG. 1.— METHOD OF 
SULATING CONDUC 
TORS IN WALKER 
ARMATURE. 



a — Conductor, 
b — Fuller board strip be 

tween conductors, 
c — Linen tape. ' 
d — Composite strip 



be- 



tween top and bottom the foundation. 



conductors 
e — Hardwood strip clos 

ing top of slot, 
f — Fuller board trough, 
g — Trough of oiled paper 
h — Trough of mica, 
i — Trough of oiled linen, 
j — Fuller board trough. 



The armatures are of the iron 
clad type, eight feet ten inches in 
diameter by thirty-seven inches 
in length, exclusive of commutator. 
Together with the commutator 
it occupies a length of forty-five 
inches on the shaft. The plates 
are punched in segments from 
soft, well annealed iron, and are secured by dove- 
tailed projections fitted into corresponding slots 
milled in the rim of the spider. This detail is illus- 
trated in the engravings on the insert The plates are 
held longitudinally by heavy end rings, the fastening 
bolts passing just inside of the laminated core. These 
end rings also serve as supports for the portion of the 
armature winding outside of the slots. An important 
detail of construction is shown in the engraving of the 
armature spider. It will be noticed that the rim of the 
spider is not made solid, but that the arms end in a sort 
of T-head. This is done to eliminate all danger of 
shrinkage strains, and it will be obvious to any engineer 
that this is a very simple and effective method of ac- 
complishing the desired result. It is claimed to be superior 
to the old method of splitting the hub and, furthermore, 
gives a better chance for more thorough ventilation of the 
armature core. The commutator spider is mounted upon 
a projection of the armature hub and securely keyed 
thereto. The laminated core is divided into a number of 
sections separated by one-half inch air spaces, allowing 
an ample circulation of air. 

The armature winding consists of flat copper ribbon 
formed into proper shape previous to assembling, and 
being entirely without joint except at the commutator 
leads. The coils are very thoroughly insulated in the 
manner illustrated in Fig. i on this page, and are held 
in place by phosphor-bronze bands. 

The construction of the commutator is shown in 
section on the insert. The bars are held in place by a 
sectional clamp, so designed as to draw the bars firmly 



down on to the flat cylindrical surface of the spider. The 
leads are both riveted and soldered to the bars and are 
made long and flexible. The diameter is eighty-four 
inches and the active wearing face is eleven inches. The 
current density in the carbon brushes at full load is a 
little less than thirty-five amperes per square inch. 

The shaft is of forged steel, twenty-two inches in di- 
ameter in armature hub and nineteen and seven-eighths 
inches in bearings. 

The brush holders are novel in' design in that the 
carbon is clamped solidly in the holder, giving the cur- 
rent a low resistance path from brush to stud with no 
sliding contacts. The brush has a parallel movement, so 
that there is no rocking motion of the carbon when the 
commutator is slightly out of true. 

The general dimensions of the 400 k. w. machine are 
as follows: Outside diameter of yoke, twelve feet two 
inches; diameter of armature, ninety inches; diameter of 
commutator, seventy inches; face of commutator, eight 
and a half inches. 

It has been the aim of the manufacturers to produce 
a generator which should stand up to the exacting re- 



55 


J 






























































_ 






50 


)- 




































































































































15 


)- 












































































































































40 


)- 












































































































































35 


)- 








































































































































301 


)- 


0* 

H 

(D 


























C 


o^ 


IP 




IS 




C 


F 


M 




NE 


T 


C 


JR 


VE 










iatur 






































1 
II 




100 

300 


1^ 


— 
. \ 
. 1 


V. 


G 


— 
in 


- 
n'a 

■ra 


to 
to 


: 
r 










■25 


)~ 


Volts at Ani 
















'/ 






























































^ 
























































■30 


0- 








I 
































































































































-15 


>- 












































































































































-10 


5- 












































































































































-5' 








































































)- 




























































































1 


VTX\ 


pe 


re 


tu 


rii 


S ( 




31; 




ef 


s. 





























FIG. 2. 



luOOO 15000 20000 25000 

-MAGNET CURVES OF 400 K. W. 

GENERATORS. 



30000 35000 

Street R.lihvay Journal 

AND 800 K W. 



quirements of railway service with ease. Particular at- 
tention has been given to the details of mechanical de- 
sign, and the illustrations given of some of these details 
are intended to show how this has been effectively ac- 
complished. These generators were designed for a con- 
stant voltage in the station of 550, and to divide the load 
as nearly as possible proportionally. The results have 
been gratifying to the manufacturers in all respects. The 
maximum variation of voltage at the switchboard is 
actually less than 2 per cent, under all variations of load. 
An inspection of the curves shown in Fig. 2 on this page 
will show how perfectly the magnet characteristics of 
the two machines are matched, insuring an almost abso- 
lute proportional division of the load between the vari- 
ous machines in operation. 

The full load ampere rating of these generators is 
730 amperes for the 400 k. w. and 1,460 amperes for the 
800 K. w. With a continuous full load the temperature 
increase of the 400 k. w. machine is 76 degs. in the mag- 
net coils and 73 degs. in the armature. The increase of 



Januauy, i8y6.J 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



45 



temperature in the 800 k. w. p^enerator is ajiproximatcly 
the same under similar conditions. 

A special study has been made of the question of 
non-sparking operation, and it has been the aim to so 
design these generators that without any brush shifting 
the non-sparking limit will be between 50 and 75 per 
cent, overload. The practical operation of the generator:; 
has given results that are all that could be anticipated. 
As an illustration, it was necessary recently when two 
400 K. w. machines and one of the 800 k. w. were carrying 
the load to shut down for a short time the 800, throwing 
the whole load, which happened to be 3,000 amperes, on 
to the two 400 K. w. generators. They carried this over- 
load of 100 per cent, for the time required without the 
least difficulty and with only a slight sign of sparking, 
there being no shifting of the brushes. This illustration 
is given merely as an example of what these generators 
are able to stand up to in case of emergency. The com- 
mutators have taken on a dark, glossy s'urface, and in the 
case of the first generator installed the commutator has 
been running for about sixty days at the present writing 
without having been once dressed down with sand paper. 
The others are behaving in the same manner. 

^ MOTORS. 

The early types of motors of the Walker Company 
have been on the market for nearly two years. Some 
larger motors have recently been designed, and the five 
sizes now built are : 

No. 3 motor when 
running ten miles per hour 
on thirty-three inch wheels 
has a draw-bar pull of 800 
lbs., or about 21.3 h. p. 
This motor is applicable 
to narrow gauge trucks, 
and is manufactured ex- 
tensively for foreign trade. 

No. 4 motor has a 
draw-bar pull of 930 lbs. or 
about 25 H. p. 

No. 5 motor has a 
draw-bar pull of 1,120 lbs. 
or about 30 h. p. These 
two sizes are used for heavy 
city service. 

No. 10 motor has a 
draw-bar pull of 1,860 lbs. 
or about 50 h. p., and is 
used almost exclusively for 
interurban roads. 

No. 20 motor has a 
draw-bar pull of 4,600 lbs. 
or about 125 h. p. This is 
said to be the most power- 
ful railway motor manu- 
factured and is for elevat- 
ed service and on heavy 
railway cars and trains. 

The above horizontal 
effort or draw-bar pull is 
for only one motor and is 
estimated at a speed of ten 

miles per hour with thirty-three inch wheels, but any 
speed can be attained by means of the proper gear re- 
lations. The No. 10 motor when fully loaded runs about 
twenty miles per hour and under ordinary service on the 
level runs forty miles per hour. The same is true of the 
No. 20 motor, and an equipment of these machines will 
pull five. elevated passenger cars at this speed. 

The horse-power ratings for these motors, are estab- 
lished by one hour's run at a fixed load, which is the only 
practical method of determining the power of a motor. 

At the factory the No. 5 motor, which is rated at 
thirty horse power, is loaded with a Prony brake until 
the speed and weight indicate that the motor is actually 
delivering thirty mechanical horse power at the armature 
pinion. It is then allowed to rumunder this load for one 
hour at the end of which time the temperature of the ar- 
mature, fields and commutator are taken and will be 



found to be not more than 150° F. above the surround- 
ing air. This is the limit of temperature to which the 
insulation should be subjected. It would be well for 
engineers in making specifications for equipments to re- 
quire that the above temperature limit should not be 
exceeded after a continuous run of one hour at the speci- 
fied horse power rating of the motor. These specifica- 




FiG. 3.— WALKER MOTOR. 

tions are the result of long experience in rating motors, 
and it has been found that motors filling these specifica- 
tions will operate an ordinary city car with trailer with- 
out undue heating during the hottest weather. 

A street car motor is only required to take its max- 



Oorfa of30l-P Railway Mo-Tor 

C;eorR£duction='J(»-4 78 33"H'h«tls 
THE WALKER MANUFACTUJriNO CO, 
CLEVELAND , OHIO. 




I. Horiionfal Force -Currcnf. 
It. Speed -CurreirT 

V. Speed -Graae. 

VI. Speed -Tractive Effort 



Curves V are for a IO-b«nch 
open car, empTij Va and load- 
«dVb. Wei g trfs -Ta Ken as fo I - 
lo^vs: 

Body 5 600 Ibi 

Truck 4600 
Ec^uipmenr 5 ZOO . 
100 Passenger s 15 OOP • 
28400 . 
Weighr Loaded l4.2Tons. 
WeighrEmptt) 7.7 . 

Curves V are for double 
eguipmenf! 

Sepr.1695 



ntdl Fo rce 



neriofor-^i 



FIG 4.-CURVE SHEET FOR DIFFERENT SIZES OF MOTORS. 



imum load at starting, and soon drops to less than half 
load and for a portion of the time is receiving no cur- 
rent at all. The efficiency of these motors must be 
high at overloads, in order that the starting currents 
shall not be excessive. It must be high at light loads, as 
a motor is required to run most of the time at from one- 
quarter to one-third of its rated capacity. On roads 
w^ith many grades or where continuous heavy traffic is 
found the efficiency must be uniformly high, in order 
that the minimum amount of current will be consumed. 
Under the great variations in the conditions of load the 
motors under discussion rise rapidly in efficiency from 
no load to about one-quarter load, reach a maximum at 
about one-third load, and continue at almost a uniformly 
high efficiency to an overload of twenty-five or thirty per 
cent. This is accomplished by having an exceedingly 
low resistance field and armature so that the c- r. losses 



46 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



are cut down to a minimum. The friction losses and 
hysteresis are also brought down as low as possible in a 
machine of this class. 

The practical question, the most interesting to the 
street railway builder, is the amount of current required 
by these motors in the operation of cars on his particu- 
lar road, as this will determine the number of kilowatts 
required in his power station, the size and length of 
feeders, trolley wire, etc. A curve sheet is therefore 
given — (Fig. 4) — for a double thirty horse power equip- 
ment loaded, weighing 14.2 tons. These curves show 
the current consumption under all conditions of speeds 
and grades, the tractive effort per ton being based on 
Curve VI for various speeds, which have been found by 
experiment to be about right for ordinary city tracks. 

These motors are of the simplest possible construc- 
tion. Special care has been taken in their mechanical 
design. Not only are the parts few in number, but the 
ease of access to the removable parts has been especially 
studied. It is said to be a fact that since the first 
design for this motor Avent into the shop no changes 
have been made in it, therefore the parts of the first 
motors manufactured are interchangeable with those 
made to-day. This is of the utmost importance to 




FIG 5.— DIAGRAM OF MtTHOD OF SUSPENSION. 



the street railway operator. The material used in 
their construction is of the best. The frame is soft steel, 
the armature shaft the finest grade of hammered steel, 
and the bearings the hardest babbitt. The armature core 
is of the softest annealed iron and the commutator is 
made from drop forged copper bars. The windings in 
both armature and fields are the purest Lake Superior 
copper, 98 per cent. pure. 

The insulation throughout is of pure mica, and 
fullerboard, covered with waterproof paint, is tested to 
5,000 volts pressure before leaving the shops. 

The motor is of the four-wound pole type, which in- 
sures the least distortion of the field and the greatest 
amount of radiating surface for the field magnet winding. 
The fields are hinged together so that the lower half 
swings down to expose the armature, which may remain in 
the upper field or be allowed to come down with the 
lower one at pleasure. When closed the motor is water 
tight throughout. The armature bearings are inter- 
changeable, as are also the axle bearings. All bolts are of 
the same size and length. Two brushes only are used 
and are accessible through an opening fitted with a malle- 
able iron door. 

The oil and grease used on the bearings are excluded 
from the interior of the motor by an ingenious arrange- 
ment of the bearings, which are entirely outside the 
motor casing. This is the first arrangement which has 
accomplished this important result. Motors in use for 
over one year show no signs of oil inside the motor when 
opened. The gears are made from hammered and cast 
steel, and their housings of malleable iron. The gear 
case is perfectly tight, holding the grease and deadening 
the sound perfectly. The. method of supporting the 
housing is especially effective, the lugs and bolts being 



under a crushing and not a shearing strain. It is said 
that not one of these supports has broken off or become 
loose, which is a remarkable record. 

Perhaps the most important and novel feature of 
these motors is the suspension, which greatly reduces 
track repairs and renders the wear on gears, pinions, 
bearings and other parts of the motor exceedingly small. 
In order to understand this suspension it will be neces- 
sary to refer to Fig. 5. The connecting bar Y is journaled 
at one end on the axle A of the car. At the other end it 
is journaled on the armature shaft B, but is not in any 
way fastened to the motor M. The barY, therefore, only 
serves to keep the distance between the axle A and the 
armature shaft B fixed, so that the teeth of the pinion P 
and the gear G, mounted respectively on the armature 
shaft and axle, are kept in proper mesh. The motor 
frame M is, therefore, free to turn bodily around on its 
armature bearings, while the armature stands still, if it 
were not for the supporting spring and lug at T over 
the axle and at S, which are mounted on the cross bar C 
of the truck. 

If pressure is applied to the top of the m.otor M it 
will move downward and compress the lower spring at 
both ends of the motor, and if pressure be applied to the 
underside of the motor it will be lifted ftgainst the upper 
spring at the supports T and S. 

During this vertical motion of the motor the left 
hand end of the arm Y will swing through quite an angle, 
and the armature will be rotated through a portion of a 
revolution. The motor is in this way entirely mounted 
on steel spiral springs, both back and front, whereas the 
ordinary motor is only spring mounted at the front end. 

Imagine the motor running rapidly from right to 
left, and the wheel tread coming in contact with an ob- 
struction on the rail, like a joint. The wheel will be sud- 
denly thrown up from the rail against the springs at T, 
which will yield, without carrying the heavy mass of the 
motor M with it, thereby lessening the blow on the rail 
and v/heel ten fold. In this suspension may be found the 
preventative for the rapid track deterioration which has 
developed along with the use of heavy rigidly mounted 
motors and which is a serious menace to the commercial 
success of electric motors. 

Another great advantage afforded by this suspension 
is the absence of jerking and severe strains on the gears 
when starting. If the pinion P starts it does not imme- 
diately and suddenly put the gears G and wheel in 
motion, but pulls the motor M down upon the springs T 
and S until they are under sufficient tension to just start 
the car with a smooth and easy motion. This also pre- 
vents the teeth of the pinion hammering the teeth of the 
gear. Motors fitted with this suspension have been run- 
ning eighteen months, 200 miles per day, without yet 
changing pinion or gear. 

Not only are the gears and pinions saved by this 
spring cushion, which prevents any sudden blow, but 
the bearings and the shaft run longer without replacing. 
The crystallization of the copper in the windings is also 
prevented by removing the jar from the motor. 

The Walker Company has recently brought out in 
connection with these motors a non-arcing controller 
which regulates the speed of the car to a nicety. 



Annual Meeting of the Michigan Street Railway 
Association. 

The annual meeting of the Michigan Street Railway 
Association was held at Grand Rapids on December 4. 
There was a good attendance and a pleasant time was 
enjoyed by all. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : Presi- 
dent, W. L. Jenks, of Port Huron ; vice-president, W. 
Worth Bean, of St. Joseph ; secretary and treasurer, Ben. 
S. Hanchett, of Grand Rapids. These officers together 
with Charles M. Swift, of Detroit, and E. E. Downs, of 
Bay City, constitute the board of directors. A paper 
upon " franchises " was read by J. P. Lee, of Lansing. 

The next meeting will be on December 2, 1896, at a 
place to be selected by the Executive Committee. 



V 



January, 1896.] 



stre5;t railway journal. 



47 



Street Railway Roadbed. 



By Mason D. Pratt. 



/. — JuT/'Iy Types of Gii'Jcr Rails. 

An essentia] feature of a well equipped street rail- 
way is a good track. This is a fact that has been brought 
home with force to most managers of electric street rail- 
ways particularly. And while there have been rapid and 
long strides in the direction of better construction since 
the advent of rapid transit and heavy cars, we can hardly 
say that perfection has been attained in this, any more 
than in other phases of our mundane existence. 

In these papers it is my intention to review the ex- 
perience of the past fifteen years — the era of most rapid 

I development — and to bring 
together and illustrate the 
various types of track ma- 
terial and construction, in- 




with a groove formed in its upper surface to receive the 
flange of the wheel. From that time to the beginning of 
the present era, a period of nearly fifty years, this type 
of rail, though modified in every conceivable way, was 
adhered to. The weight ranged from thirty pounds to 
eighty pounds or more per yard. 

In nearly every modification was the rail dependent 
on some other continuous and longitudinal support for 
vertical stiffness, in which respect it differed materially 
from the modern rail. In America, a small lip or flange 
was added to the under side to keep the rail from slip- 
ping off the stringer. In England, a second flange was 
added and the two increased in depth, thus adding ma- 
terially to the vertical stiffness of the rail. This feature 
probably reached its greatest development in the section 
used by James Livcsey, in Buenos Ayres (Fig. i). His 
rail had a total depth of two and three-eighths inches, 
and he did away with the longitudinal stringer, sup- 
pf)rting the rail on cast iron chairs placed at three feet 




FIG. 



-9.— t 3-0-- 

-LIVESEY RAIL, 



f— 9- 




FIG. 11.— FIRST CAMBRIA RAIL. 



dicating their good and bad features. I shall also in- 
clude specifications covering the most approved con- 
structions, and give some practical hints which may 
prove useful to the street railway engineer and the man- 
agers. 




centers. There were other systems where the two side 
flanges were replaced by a single flange under the cen- 
ter of the section. 

As nearly all the sections were used with wooden 
stringers, the fastenings consisted mainly of spikes, 




FIGS. 2 TO 5.— STRINGER RAILS, 

The most important part of the track is the rail, and 
I shall, therefore, first follow its development. 

To America — the United States — belongs the honor 
of introducing the street railway, or "tramway," as it was 







FIGS. 6 TO 10.— DIAGRAMS SHOWING NAMES OF PARTS 
(See table of terms.) , 

first called. The section of rail adopted on the first line 
laid, that in Fourth Avenue, New York City, was of the 
flat type, it being nothing more than a simple bar of iron, 



FIGS. 12 TO 17,— EARLY JOHNSON RAILS. 



staples, or lag screws passing through the rail. The 
joint was nothing more than a plain flat bar of iron, 
three or four inches wide and eight to ten inches long, 
let into the stringer, and gave but a feeble support to 
the loose rail ends. The flat, or tram, rail was lacking in 
vertical strength even for the comparatively light traffic 
of these early days. Engineers realized this, and tried to 
find a remedy in the T or " Vignoles" rail. The difficulty 
of paving to it and of maintaining the pavement proved 



48 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



too great an obstacle to its general use, except in sub- 
urban lines. Even a modification of it, in which the 
center of the base was placed to one side of the center 
line of the web, thus allowing the paving stones to rest 
against both head and bottom flange, though tried, does 
not seem to have been an entire success. 

Since street railway tracks were laid along the lines 

JfailwadFail 
J'? 25, 89 f, FatentedMiifio, fssg. 




FIG. 18.— BEERS' PATENT. 

United States Patent Office. 



SIDNEY A. BEERS, OF BROOKLYN", NEW YORK, 
IMPROVEMENT IN RAILROADS FOR STREETS. 

Specification forniing pin t of Letters Patent No, 23,891 , tinted May 10, IS.>i). 



To all whom it may concern: 

Bf it known that I, Sidney A. Beers, of 
the city of Brooklyn, in the county of Kings 
and, State of New Y'"ork, have invented a new 
and useful Improvement in the Construction 
of Railroads; and I do hereby declare that 
ihe following is a full and exact description 
thereof, reference being had to the accompa- 
nying drawing, making part of this specifi- 
tion, and to the betters of reference marked 
thereon. 

The nature of my invention consists in the 
construction of uprlglit self-sustaining rails 
of cfist or otlier iron, with the head or track 
expanded in width so as to form a car and 
carriage track in combination of such width 
and form as may be desirable to aocommo- 
diite isuch purpose wJien laid in public streets 
or highways. 

The figure isatransverso view or section of 
the rail of snfBcient depth and strength to 
riupport the travel without the aid of a wooden 
siiring-piece. 

Letter a is tlie crown or car-track. 

Letter h is Ihe cai-iiage-track oT anv dcsii- 



able form wliich may be intended for or ap- 
plied to the purpose of a track or tram for 
the accommodation of ordinary vehicles. 

Letter c is the body of the rail. 

Letter (Z is a bracket planted upon the side 
of the rail at intervals and extending from 
the base to the tram to give additional sup- 
porttothelatter, as wellas inerejised strength 
to the rati as a whole. 

Letter e is a base of any convenient width 
to strengthen the rail and increase the bear- 
ing. 

What I claim as my invention, and desire 
to secure by Letters Patent, is — 

The construction of upright self-sustaining 
rails of ,cfist or other iron, with car and eai- 
riage track combined, as set forth in the ac- 
companying specification and drawings to 
be hild in public streets and higliways an<l 
for no other purpose. 

SIDNEY A. BEERS. , 

\Yituesses: 

-TOHN C. S.MirH. 

JOSKPII p. .AIaVNARD. 



ment, that the street railways of Philadelphia adopted 
the flat tram and the wide gauge for the accommodation 
of vehicles. But liowever it may have been, the step was 
in the wrong direction. It was an invitation to greater 
concentration of traffic along the street railway, the diffi- 
culty of turning out from the track almost compelling 
vehicles to remain, and to set the pace of any car that 
might be following, a matter of very serious moment 
where rapid transit is concerned. No one city has been 
brought to a greater realization of this fact, probably, 
than the one that introduced it. The 
acceptance of this condition has been, 
strange to say, almost universal in this 
country, and by far the greater number 
of rail sections are found to have this 
side flange or tram for the exclusive use 
of vehicular traffic. 

In this as in many other things has 
our practice become directly the reverse 

31^ 




mn MUb. ly TO 25.— ADDITIONAL EARLY JOHNSON RAILS. 

§ 

'f< of that in European countries, where the use of a grooved 
rail is universal. Such a rail gives an unbroken surface 
to the pavement, thus insuring a greater freedom of 
movement to the general traffic, with less obstruction 
to the cars. 

It cannot be denied, however, that there is some 
slight advantage to the street railway in a flanged rail 
over the grooved, as often made. 
It is more free from an accumu- 
lation of dirt in summer and ice 
in winter, which in the latter ob- 
structs the free passage of the 
wheel flange to such an extent as, 
in some cases, to increase the force 
required to move the car as much 
as fifty per cent. In cities where 
the streets are paved with Belgian 
blocks, brick or asphalt, and are 



of other vehicular traffic, it is but natural that this traffic 
should seek to follow the path of least resistance, the 
rails. But the consequent wear and tear on the adjacent 
pavement was considerable, and the effect on the track 
from this street traffic was probably even more injurious 
than that from the legitimate wear of the cars. 

It may have been with the idea of self protection, or 
it may have been under pressure from the city govern- 





FIGS. 26 TO 28.- 



LEWIS &L FOWLER BOX RAIL, 



kept reasonably clean, there can be little objection to the 
grooved rail. The greater freedom of movement for the 
cars due to a less obstructed track, and the longer life of 
the pavement with fewer repairs consequent on the dis- 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



49 



tribution of the street traffic over a larger area, more 
than compensate for a possible increase in motive power. 

Before proceeding further it might be well to give 
the nomenclature of the various parts of a rail. There is 
no little confusion in these terms as commonly used, and 
I have endeavored to give those most approved by general 
usage. 

H— Head. 

G — Groove. 

T — Tram, or tread. 

F — Flange, any projection from body of rail. 
R — Base, or lower flange. 
W— Web. 

E — Fillet, or rounding of any corner. 
L — Gauge line. 
N— Neck. 




FIGS, 29 AND 30.— EARLY WHARTON RAIL. 



C — Lip or flange. 
A — Flange angle. 
— Guard angle. 

— Splice bar, channel plate or fish plate. This latter term 
properly belongs to the joint plate used with flat rails. 
K — Track bolt, splice bar bolt. 

Bearing — The surface of contact between splice bar and rail. 
S — Shoulder. 

O — Throat, applied to guard or full grooved rails. 

Side-bearing and Center-bearing — Terms applied to rails to indi- 
cate position of head, with reference to center line of rail. Fig. 6 is 
center-bearing, all others are side-bearing. 

The ordinary sections of T rail are not well adapted 
for use on paved streets, but considering their greater 
stiffness over the old flat rails and the superior advan- 
tages their shape offers for making joints and fastening 
to the tie, it is not strange that the early efforts made 
for a better rail for street railways were in the direction 
of a modified form of this rail. The first of these special 
sections actually rolled was section No. 72 of the Cam- 
bria Iron Company, of Johnstown, Pa. (Fig. 11), and was 
made in 1877 for the Clay Street Hill line in San Fran- 
cisco. It may also be a matter of interest to state that 
it was made of steel — steel rails being at that time by no 
means common. The design has some remarkably good 
features, notably that the combined width of the head 
and tram is the same as that of the base, and the sides 




FIGS. 31 AND 32.— GIBBON DUPLEX RAIL. 



are in the same vertical lines, thus offering a good rest 
for paving stones. The flange angles, except that under 
the head, were small (7 degs.), less than the common 
practice of to-day. The bearing surface for fishplates is 
ample. The head is broad and the point of contact be- 
tween wheel and rail is brought nearly over the center of 
the web. The upper flange is evidently intended only to 
act in connection with the pavement to form a groove 
for the passage of the wheel flange, no attempt being 
made to provide a track for street vehicles — a most com- 
mendable feature. 

It is a notable fact there are but few great achieve- 
ments of science or invention brought to public notice but 
have been discovered or invented before, and the fact is 
only brought to light when the later and more energetic 



inventor makes them a success. Hence the old saying, 
"There is no new thing under the sun." The successful 
inventor is none the less worthy of his reward. The 
idea of the "girder rail," so-called, was not new in 1877, 
when the first rail was rolled, for we find on the Patent 
Office records a patent granted to Sidney A. Beers, in 
1859, on "An improvement in railroads for streets," 
which shows the girder rail almost exactly as we know it 
to-day. That any such rail was ever made or used at 
that time does not appear, but the inventor certainly an- 
ticipated the idea of our girder raits. 

It is to a later and very energetic inventor — A. J. 
Moxham, of the Johnson Company — that we owe, in a large 
measure, the successful development of the modern gir- 
der rail. His first efforts in rolling such a rail were made 
in 1881, at Birmingham, Ala., afterward at Louisville, 
Ky., and later at Johnstown, Pa., where, in 1883, rails of 




FIGS. 33 TO 38 — LATER GIRDER RAILS. 

this type were first rolled to any great extent. The 
principal early sections of the Johnson Company are 
shown in Figs. 12 to 17 and 19 to 25. It was thought, 
and with good reason, that a very great advance had 
been made in producing a rail which could be jointed 
by means of splice bars, and which, being in the form 
of a beam or girder, would have sufficient vertical 
strength in itself. 

There was a demand, of course, for a grooved rail, 
and we see it supplied in Figs. 21 and 24. These have, in 
place of the broad base, a "bulb," providing only scanty 
purchase for the fishplates. These were called " bulb 
sections," and were doubtless the result of efforts to de- 
crease the difficulties encountered in rolling the flanged 
sections. They were exceedingly unmechanical in de- 
sign, though not so much so as the " Wharton " or " Jay- 



5° 



bird" rail (Figs. 29 and 30), which was devoid of either 
flanges or bulb. 

To get the strongest section there should be an ap- 
proximate equality in the amount of metal in head and 
base, which quality very few of these early sections pos- 
sessed. 

Although the necessity for stringers was thus done 
away with, there was a deficiency in height, and recourse 
was had to " chairs," which were made either by forging 
from flat plates or of cast-iron, to make the construction 
suitable for paving. 

A noticeable feature of these early Johnson sections 
is the shoulder under the head on the side-bearing rails. 
Its use enabled both splice bars to be alike, thus effect- 
ing a slight economy in manufacture. It increased the 
thickness of the neck, and apparently added not a little 
to the strength of the section and some additional wear. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 

" Opposite " vs. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 
Broken " Joints. 



The discussion commenced in the last issue of the 
Street Railway Journal, on the question as to whether 
the rail joints of a street railway track should be laid op- 
posite each other or broken, has aroused considerable in- 
terest. Opinions from nine different contractors or man- 
agers were published last month and others are given 
below: 

John A. Beki.er, constructinij engineer of the Denver Consoli- 
dated Tramway Company, Denver, Col., writes: 

The weakest point in a rail is at the joint. Opposite joints con- 
centrate two weak places upon one tie. Broken joints distribute 
them over twice the number of ties, broken joints will hold track in 
more perfect adjustment than opposite joints. 

Good track must not be allowed to have low joints, whether 
broken or opposite, or bad results follow. 







FIGS. 



-LATER GIRDER RAILS. 



But possibly the main reason was the introduction of a 
distinctive feature which would be of value in developing 
patents. So energetic was this company in obtaining 
patents and aggressive in maintaining them that they 
practically had a monopoly of the girder rail business for 
several years. The attractive profits, however, were too 
great, and other manufacturers soon entered the field, the 
principal one being the William Wharton, Jr., & Company, 
of Philadelphia, who we find offering a series of rails 
without bottom flanges or base, and later the Lewis and 
Fowler Company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., with their "box 
girder" (Figs. 26, 27, 28). This latter was the old 
double flanged rail of Livesy, brought to a greater re- 
finement of design. Then came in Gibbon, with his 
"duplex" rail (Figs. 31, 32). The head and tram of 
this rail are in separate parts, and each is provided with 
a vertical flange or web, which, like the Wharton rail, 
was devoid of lower flanges. All of these sections, while 
proving good substitutes for the old tram rails when used 
on horse car lines, had to succumb to the onslaught of 
the electric motor. Their weak points were lack of ver- 
tical strength and poor joints — the fishing space being so 
narrow that the two joint plates together were far from 
having the same strength as the rails, and the meagre 
bearing allowed them soon to wear loose. The multi- 
plicity of parts also involved in the use of chairs was a 
bad feature. The tendency was constantly toward 
deeper, stiffer and heavier sections, as will be noted by 
Figs. 33 to 46. The variety of design, it would seem, wa§ 
becoming sufficient to suit the most fastidious, and was 
doubtless appalling to the novice in railroading. But the 
end was — and is — not yet. There have actually been 
rolled up to the present time no less than 150 distinctly 
different sections of girder rails. 



It has been my experience that broken joints will support them- 
selves longer than opposite joints. 

J. H. BiCKFORD, consulting and constructing engineer, of Salem, 
Mass., says: 

I have made it the practice to break the joints about one-third 
the length of the rail, as I believe the cars will ride easier and sus- 
tain less wear and tear than if the joints are laid directly opposite. 
With the joints opposite, both are on the same tie or ties, as the case 
may be. These ties are subjected to the successive shock or pound 
due to one-half the weight of the car and its load. As a natural con- 
sequence, they become depressed sooner than adjacent ones, the 
result being low joints and a very uneven track. 

With the joints broken, the tie or ties receive the pound due to 
but one-fourth the weight of the car and its load, the opposite rail 
being whole. As to the joints themselves, of course, the wear is the 
same in either case. 

I have noticed particularly that cars do not tilt as badly when 
the joints are broken. 

My reason for breaking the joints about one-third the length of 
the rail is to facilitate cross bonding and, at the same time, prevent 
more than one wheel being on a joint at the same instant. 

I have heard the argument advanced that there will be less wear 
and tear to the motors and cars where the joints are opposite, because 
the wheels are in the same plane when they pass over the joints 
simultaneously, no straining or twisting taking place in the truck, 
after the joints become low. I think, however, this idea is purely 
theoretical, as no track, no matter how well laid, has both rails in the 
same plane after being down awhile, and even with two joints oppo- 
site, one may be at a lower level than the other. 

In my opinion, based on careful observation, there is less wear 
and tear to both rolling stock and roadbed when the joints are 
broken. 

Fred. S. Wardwell, contractor, of Danbury, Conn., writes: 

With the theoretical joint, roadbed and standard ties spaced upon 
theoretical lines, I am unable to see wherein a track with brolien 
joints would be superior or inferior to one with even joints. In dis- 
cussing this question, it is necessary to consider the condition with 
which unfortunately we have to deal, not theories. We have in prac- 
tice to guard against defective foundations of dead sand, loam, clay 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



51 



without drainage, and gravel or broken stone acting as a surface 
drain for abutting property and broken waterpipes, and, last but not 
least, joints made from defective material by incoiiipetcnt men with 
improper tools. 

Tracks laid in the average city streets will settle in spots regard- 
less of all " gold cure" preventives. It settles in one place from 
one cause, in another from quite a different one. The ca'uses are 
numerous and effects omnipresent. Are tracks laid with broken 
joints easier to maintain, easier upon rolling stock and more pleas- 
ant to patrons than tracks with even jointsj? The writer believes 
they are. 

Tracks with even joints in the average street are inclined to 
settle evenly at the joints, /. one rail with the other, giving a cor- 
rugated effect to the track and a pitching or oscillating motion to 
passing cars, but do not have as great a tendency to widen the gauge 
or to derail cars as tracks with broken joints. These points will be 
conceded by those who have tracks so badly out of order that it is 
not safe to run cars over six miles per hour over them. Even joints 
show at their worst where grade changes. Take a point where a 
change is from a 3 per cent, down to a 3 per cent. up. In cases of 
this kind, the vertical curve is so short that even if the lowest point 
comes in the center of the rail it usually changes to the joint, mak- 
ing a marked angle at that point. If a seven ton car having a load 
of fifty people be run down a 3 per cent, grade, at a rate of eight 
miles per hour and strike a solid wall, what would be]_the result? 
Now change/the problem to read to strike a 3 per cent, up grade. I 
will leave the solution of this problem to the reader, with the assur- 
ance that any investigation he may make of the evils of imperfect 
vertical curve of street railway practice will result in his becoming 
an advocate of broken joints. 

It may not be out of place to suggest that good practice requires 
the ties to be placed at least 30 per cent, nearer together on vertical 
curves than on the balance of the track, excepting on switches and 
horizontal curves. The custom of selecting the largest ties and 
placing them as near together as possible, allowing room for tamp- 
ing at the joints and leaving the center of the rails correspondingly 
short of bearing surface, allows in all track greater vertical action 
at the center of the rail than at the joint. The joint ties in this case 
serve as a fulcrum. The continual action loosens the joints and the 
paving blocks begin to work up above the rails. The braking 
power of the car is also impaired by its oscillation. 

With broken joints the average trackman, by placing extra large 
ties at the joints, will reinforce the center of the opposite rail. Should 
the joints become low, it will be found that the hammering will be 
perceptibly less than with even joints. My explanation for this is 
that the wheel at the low joint passes that point before all motion is 
out of the spring. The blow would then not be from the full weight 
of the car, that is, we get two separate blows, the first one from the 
wheel together with its portions of the truck. The compression of 
the spring makes the second blow, striking the rails some distance 
from the joint. If the car was running at four miles per hour, this 
would hold true in theory only. 

The matter of electrical circulation or ground return should by 
no means be ignored when considering the question. With broken 
joints it is not probable that the bonding at any two opposite joints 
would become broken at once, as they often do with even joints at 
bridge and culvert approaches. 



Important Patent Case Decided. 



On December 7, Judge Townsend of the United 
States Circuit Court, at New Haven, Conn., rendered a 
decision in the suit of the Thomson-Houston Electric 
Company vs. the Winchester Avenue Railway, declaring 
one of the Van Depoele under-running trolley patents in 
suit to be invalid and sustaining another. The pat- 
ents are now the property of the General Electric Com- 
pany, which was plaintiff in the suit. The defendant is 
a licensee of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, which defended the case. 

The decision is a voluminous one, covering twenty- 
five closely typewritten pages. The patent sustained is 
No. 495,443. The patent is a broad one, as may be illus- 
trated by the sixth claim, which is as follows: 

6. In an electric railway, the combination with a suitable track 
and a supply conductor suspended above the track, of a car provided 
with a swinging arm carrying a contact device in its outer extremity 
and means for imparting upward pressure to the outer portion of the 
arm and contact, to hold the latter in continuous working relation 
with the under side of the supply conductor, substantially as de- 
scribed. 

The decision is claimed by the plaintiff to give it and 
its licensees exclusive use of the under-running trolley. 




An I^nglish Street Railway Expert in America. 

W. J. Carruthers-Wain, pre^ddent of the Tramways 
Institute of Great Britain, and president and general 
manager of several tramway companies in England, has 
been making a brief but extended tour in America, study- 
ing the developments in street railway practice since his 
last visit in America, some five years ago. Mr. Carruthers- 
Wain arrived in this country just before the Montreal 
Convention which he attended, and since then has been 

in all the principal Ameri- 
can cities east of the Missis- 
sippi River, and north of 
Mason and Dixon's line. 

In an interview just 
prior to his return home, 
Mr. Carruthers-Wain re- 
ferred to the enormous ad- 
vance made in America in 
street railway construction, 
and in the magnitude of 
operation. He stated that 
the object of his trip was, 
primarily, to form an opin- 
ion on the advisability of 
introducing electric mo- 
tive power in some form 
upon certain of the tram- 
ways in which he is in- 
W. J. CARRUTHERS-WAIN terested, and that he was 

especially desirous of find- 
ing some conduit system which could be u,sed on the 
lines of the London, Deptford & Greenwich Tramway in 
the city of London itself. For this reason, he has per- 
sonally investigated every style of electric conduit at 
present in practical operation in America, both closed and 
open, and while he has not as yet formed a well considered 
opinion as to their practicability, he has been very much 
interested in what he has seen. The great expense of the 
conduit systems will be a serious bar to their introduc- 
tion in England, where conditions for tramway operation 
are so unsatisfactor}^ and he cannot say what will be 
done. 

Mr. Carruthers-Wain stated that an attempt would 
be made this winter to remedy, through Parliamentary 
action, the unfortunate state of affairs with regard to 
British tramway franchises, and he strongly hopes that 
decisive action will be taken in the right direction. The 
problems confronting British tramway companies are 
grave indeed, and it is practically certain that no radical 
improvements in equipment will be made under the pres- 
ent laws. He thinks that the present tendency in Eng- 
land towards municipal control of tramways is a fashion 
which has about run its course, owing to the somewhat 
unfortunate experiences of more than one municipality 
in attempting to operate public works. He considers 
that for a city to reduce fares, improve the service and 
shorten the hours of labor is to lay additional burdens on 
the taxpayers, not to derive a profit from operation. 

Were it not for the uncertainty surrounding the 
British tramways and electric lighting companies. Great 
Britain would be well in the van of electrical progress. 



To Stop at tlie Farther Corner in Philadelpliia. 



A Large Order From Cincinnati. 



The Cincinnati Street Railv/ay Company has recently 
awarded the McGuire Manufacturing Company a large 
order for 205 trucks. 



The Union Traction Company, representing the con- 
solidated railways of Philadelphia, has announced that, 

"i. All cars operated by this company will come to a full stop 
at the near side of every street occupied by another railway, to see 
that the crossing is clear, and will again stop after crossing to let 
off and take on passengers. 

" 2. All cars running north and south will have the absolute 
right of way." 

The intent of this is that, for the purpose of taking 
on and letting off passengers, the cars will hereafter 
stop at the "-far" side of crossings instead of the "near" 
side, as at present. To avoid collisions, however, the 
cars will come to a full stop at the " near" side of inter- 
secting streets occupied by railway companies. 



52 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



K RETROSRECX OR T^HR RMSX VRT^R. 

RROSRECTS F^OR 1S96. 



With a view to determine the results of the last year 
in the street railway supply business, and, as well, the 
prospects for the coming twelve months the Street 
Railway Journal recently addressed a letter of inquiry 
to the different prominent manufacturers which make a 
specialty of street railway supplies. The accompanying 
are the replies received. 

CONSOLIDATED CAR-HEATING CO. 

Albany, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — We have no information to give relative to our 
business, other than that it is greatly increased over a year ago. 

Very truly yours, 

Chas. a. Sheldon, 
General Manager and Treasurer. 



RAYMOND MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

CoRRY, Pa., December 10, 1895. 

Dear Sirs : — Our business the past year has been very satisfac- 
tory. Our spring business has increased considerably, and our 
trolley springs are giving universal satisfaction. 

Yours truly, 

Raymond Manufacturing Company. 



CHARLES SCOTT SPRING CO. 

Philadelphia, Pa,, December 10, 1895. 

Dear Sirs; — Replying to your favor of the 6th inst., would say 
that it is with pleasure we report increased business during the past 
year, and expect, during the coming year, to do a larger business 
than for some years past. 

Yours very truly, 

Wm. H. Hansell. 



THE BARNEY & SMITH CAR COMPANY. 

Dayton, O., December 17, 1895. 

Dear Sirs: — The outlook for the coming year seems to us quite 
encouraging. We believe that we will be quite busy in all of our 
departments, particularly in the manufacture of cars for electric ser- 
vice. 

Yours truly, 

A. M. KiTTRIDGE, Supt. 

THE DORNER & DUTTON MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

Cleveland, O., December 11, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — Our business for 1895 is 25 per cent, greater than 
1894, and we have run our shops a great deal over-time. The out- 
look for our special line is still better for 1896. 
Very truly yours, 

The Dorner & Dutton Manufacturing Company, 
Per H. A. Dorner. 



THE BILLINGS & SPENCER CO. 

Hartford, Conn., Dec. 9, 1895. 

Gentlemen; — The year 1895 is the best year we have ever ex- 
perienced in our business, and we are looking forward to a large in- 
crease in 1896. 

Yours respectfully, 

H. E. Billings, 
Mgr. Railway Dept. 



J. H. BICKF(7RD. 

Salem, Mass., December 13, 1895. 

Gentlemen; — Replying to yours of the 6th inst., would say that 
during the year which is just closing I have been extremely busy, 
and it has compared favorably with any year during the last four. 
The outlook for 1896 is very good, and I have several jobs in hand 
which will be built in the early spring. 

Yours very truly, 

J. H. Bickford. 

BURNHAM & DUGGAN RAILWAY APPLIANCE CO. 

Boston, Mass., December 13, 1895. 
Gentlemen: — Yours received, and we take pleasure in stating 



that our business increased largely in 1895 as compared with 1894, 
es])ecially in the sale of our own devices — adjustable brackets, in- 
sulators, rail chairs for street and steam railroads, transfer tables, 
etc., etc. 

Yours truly, 

Arthur Burnham, Treasurer. 



THE Q AND C COMPANY. 

Chicago, III., December g, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — The business of the year just closing has been the 
most satisfactory of any since we were in business. We have had a 
much larger amount of sales, and although we have advanced the 
price of labor and paid more for material, still the large additional 
manufacture has allowed our placing the goods at no increase in 
price. 

Trusting this is the same with you, we are, 
Yours very truly, 

C. F. Quincy. 



ALBERT & J. M. ANDERSON. 

Boston, Mass., December 10, 1895. 

Gentlemen; — The past year has been a good one with us and an 
improvement over previous years. We are gradually getting 
straightened out in our factory, which we have now occupied about 
two years, and are working to beiter advantage than ever before. 
Thanks to the quality of our product and the reputation it has 
gained we cannot but anticipate a good amount of business for the 
coming year. 

Yours very truly, 

Albert & J. M. Anderson. 



PRATT & WHITNEY COMPANY. 

Hartford. Conn., December 17, 1895. 

Gentlemen : — We are pleased to report that our business for 1895 
has practically been double what it was in either 1893 or 1894, with 
prospects for future business very bright. We have developed many 
new machines and devices, among which is the automatic weighing 
machine, which we look upon as a very important matter — one which 
will eventually develop into a very large business. The field for this 
is very wide, in fact almost unlimited. 

Very truly yours, 

Pratt & Whitney Company, 
Geo. W. M. Reed, Treasurer. 



A. O. SCHOONMAKER. 

New York, Dec. 9, 1895. 

Gentlemen; — You ask me for information regarding business 
for past year in the street railway line. I have made a specialty in 
this line of my solid sheet India mica segment. I am pleased to say 
that the demand for them has been very good, showing a steady in- 
crease. To meet this increased demand I have had to put in two new 
presses this year, and from present appearances I look for a larger 
demand the coming year, as the number of electric roads through 
the country is steadily growing. 

Yours truly, 

A. O. Schoonmaker. 



CRANE COMPANY. 

Chicago, December 9, 1895. 

Dear Sirs : — Our business during 1895 has been very satis- 
factory. The demand from street railways and other large power 
plants for the Crane high pressure valves and fittings has exceeded 
our expectations, and on our regular line of steam goods for stand- 
ard pressures we have been forced to the limit of our productive 
capacity. 

It is a little early to make predictions for 1896. 
Wishing you the compliments of the season, we are 
Yours very truly. 

Crane Company. 



TAYLOR ELECTRIC TRUCK CO. 

Troy, N. Y., December 12, 1895. 

Gentlemen; — As far as we can judge the outlook for business in 
our line in '96 is very good. Every manufacturing concern has been 
more or less affected by the dull times of the last two years, and 
truck manufacturers have suffered among the rest. 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



53 



We have been trying to perfect our product in every possible 
point and to please our customers. So far we feel that we have done 
both, and anticipate, as we have said before, a large demand for our 
material in the year to come. We are, 

Yours very respectfully, 

Taylor Electric Truck Co. 



THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY EQUIPMENT COMPANY. 

Cincinnati, O., December 10, 1895. 

Gkntlemen; — The year 1S95 has been a year of great activity 
with us. We have run our factory to its full capacity during the 
entire year. Our output in our steel tubular- line pole department 
has been very large, and shipments have been made to many differ- 
ent sections of the country. Our business has increased to such an 
extent that our present factory premises have become too small for 
us, and we are now making arrangements for the erection of a large 
manufacturing plant with all modern conveniences. 

Respectfully, 
The Electric R.mi.w.vy Eciuipment Co.mpanv, 

Per Wm. a. McCallum, Gen. Man. 

THE NEW PROCESS RAW-HIDE COMPANY. 

Syr.\cuse, N. Y., December 10, 1895. 

Gentlemen; — Our street railway business has steadily increased 
during the past year, and the outlook for a heavier trade than ever 
for 1896 is very flattering. 

Street railway managers are becoming better acquainted with 
the merits of our goods, and most of them are now as much in favor 
of raw-hide pinions for the single reduction motors as they formerly 
were for the double reduction. On the whole the situation is very 
satisfactory. Very truly yours. 

The New Process Raw-Hide Company. 

A. C. VosBURGH, Sec. and Treas. 

J. G. BRILL COMPANY. 

Piiii.ADELrHiA, Dec. 9, 1S95. 

Dear Sirs : — As far as a resume of the past year is concerned, 
we desire tc state it has been from a business standpoint an emi- 
nently satisfactory year. Our output has been increased from 1894 
fully ten per cent, to twelve per cent., and the only possible objection 
that could be made to the year's business is the matter of collections, 
which have been somewhat slow. From the present orders whicli 
we have received for delivery during the coming year, and which we 
may say is considerably in advance of the time, we contemplate a 
further increase of business for 1896. The outlook is very promis- 
ing. 

Yours truly, 

J. G. Brill Company. 

THE KISINGER ISON COMPANY. 

Cincinnati, O., December 10, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — Replying to your favor of 6th inst., I will say re- 
garding our business compared with one year ago, it is no compari- 
son at all. From December 26, 1894, to November i, 1895, we have 
done more business than in the two previous years put together. 
From November i, 1895, to December i, 1895, was the dullest month 
in all our business experience. Have booked more orders the first 
two days of December, 1895, than the whole month of November, 
1S95. Up to the present date, December 10, we are full of orders for 
this month, receiving fair prices for all goods. Collections generally 
slow. Trade outlook for 1896 remarkably good. 

Truly yours, 

Kisinger Ison Compaky. 



THE NEW HAVEN CAR REGISTER COMPANY. 

New Haven, Conn., December 9, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — Our business the past year greatly exceeded our 
expectations and the demand for our registers is constantly growing 
and the outlook for i8gC is very bright. 

Our machines of all styles are attracting very wide attention, 
and our double and triple machines are supplying a need which has 
long been felt by such roads as have two or more classes of fares, or 
fares and transfers. The registration of transfers separately from 
the cash fares is rapidly becoming to be regarded as a necessity, 
and this is accomplished by our double and triple machines in the 
most perfect manner. 

Very truly yours, 

The New Haven Car Register Company. 

John S. Bradley', Sec. 

WASON MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

Springfield, Mass., December 12, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — Since resuming the construction of street railway 
cars late last fall, we have built and delivered cars of almost every 
pattern for electric service, from the low bench open, the twenty foot 
box or closed, the vestibuled passenger and the combination passen- 
ger and baggage and passenger and mail car, to the platform and 
box freight cars. 



We practically did little or nothing other than to get ready for 
the construction of street cars last fall. During the year just closing 
we have been quite busy, and are now employing 350 workmen. 
Yours very truly, 

Wason M anufacturin(; Company. 



THE WE.STINGHOUSE MACHINE COMPANY. 

Pittsburgh, Pa., December 12, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — A comparison of our business in 1894 with the 
year just closing shows a steady increase in volume which has 
severely taxed the capacity of our present shops to meet. Before the 
new year is far advanced we expect to be settled in our new shops, 
with improved facilities in every department f<jr turning out a larger 
product. 

The demand for steam power the past year has responded to the 
general revival in Inisiness, and particularly to the renewed activity 
in the iron industries. A temporary reaction in the pig iron market 
just at present has a mild effect to quiet l)usiness somewhat, but 
nothing in the situation affords ground for the belief that it will re- 
sult in any permanent or decided setback. 

Yours truly. 

The Westinghouse Machine Company. 



THE SIMONDS MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

PiTTSiiURGH, Pa., December 9, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — Answering your letter of the 6th inst., it gives us 
pleasure to state that business with us has for the past six months 
steadily increased; the month just ending, November, was the larg- 
est in the history of our company. 

Since the beginning of the current year we have added to our 
many specialties the "Thomas" safety guard, and the celebrated 
" Duncan" trolley, having secured the exclusive rights for manu- 
facture. The fender is comparatively a new device, but the trolley 
has given universal satisfaction wherever used. The outlook with 
us for the coming year is far in advance of what it was last year at 
the present time, and we predict an excellent business for 1896. 
Yours very truly, 

The Simonds Manufacturing Company. 



THE HUNT AIR BRAKE COMPANY. 

Pittsburgh, Pa., December 14, 1895. 

Gentlemen : — We have to report business very good with us, 
and we have on our books at the present time orders for the Mt. 
Clemens Fast Line, Saginaw and Bay City Railroad Company, City 
and Suburban Railroad Company, Baltimore, Md., second order from 
the Akron, Bedford and Cleveland Railroad Company, Columbus, 
Hocking Valley and Toledo Railroad Company, Binghamton Rail- 
road Company, Binghamton, N. Y., besides several other good sized 
orders which will in all probability be closed this month, amounting 
to about 100 outfits. The prospects are unusually bright for the new 
year which will soon be upon us, and we are preparing ourselves to 
be in shape to handle a large business promptly. 

Yours truly. 

The Hunt Air Brake Company', 

H. E. Hunt, General Manager. 

H. W. JOHNS MANUFACTURING CO. 

New York, December 17, 1895. 

Dear Sirs: — Our business in the electric railway supplies dur- 
ing the past year has greatly exceeded our anticipations. Compara- 
tively few new forms ot trolley line and other insulators have been 
introduced during the year, and in this respect the progress of the 
year has been unique. There is also a probability that but few 
changes will be made in the designs of insulators during next year, 
the more important and practical forms having apparently become 
standard articles of manufacture. 

In order to meet certain demands we will put upon the market 
at the beginning of 1896 cheaper forms of insulators, which will pos- 
sess many of the advantages already found in our more expensive 
materials. 

The indications are that 1896 will see larger and better business 
than either 1894 or 1895, and will be correspondingly prosperous. 
Yours truly, 

W. F. D. Crane, Electrical Depa'rt't. 

THE CONSOLIDATED CAR FENDER COMPANY. 

Providence, R. I., December 18, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — We have had a very successful year's business in 
the sale of our car fender. 

It has been scarcely thirteen months since our fenders were 
placed on the market, and during that time we have equipped more 
than 1,200 electric cars with our fenders and guards, all of which are 
now in actual use. Orders for large numbers of fenders are now 
being executed, and our company has every reason to believe that its 
business for the next year will be at least three times what it has 
been the last year. 

The Consolidated Car Fender Company carries a stock of from 
500 to 1,000 full equipments, and is therefore ready at all times to 



54 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



execute orders promptly, which fact, during the past year, has se- 
cured for us a large number of orders, which otherwise might not 
have been given. Yours very truly, 

The Consolidated Car Fender Company, 

A. C. WooDWORTH, General Manager. 



THE WEIR FROG COMPANY. 

Cincinnati, O., December 23, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — We are glad to say that the business for 1895 has 
been nearly double that of 1894, both in our steam road line and 
street railway work, and in the latter we look for an improvement in 
next year's trade over this, on account of our being now able to ob- 
tain any section of girder, grooved, and Shanghai T-rails. 

You are doubtless aware that a couple of manufacturers of street 
sections of rails, who are also in the track supply business, refused to 
sell to outside Frog and Switch Works, and so to a considerable ex- 
tent had a monopoly of special track work, but happily this era has 
passed, and as we can now secure any section of " T " or girder rail, 
we are in a position to quote on any requirements for special work. 

The last quarter of the year we finished some large contracts 
for electric railways in various sections of the country. 
Yours very truly, 

F. C. Weir, Pres. 



UNION DRAWN STEEL COMPANY. 

New York, December 11, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — We have been very busy for over a year and our 
business has steadily increased month by month ever since last 
spring, necessitating the building of two new mills at Beaver Falls, 
Pa., which, when in operation, about the first of February next, 
will largely increase our capacity. 

We are having marked success with our special open hearth 
cold drawn axles, which we are prepared to furnish centered and key- 
seated if necessary. These axles are of great tensile and torsional 
strength and elastic limit, and are drawn straight, accurate to deci- 
mal, exact and round, with polished surface. The superiority of our 
open hearth axles over the Bessemer has been demonstrated by 
drop tests such as are imposed by the leading steam railways of the 
country. 

We have every reason to expect a large business for the coming 
year. Yours very truly, 

Union Drawn Steel Company. 

Tiio.MAS Towne, Eastern Sales Agent. 



THE THIEL detective SERVICE CO. 

New York, N. Y., December 11, 1895. 

Dear Sirs: — The street railway clientage of Thiel's Detective 
Service has largely increased during 1895. While a few managers 
adhere to the old practice of utilizing amateurs or economize by em- 
ploying peripatetic irresponsibles to report upon receipts, the vast 
majority appreciate the value of trained service, responsibility, and 
the absence of any motive to exaggerate or do injustice to employes. 
They find quite a difference also in the reports of men able at best 
to count the passengers and compare the count with the register, 
and those qualified to note and report other points quite as impor- 
tant. 

Managers are learning also that it is better to keep in touch with 
their employes, avoid just causes of complaint, and dispense with 
the services of chronic grumblers and agitators, than it is to fight 
strikers. On several occasions during the year we have been for- 
tunate enough to ward off threatened labor troubles and save the 
companies and their employes from the dangers and costliness of 
strikes. T. E. Lonergan, Manager. 

THE BETHLEHEM IRON COMPANY. 

Chicago, III., December 12, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — In reply to your esteemed favor of the 6th inst., 
we write to say that it gives us pleasure to announce that our busi- 
ness, which in this territory is a new one, is improving from month 
to month. 

We have been located here a little over a year, during the first 
part of which there was very little business of any kind to be ob- 
tained. During the past six months we have come in on the crest of 
the wave which was ushered in by the improvement of the iron and 
steel industry, and we have had nothing to complain of ever since. 
Our business has been particularly good among the manufacturers 
of engines for street railways, and street railways themselves have 
appreciated the merits of our fluid compressed shafts, and in some 
instances of hollow forged shafts, and we are doing a good business 
in these lines. We expect that the new year will open well in the 
direction of street railway building, and we hope to be on hand when- 
ever engines are to be placed to furnish ourforgings for them. 
Very truly yours, 

H. F. J. Porter. 

THE STANDARD AIR-BRAKE COMPANY. 

New York, December 7, 1895. 
Dear Sirs: — We are glad to state that this year's business has 



been very satisfactory in volume, and our books show a marked in- 
crease over the previous year. 

It is a pleasure to state that the demand for air-brakes is con- 
stantly increasing. We are gratified to find that the missionary 
work we have done in this field is being more and more appreciated. 

We were the first in the world to build successful commercial 
street railway air-brakes. Lately we have made such additions to 
our staff and enlargements of our facilities as will enable us to man- 
ufacture the Standard air-brake on a much larger scale than hitherto. 

It is a pleasure to record our appreciation of the value of the 
Journal to us. We have used it successfully as a "silent salesman," 
and perhaps the best indication of this is the fact that you have lately 
been printing double page advertisements for us, and we have con- 
tracted for preferred positions in your number to be published in 
October of next year. 

Yours truly, 

The Standard Air-Brake Company. 

E. J. Wessels, General Manager. 



BROOKLYN RAILWAY SUPPLY COMPANY. 

Stamford, Conn., December 12, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — We are now building the most elaborate snow 
sweepers we have ever constructed. Each broom extends entirely 
across tne track. All motors are on deck out of the way of mud and 
slush, the whole being covered with a substantial cab. The sweep- 
ers are not only new in general design, but they are built from new 
patterns throughout, based upon improvements suggested by experi- 
ence. No expense has been spared, our only orders being to make 
the best. They are intended for the new electric conduit system of 
the Metropolitan Traction Company, New York, and are from de- 
signs of the engineers of that system. 

We have also built two calile sweepers for the new Lexington 
Avenue cable road, which are models, in their way, of strength and 
simplicity. 

Our angle frame sweepers come next in interest — fitted to any 
electric truck, simple and inexpensive. 

We have at last secured a plow which will do effective work at- 
tached to any ordinary passenger car, the idea appears to take, 
the cost is only $50, and we are getting orders faster than we can 
turn them out. Yours, 

Brooklyn Railway Supply Company. 



GRIFFIN WHEEL COMPANY. 

Chicago, December 13, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — Referring to your circular letter of December 6th, 
in regard to street railway trade: 

Our output of street car and electric motor wheels has exceeded 
any previous year, with the prospects for 1896 being equally as good, 
if not better. 

During the year we have completed our Denver works, with a 
capacity of 300 wheels per day, and commenced casting wheels there 
on November 1st. The works are equipped with all modern appli- 
ances, thus enabling us to turn out orders promptly. 

Our Detroit plant has been running up to its full capacity the 
entire year. 

We have lately purchased the plant of the North-Western Wheel 
& Foundry Company, at St. Paul. This plant will be thoroughly 
overhauled and equipped with modern appliances, in order to take 
care of our growing business in the Northwest. The plant will be 
ready for operation in the early part of the year, and will have a 
capacity of 300 wheels per day. 

Yours very truly, 

Chas. F. Kopf, Asst. Sec. 



STANDARD UNDERGROUND CABLE COMPANY. 

Pittsburgh, Pa., December 9, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — With regard to our business of 1895, I beg to say 
that it has been extremely satisfactory, the output being about the 
same as for the year 1894. During the years 1893, 1894 and 1895, all 
of which time covers a period of general financial depression, we 
kept our factories running night and day in order to supply the 
demand for insulated wire and cable. 

" Base" figures are usually looked upon with more or less sus- 
picion, but when they are based upon actual facts they become 
extremely interesting and noteworthy. I give you some figures that 
are matters of shipping records on our books. The colossal installa- 
tion of underground feeder cables for a large traction company in 
the city of Philadelphia, upon which we have been constantly engaged 
for nearly three years past, and which we have just completed, is 
now in operation. This installation consists of a total of 2,054,670 
ft. of cable (lead covered, ranging from No. 0000 B. & S. gauge, to 
6,000,000 c. m.); also over 600,000 ft. of duplex telephone cable. The 
total weight of the cable is 9,050,000 lbs. or 4,600 net tons. We be- 
lieve the outlook for 1896 to be quite favorable. 

Very truly yours. 
Standard Underground Cable Company. 

J. W. Marsh, Vice-Pres. & Gen. Man. 



FITZGERALD-VAN DORN COMPANY. 

Chicago, December 22, 1895. 
Gentleme.n : — We are glad to report that during 1895 we have 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



55 



enjoyed a marked increase in our business, and business for 1896 
bids fair to greatly exceed that of 1895. Our automatic coupling for 
elevated roads has more than fulfilled our most sanguine expectations. 
We build seven diiferent patterns of couplers : No. i for the ordi- 
nary surface road ; No. 2 to be used where the l)reak over on steep 
grades is very sharp, as on the Kansas City Cable Railway, of Kan- 
sas City, Mo.'; No. 3, that of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated 
trail car; No. 4, that of the Metropolitan Elevated motor car; No. 5 
is especially built for great durability in wearing surface and has 
probably more than five times as long a life as any other coupler 
built for cable service. It is just the coupler for the better class of 
electric surface cars being built at the present time. No. 6 is that 
used by the Lake Street Elevated motor cars ; No. 7 is one fe- 
cently gotten out for a class of cars slightly under the dimensions of 
elevated cars. These couplers are now so thoroughly known through- 
out the country that they recommend themselves. They are all ma- 
chine fitted. 

The company also manufactures the Van Dorn ball and swivel 
joint attachment to fasten the coupling to the body of the car, which 
is the most perfect device for this purpose yet brought out, and is 
being adopted by the leading street railways of the country. The 
Van Dorn coupler has been made the standard for over two hundred 
of the leading street railways of this country. 

Yours truly, 

Fitzgerald-Van Dorn Company. 

W. R. FLEMING cSr COMPANY. 

New York, December 10, 1895. 

Gentlemen : — We, as representatives of the Harrisburg Foundry 
and Machine Works, builders of simple and compound Ide and Ideal 
engines, report a most flourishing condition of trade which we have 
had. The volume of business for 1895 is nearly 50 per cent, in ex- 
cess of that of 1894. 

While a goodly proportion of our installations are of the higher 
class of isolated lighting plants, involving the latest arrangements of 
direct connected engine dynamo combinations, yet a considerably 
greater proportion than ever before of our work during the year has 
been taken up with electric railway plants. Two (2) 1,000 h. p. en- 
gines are just being started in the power station of the Philadelphia, 
Castle Rock and West Chester Railroad Company, which represent 
the latest and most improved type of our engines arranged for direct 
connection to railway generators. These engines will soon be illus- 
trated in full detail in the technical papers. They are strictly rail- 
way engines from every point of view, and embody features of ad- 
vantage which experience has shown to be fully warranted. It is 
claimed that on account of the results of a series of very careful tests 
lower station operative cost can be obtained from these improved ma- 
chines than from any other type of steam engine power built. 

Several contracts have been recently made for complete power 
plants for railway service, the essence of which is a stated guarantee 
of cost of station operation. 

The outlook fori8g6 is unusually bright, and such as to warrant 
the Harrisburg Foundry and Machine Works in recently purchasing 
a large quantity of new and special tools for taking care of their 
growing business. The Harrisburg plant has been operated for sev- 
eral months past day and night in order to keep abreast of orders on 
hand. Yours truly, 

W. R. FlEMLNG & COilPANY. 



THE NEW YORK ELECTRICAL WORKS. 

New York, December 16, 1895. 

Dear Sirs; — The trade for 1895 in overhead material has 
been, in many respects, the most satisfactory in the history of our 
business. By an increase in the number of roads dealing with us, 
a much wider distribution of our- goods has been gained, and their 
character more generally understood. We have steadfastly adhered 
to our original policy of achieving the highest standard of excellence 
in all the goods of our manufacture, and attribute much of our suc- 
cess to the fact that we are able to show results in keeping with that 
idea. While some slight improvements here and there have been 
found advisable, it is a source of satisfaction with us to know that 
for the greater part the articles comprising our line of specialties 
have stood in no, need of modification. Our insulation switches, 
crossings, mechanical clips and section insulators, having now re- 
ceived the test of several years on many roads and proved their re- 
liability and efficiency under severe and trying conditions, may be 
said to have long since passed the experimental stage, and become 
generally recognized as standard articles. 

A steady improvement in demand for the heavier types of ma- 
terial would seem lo indicate a tendency among consumers toward 
better equipment and a growing belief in the economy of using the 
most sulDstantial fittings. We are now running our work at utmost 
capacity, with a large number of orders ahead, which will carry us 
into the new year. 

We regard the outlook for 1896 as very promising, and have 
every confidence that the new season will bring a gratifying increase 
of business. 

Yours truly. 

The New York Electrical Works. 



BORDEN & SELLECK COMPANY. 

Chicago, III., December 9, 1895. 
Gentlemen : — Our business on Harrison conveyors, elevators, 
etc., has been Active during 1895, as compared with 1894. We have 
installed the following plants during the year: 



Toronto .Street Railroad, Toronto, Out., a crusher and conveyors 
from cars to storage house and to two batteries of boilers, capacity 
100 tons per hour. 

Northwest Electric Transit Company's power house at Chicago, 
automatic wagon dump for coal, coal crusher, elevator, conveyors to 
storage house and to battery of boilers, wheel ash conveyor for re- 
moving ashes from boilers, steel storage tanks, etc. 

North Shore Electric Company, Edgewater power house, Chicago, 
three elevators, coal conveyors lo storage tanks and ash conveyor 
to steel storage tank. 

Armour-Institute, Chicago, elevators and conveyors to battery of 
boilers and taking out ashes from boilers to steel ash storage tank. 

Armour Packing Company, Kansas City, Mo., special wheel 
conveyors. 

Toledo Traction Company, Toledo, O., elevators and conveyors 
for handling coal and ashes to and from battery of boilers, steel 
wagon for handling coal and ashes. (Not yet completed.) 

The outlook for conveyor business for 1896 was never better. 
We are figuring on a large number of plants for street car lines, with 
every prospect that our business will show a very large increase over 
1895, as 1895 has shown over 1894. The machinery we have supplied 
is giving the best of satisfaction, and we are glad of the opportunity 
to show parties interested a large number of plants in actual work- 
ing operation. Yours truly, 

HORUEN & SELLECK COMPANY. 

H. Borden, President. 



HEINE SAFETY BOILER COMPANY. 

St. Louis. Mo., December 20, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — We have had a very satisfactory year's business — 
much better than we were entitled to expect, considering general 
trade conditions. We take it that a business like ours, which de- 
pends for existence on new enterprises and improvements in the 
largest of old enterprises, is not a fair index of immediate conditions, 
but rather reflects the sentiment of large power users concerning the 
near future. 

On this presumption we read in the character of our 1895 busi- 
ness a very widespread belief that the past year has been a good 
time to prepare for a general increase of business in i8g6. 

Among this year's buyers of Heine Boilers are such people as 
the Warren (R. I.) Manufacturing Company; Ansonia Brass & 
Copper Company; Woonsocket Worsted Mills; Solvay Process Com- 
pany; C. Pardee Works; Chicago Edison Company; Jones & Laughlin, 
Ltd.; Illinois Steel Company; Swift & Company; N. K. Fairbank 
Company; Anaconda Mining Company; Arizona Copper Company; 
Atlantic Refining Company; Rockford Sugar Works, and many 
others of equal caliber. The names are significant. It is fair to 
assume that these people expect to do an increasing business or they 
would not be enlarging their plants with high priced boilers. 

From all accounts, we are prepared to see a very large amount 
of new work started in the street railroad line in the coming year. 
We have had the pleasure of adding to our list of customers this 
past year the two New Orleans lines — Orleans Railroad Company 
and St. Charles Street Railroad Company ; Toledo Traction Company; 
Louisville Street Railway Company; Bergen County (N. J.) Traction 
Company; Hartford Street Railway Company; Lynchburgh & River- 
mont Street Railway Company; Luzerne, Dallas & Harvey's Lake 
Railway Company; J. G. Brill Company; South African Street 
Railway Company. Yours truly, 

Heine Safety Boiler Co.mpany. 



THE E. T. BURROWES CO. 

Portland, Maine, December 11, 1895. 

Dear Sirs: — We are pleased to state that the volume of our 
business "for 1895 shows a large increase over that for 1894. 

We are the pioneers in the manufacture of patent car curtains, 
and when we entered the field, blinds were used, as a rule. Our 
business, which was at first almost entirely confined to steam rail- 
ways, is now almost equally divided with street railways. 

Our regular pinch handle shade for closed street and steam cars 
has its established trade. We hope and believe its sale will in- 
crease, at least, in the same proportion for 1896 as it has in 1895. 
Although we have used a great many of our regular pinch handle 
shades for open street cars, we have never felt satisfied that they 
were the best for that purpose. 

Our new open car shade devised expressly for open street cars 
is meeting with the most flattering reception. From orders already 
received and inquiries from both car builders and railways, we feel 
that we can expect a large sale for this shade. 

In our curtain fittings department we have had a very much 
larger trade this year than last; this we, of course, largely attribute 
to the popularity of " Oakette," our waterproof curtain goods. Al- 
though " Oakette " is most especially adapted for open car curtains, 
it being so strong and durable, it is selling largely for inside shades. 
We have been very much pleased to receive many large orders for 
" Oakette " from car builders. Our customers are re-ordering with 
" Oakette " specified, and this is the best proof if its merits that we 
know. 

On the whole, every indication at present points to a large in- 
crease of our business in 1896, and we feel that we should be un- 
grateful for the generous patronage of our customers if we did not 
express our satisfaction with our business during 1S95. We believe 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



that conscientious endeavor to satisfy and please our customers has 
been largely instrumental in attaining our success. 

Yours respectfully, 

The E. T. Burrowes Co. 



WASHBURN & MOEN MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

Worcester, Mass., December ig, 1895. 

Gentlemen : — A brief survey of our business in electrical wires 
during the past year is very gratifying to us, for it discloses the fact 
that notwithstanding the previous prolonged business depression, 
which undoubtedly acted as a check on electric railway construction, 
our output of wires for this purpose has been greater than our pro- 
duction of any previous year. 

A very large and important part of our business has been that of 
our heavy stranded and cabled weatherproof feeders. The unusually 
large proportion of orders for railway feeder cables, with a capacity 
of from 500,000 c. M. to 1,000,000 c. m., seems to indicate that there is 
a general move among electricians toward using cables of ample ca- 
pacity on the ground of economical operation, notwithstanding the 
increased cost of construction. 

The past year has proved that electric railways can be success- 
fully operated with underground feeders and it is only a matter of 
time, when, in our large cities, all these overhead wires must be 
abolished. The demand for our lead covered crown wires and cables 
for underground and submarine use continues to increase, and this 
is now one of the important departments of our work. 

The phenomenal sales of our Chicago copper rail bonds show 
another line of advance in practical street railroading. Electrical en- 
gineers, who have heretofore seemingly given all their thought to a 
perfect overhead construction, are now realizing that the failure to 
provide a proper return for the current has been the one barrier to a 
much more economical operation ol our railroads than has heretofore 
been attained. 

The results attending the use of the Chicago bond, on many of 
our largest railway systems, have established the fact that in the 
proper bonding of the rails the practical solution of this troublesome 
problem has been found. 

Present indications point to the construction of many new lines 
the coming season, as well as the extension and re-equipment of 
many existing lines. We already have large orders on hand for 
spring delivery, and the year of 1896 promises to be one of great ad- 
vance in all departments of electrical work. 
Yours very truly, 

Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company. 



CAMBRIA IRON COMPANY. 

Philadeli'HIA, December 18, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — The list below will show the amount of tonnage 
sold by us to the various street railways during the current year: 



Pound. Tons. 

Akron, Bedford & Cleveland Railway 68 232 

Barbour-Stockwell Co 231 

Bay Cities Consolidated Street Railway 60 76 

Buffalo Railway 85 114 

Central Railway & Electric Co 60 253 

Chicago City Railway 89^^ 1,501 

Cleveland Electric Railway 60 181 

Detroit & Mackinac Railway 60 18 

Detroit Railway 85 6,843 

Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Railway 47 55 

East Lorain Street Railway 68-73 269 

Globe Street Railway 90&68 125 

Harrington-Robinson Co 60 372 

Simon Harrold 68 181 

Lynn & Boston Railroad 90 142 

McKeesport, D. & W. Railway \ 60-73 271 

Metropolitan Street Railway 47-6o 114 

L. E. Miller 73 45° 

Mineral Ridge & Niles Electric Railway 48 38 

Mt. Vernon Electric Railway 60 46 

New Jersey Electric Railway 90 60 

North Hudson County Railroad 90 161 

Rockwell Consolidated Co 90 142 

Springfield Street Railway 60 896 

Staten Island Electric Railway 90 1,615 

Steel Rail Supply Co 90 213 

Sylvester & Co 50.6-60 261 

Taylor, Major & B 60 45 

Toledo Consolidated Street Railway 60 207 

Toledo Electric Street Railway 60 519 

John L. Vance 60 201 

West Chicago Street Railway 90 7,151 

William Wharton, Jr., & Co 47 to 107 2,316 

White, Crosby & Co 73 3,670 

Second Avenue Traction Co 61 

Yours truly. 



W. S. Ottinger, Chief Clerk. 



HAROLD P. BROWN. 

■ New York, December 11, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — In reply to your favor of the 6th, I am glad to say 
that we have noi encountered the dull times that the winter season 



led us to expect. C^n the contrary, the plastic rail bond has made so 
many friends, on account of its splendid records this year, that each 
month has brought increase of business, so that we are now putting 
in machinery which will multiply our capacity by ten. A large portion 
of our winter work has been in supplying material for re-bonding 
old roads which have found the best of copper bonding insufficient 
even when in good condition. 

For instance, the Cleveland Electric Railway Company has re- 
cently been inspecting and tightening their copper bonds on the 
Cedar Avenue line near their large power house. Here there are 
two sets of bonds: One of No. 0000 around the chair to the web of 
rail and another of four No. o wires in a casting riveted to the tram 
near end of rail. In spite of the tightening, the loss at each joint 
during heavy load ran from 0.08 to 0.35 volts per joint. A new 
form of plastic rail bond was then applied by drilling a horizontal 
hole through web of rail and sides of chairs against same on each 
side of the joint. 

The steel was amalgamated by the Edison process and the hole 
partly filled with the plastic alloy, which thus made contact between 
rails and chairs supporting same. Then a tapering soft iron plug 
was driven in from each side and held in place by a stove bolt 
through central holes in plugs. After completing this work the 
drop was but 0.015 volt per joint at time of heaviest load. 

Another very promising field for the use of the plastic bond ma- 
terial has been developed by the Buffalo railway in connection with 
their adoption of my method of preventing electrolysis of water and 
gas pipes. Measurements made of the drop between the negative 
brushes of one of their large dynamos and the rail bus bar, and be- 
tween positive brushes and switchboard, showed a drop which was 
larger than it should be with the amount of copper in circuit, with 
1,200 amperes output. Every unsoldered contact in that circuit was 
then amalgamated and covered with a layer of the plastic bond ma- 
terial, and on remeasuring the drop with the same load it was found 
that nearly three electrical horse power had been saved, in spite of the 
fact that the conductors throughout had a section of one and a half 
square inches. 

Mr. Dunning, the master mechanic of the road, and Mr. Henning, 
the chief engineer, have therefore decided to apply the plastic bond 
material on all unsoldered copper contacts on dynamos, switches, 
bus bars and instruments in the power house, on all unsoldered con- 
nections on the motor cars and on all line switches and cut-outs. It 
has heretofore been supposed that when two copper surfaces were 
fitted perfectly together and bolted with great pressure, the trans- 
mission loss at the contact surfaces was nominal, and the modern 
power house switches were supposed to give perfect contact, but the 
tests disclose unexpected sources of loss in these also. 

We, therefore, have every reason to expect a large business for 
the coming year, as we shall get our full share of the new construc- 
tion work, since the leading men in this line now understand the 
disadvantages of maintaining contact between steel and copper. 

Truly yours, 

Harold P. Brown. 



THE FIBERITE COMPANY. 

Mechanicville, N. Y., December 11, 1895. 

Gentlemen: — Your favor of the 6th received, and in answer we 
are pleased to state that the year just closing has been a most pros- 
perous one for this company. We have sold more goods than ever 
before, we have opened more new accounts, and, what is even more 
agreeable to us, we have pleased our customers to an extent hardly 
hoped for. This is undoubtedly due to the high grade of material 
we manufacture. It has always been the aim of this company to 
make only the best class of material possible. Starting in the first 
place, and as a foundation, with the Medbery insulation, invented by 
our president, and which is now conceded to be superior, in point of 
strength and insulation, to any other material now used, the most 
careful consideration has been given to all other points needed to 
make a complete line of overhead electric railway material of the 
highest character. Exhaustive and costly experiments were made 
in order to determine the best combination of metals for the severe 
and exacting service of street roads. That the result has been satis- 
factory is evidenced by the very large number of leading roads now 
using the Medbery material, and by the constant daily additions to 
the number. Owners, managers, contractors and builders, looking 
at it from different standpoints, all agree in one thing, and that is, 
the advantage of having substantial and durable overhead equip- 
ment, and in view of this fact, the sales of goods of the high char- 
acter of the Medbery are bound to increase. 

During the year we have been obliged to add largely to our 
manufacturing and shipping facilities, and only by so doing have 
we been able to meet satisfactorily the increasing demand for our 
specialties. Our business was also increased to a large extent by 
the introduction of the Medbery station switches. These switch-^s, 
honestly made, accurately determined, handsomely finished and 
absolutely reliable, met with an unprecedented sale from the start. 
No better switch can be made, while our unequalled facilities enable 
us to do justice to dealer and consumer alike. The enormous sale 
for these switches encourages us in our decision to furnish only the 
very highest class of material. Something over a year since we 
made shipments of sample lots to foreign countries, and a number of 
orders received this year, as a result of such trial orders, indicates 
the high standing of the Medbery material. 

We believe the coming year will show greater activity than any 
former year in the history of electric railway traction. Regarding 
our own prospects, they were never as good. Already contracts have 
been secured for many miles of road to be equipped as early as pos- 
sible in the spring. 



January, 1896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



While competition and good business judgment leads us to meet 
the changed condition of selling at the very lowest possible prices, 
yet the fact of the Medbery material being specified in most cases 
where superior equipment is insisted upon makes the outlook pecu- 
liarly pleasant for us. 

As the best goods made could not be sold unless known, we, 
manufacturers of the best in our line, feel under obligations to the 
Strekt Railway Journal, the best in its line, for introducing us, 
through its advertising pages, to many of our now valued customers. 

With the compliments of the season, be good enough to accept 
our best wishes for continued success to the Journal. 

Very truly yours, 

H.J. Medbery, Pres. 

STERN & SILVERMAN. 

Philadelphia, December 9, 1895. 
Gentlemen: — It affords us much pleasure to answer your letter 
of the 6th inst. concerning the business done by us, including a com- 
parison with last year's ljusiness and our judgment of the outlook 
for 1896. 

In our letter to you upon the same subject one year ago, we 
called attention to the rapid improvements instituted by both pur- 
chaser and engineer, upon the character and grade of work about to 
be performed. 

In this respect there has been no lagging, but further advance- 
ments have been made and high grade of work is now the first con- 
sideration, and we feel that all engineers and contractors are to be 
congratulated upon this fact. 

In that same letter we mentioned the rapid progress of the street 
railway business and the many inquiries pertaining thereto, and 
predicted that during 1895 an unusual amount of railway construc- 
tion would be done, and this prediction has been verified, although 
the legislation in many States in the early part of the year, and the 
high prices and rapid advance of material in the latter part of the 
year, had a tendency to check much of that construction, then already 
projected. 

Investors have turned to street railway properties, and such 
roads as show a reasonable indebtedness on good properties have 
had little or no difficulty in placing of their securities. 

In the latter part of our previous letter we mentioned the fact 
that in all new enterprises the taking of railway securities by con- 
tractors in part payment for construction was at an end. This un- 
fortunately has not been the case, and we may venture to say that of 
the number of corporations projected for the purpose of building 
and maintaining an electric railway during the year 1895, fully 
seventy-five per cent, of them made tenders of their securities in 
payment for the construction of their line to contractors and without 
in any way investing a single dollar, and we are further safe in say- 
ing that not more than ten per cent, of such railways were con- 
structed. It, therefore, strikes us as being remarkable that this 
branch of the electric railway industry has not been taken up by 
large capitalists in the various cities of the East and West, making a 
specialty of the handling of these securities; certainly the contractor 
is in favor of it, for it enables him to give his undivided time and 
attention to the construction of the line alone. Certainly the finan- 
cial institution handling the securities can place them among the in- 
vestors more quickly than any one else, and the railway company 
can have as good if not a better property, at a less cost, thereby 
decreasing the fixed charges, and we sincerely hope that in the 
coming year a number of these financial institutions will have come 
into existence for this purpose, and we can safely predict, having 
done so, with a reasonable amount of capital and good management, 
the greatest success will be attained by the:-Ti. 

The American people are progressive. They are constantly 
looking about and anxious to make new investments. They are 
ready to listen and take up new projects. Electric railways have 
been progressive and are attractive, as well as a convenience to the 
public, and it would be foolish to predict anything other than a 
great advancement in the construction of electric railway lines for 
the coming year. The high price of material and peculiar condition 
of our national government may have a tendency to hold in check 
the onward progress until such time as absolute confidence has been 
restored. 

It is, therefore, not an easy matter to predict that the coming 
year will prove all sunshine, and, upon the other hand, it is not 
likely that the great amount of energy and push displayed hereto- 
fore, will fall by the wayside. We believe push will win'. 

In the mean time, wishing you a prosperous new year, we re- 
main, 

Yours very truly, 

Ster.x & Silverman. 



GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY. 

Nf.w York, December 24, 1895. 

Gentlemen :— The business of the General Electric Company 
during the year of 1895, despite the convalescing financial condition 
of the country, has been one both gratifying and encouraging. Busi- 
ness, which during the hard times had languished, has been not only 
brisk but at times overwhelming, exceeding all previous years. But 
the demand has been promptly met by our factories. 

Our railway business has shown most excellent results. The 
superiority of the General Electric Company's apparatus is now gen- 
erally conceded. The generators which it manufactures have 
proved to be superior, to those placed before the street railway 
public by any other manufacturers. In particular the introduction 



by us of the direct connected generator for railway service, has 
met with more than ordinary success and has proved that the 
step taken was not only expedient under existing conditions but 
absolutely necessary. It is scarcely four years since the direct 
connection of railway generators to the engine shaft was mooted 
as advisable and the attention of railway managers drawn to 
this economical method of electrical generation. .So little had been 
done up to that time in the development of this type of unit for railway 
service that the practice was criticised by many prominent engineers as 
inherently defective and inadvisable. They argued that the fluctua- 
tions inseparable from railroad operatifjn must necessarily introduce 
injurious strains between the engine and the generator. Indeed, 
had the opinions of these engineers prevailed, the belt driven gen- 
erator would still remain supreme. A great deal of attention was 
given at that time to methods for nullifying the internal strains, but 
experience has shown that the expedients then considered necessary 
are superfluous, the problem being one of simple inertia; a properly 
proportioned fly wheel overcoming the difficulty and serving as a 
perfect medium of transmission, absorbing the most violent fluctua- 
tions possible, e. such as come with the opening of the main cir- 
cuit breaker, dropping the load from maximum to nothing. 

The self-evident advantages derived from direct connection, such 
as increased efficiency, reduced floor space required per horse power, 
and the general reduction in operating expenses, not to speak of 
minor advantages, have established this as standard railway practice. 
So much so is this the case that belted generators are now rarely 
installed, except in cases of very small units or owing to some un- 
usual surrounding conditions. 

The first large units of this modern type generator installed for 
railway service were the 2,000 and 1,000 H. v. generators which the 
General Electric Company set up for the operation of the Intramural 
Railway at the Chicago Exposition. That form, modified by the 
experience of the past two years, is the standard of the General Elec- 
tric Company at the present day. Some idea of the extensive use of 
direct connected generato s in this country may be gathered from 
the following figures, giving approximately the number of direct 
connected railway generators installed by the General Electric Com- 
pany: 





K. W. 


K. W. 


22 


200 


4,400 


8 


225 


1,800 


6 


250 


1,500 


13 


300 


3>900 


27 


4cx> 


10,800 


22 


500 


11,000 


29 


800 


23,200 


2 


1,300 


2,600 


12 


1,500 


18,000 






77,200 



This makes a total of 77,200, 77,200,000 watts, or about 103,000 
H. P., of direct connected units installed throughout the United States 
in the most important stations in the country. They have become, 
in the eyes of street railway men, as we have said, the standards of 
efficiency in railway practice, and in no case has dissatisfaction with 
their working or their output been expressed since the first was 
started. 

The motors of this company are the G. E. 800, the G. E. 1,200 
and the G. E. 2,000. The first was introduced less than two and a 
half years ago, and to-day 20,000 of them are in use on the street 
railways of this country and Europe. It has undergone little change 
since its introduction. Slight improvements have been introduced, 
dictated by two years of experience, but it is the same motor in al- 
most every respect. It is gratifying to this company to know that, 
whereas, its G. E. 800 motor and K controller have remained stand- 
ard since their introduction, the motors and controllers of other com- 
panies have undergone numerous and radical changes, averaging 
about two each year, in the endeavor to bring their performances 
up to that induced by the invariable qualities of the G. E. 800. It is 
not surprising that the G. E. 800 motor has met with the success 
which it has, when it is remembered that for the same power it is 
lighter in weight than all other motors, a fact which insured to the 
station manager less cost of track maintenance and less cost of hand- 
ling. It is sparkless; it is of better workmanship; it has a larger wire 
on the armature and has a larger coil surface. The wiring is sym- 
metrical, avoiding the crossing of wires of large difference of poten- 
tial; the insulation is thicker; there are more segments in the com- 
mutator; each segment is of hard drawn copper and each has a sep- 
arate slot. The armature is mounted on a sleeve, so that the shaft 
can be removed without disturbing the winding. The field frame is 
of steel, which allows of a large reduction in weight, and is sup- 
ported above or below the axle line. The fields number two instead 
of four and the coils are insulated with asbiestos. These peculiar 
distinctive qualities of the G. E. 800 motor are those which have 
tended to give it the very extraordinary sale among street railway 
managers which we have just mentioned above. 

The G. E. 1,200 motor was called into being by a demand for a 
machine adapted to street railway work, where sharp grades and 
heavy loads had to be met, and for high speed suburban work, 
where heavy cars or trains must be drawn at speeds of from fifty to 
100 per cent, greater than those common to street railways. 

The G. E. 2,000 is a special motor designed for elevated railroad, 
work and branch steam railroad work. It is wound for speeds of 
from twenty to forty miles per hour. This motor has been adopted 
by the Metropolitan Elevated Railway, Chicago, and by the N. Y., N. 
H. & H. R. R. on its Nantasket Beach Branch. With these three 
motors the General Electric Company feels as thdugh it had reached 
the limit of motor development, so long as electricity is not yet in 



58 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



general use on the main steam roads. ' If improvements are made 
they will be made toward increasing the power of the motor with as 
small an increase as possible in the weight and number of parts. 
One thing may be certain, that if any future developments are made, 
the good qualities present in the motors just mentioned will never be 
sacrificed. 

The development of the series parallel controller by the General 
Electric Company, and the incorporation in it of the magnetic blow 




G. E. 800 MOTOR. 



out, interlock and other principles, have resulted in a device which 
has absolutely no rival in the field. So much so is this the case that 
the K Controller and the K2, which is the K with one additional step 
oi resistance, have been for the past three years and still are the 
only controllers on which street railway men place reliance. The 
principles involved are covered by patents which enable the General 
Electric Company to maintain its position before the world as manu- 
facturers of the only controllers which have given universal satis- 
faction. 

We can point with more than ordinary pride to our station ap- 
paratus, which during the past year has been still further improved 
and developed as experience has dictated. The most modern sta- 
tions have adopted our methods of panel switchboard construction, 
and the majority of them are now using our station apparatus. 

Our sales of line material have also been of a highly gratifying 
nature. It should be remembered that we are the only electric com- 
pany which manufactures everything necessary for an electric rail- 
road, from the largest dynamo down to the smallest span wire insu- 
lator. The insulation of our line material, e.xperience tells us, is as 
perfect as modern knowledge can make it, and each separate device 
has been the object of careful consideration of the most experienced 
railway engineers in the country. 

A glance at the work done by the General Electric Company 
during the past year shows that the most important electrical pioneer 
work in the country has been effected by them. In the railway field we 
may mention the Nantasket Branch of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R.; 
the construction and operation of the large locomotives on the Balti- 
more & Ohio line; the complete equipment and successful operation 
of the Metropolitan Elevated Electric Railway, Chicago, the first 
permanent electric elevated railroad in this country; the introduction 
of the principle of long distance power transmission for interurban 
service, as between Lowell, Mass., and Nashua, N. H., and the oper- 
ation of the Portland Street Railway by current generated twelve and 
one-half miles away. The success of the electrically equipped rail- 
way was emphasized by the president of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 
in his recent annual report, in which he spoke in very high terms of the 
successful results obtained by the innovation. Similar language was 
also used by the president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, in de- 
scribing the success of the electric locomotives of the Baltimore & 
Ohio line. 




G. E 1,200 MOTOR. 

The Metropolitan Elevated Railway in Chicago has been in op- 
eration since the month of May and was recently put to as severe a 
test as could well be imagined. On the 25th of November of this 
year, the motf furious snowstorm in twenty-four years visited 
Chicago, stopping the operation of every street railway and steam 
road running in that city. The only exception to this general rule 



was the Metropolitan Elevated Electric Railway, which ran under its 
ordinary schedule time, without any greater stops than one of nine 
and the other of five minutes. 

The Lowell plant demonstrates the feasibility of using high ten- 
sion alternating current for transmission. Three phase current of 
5,500 volts is transmitted a distance of seven and one-half miles to a 
substation where part is transformed down and converted into direct 
railway current of 500 volts. The balance of the high tension cur- 
rent is carried to Nashua, fifteen miles distant, and there undergoes 
the same transformation and conversion for the operation of the 
street railway in Nashua itself. 

The conduit system opens up a new. hope for rapid transit in 
large cities, where public opinion or other reasons militate against 
the installation of the overhead system. From the day of the open- 
ing of the Lenox Avenue and the Washington Roads no accident has 
occurred to mar their even operation. The cars are started and 
stopped without the jerking inseparable from the use of the cable. 
The system in use on Lenox Avenue will shortly be installed on an- 
other long line in New York and will probably be further extended as 
the year 1896 progresses. The conduit roads laid down on the 
Lenox Avenue line. New York, and in Washington, D. C, according 
to the plans of the General Electric Company, have so far proved 
eminently successful and there is a prospect of this system becoming 
widely adopted within the coming year. 

Of the new devices which the General Electric Company has 
introduced, the most important is the electric brake, shown at the 
Montreal Convention, and described in your December issue. The 
principle involved is radically different from that of any other brake, 
and the advantages of a device which for its operation makes no de- 
mand on the station current, does not require the motorman to 
grapple with any new problem, does not need any complicated ap- 
paratus, while preventing skidding and flattening of wheels and 
the consequent strain on the truck frames, will be patent to all. 

The Thomson recording wattmeter, which has done such excel- 
lent service in the lighting field and power stations, has now been 
adapted for use on the cars themselves, the record of the meter show- 
ing the performance of the car and giving the operating company the 
best possible idea of the work of its motormen. We fully expect 




G. E. 2,000 MOTOR. 

that there will be considerable business done in these meters during 
1896. 

So much for our retrospect. Our prospect is most encouraging. 
With apparatus such as we have developed and improved along the 
lines dictated by long e.xperience, we feel that we can go before the 
street railway industry with the assurance of meeting with the 
measure of success which the perfection of our apparatus warrants. 

Shortly we shall produce a new motor of 1,000 lbs. horizontal 
effort and to be known as the G. E. 1,000; this is for use where a 
motor is required of intermediate capacity between the 800 and 
1,200 machines. 

The success of our allied companies in Europe during the past 
year has been of a similar character to that of our own, and the 
prospects there are, perhaps, even more encouraging. 

Yours truly, 

General Electric Company. 



Strike in Philadelphia. 



An extensive strike occurred last month on the lines of the Union 
Traction Company of Philadelphia. The alleged purpose of the 
strike was principally to secure better wages with shorter hours and 
recognition of the Union. At the time of going to press the strike 
had been settled and the men had returned to work, but the condi- 
tions of settlement had not been announced. During the strike the 
riotous element occasioned considerable disorderly conduct and de- 
stroyed quite a good deal of the property of the company. 



January, 1896. J 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



59 




i^'iiisi.... 



•;j*,':«««Wllllllllllliiii,.,*7 



riiiiciinllllliiu -~:!:.-,.: 



, • f N V F N T 1 ON -^P9l^S*lpS 



Gravity Return System. 



A> . — 

The accompanying engravings show a method of gravity return, 
owned by the Holly Steam Engineering Company, and designed to 
return to the boilers the water produced by condensation of steam in 
power plants. The object of the system is to avoid the employment 
of pumps, steam traps and other steam devices, and to provide for a 
protection against accumulation of condensation, As will be se'en, 
the Holly system is a mechanical application of the laws of gravity 
and steam. A diagramatic view of the incthod employed is given 
in Fig. I. 

The operation, which is simple, is as follows; The receiver is 
placed below all drips, and receives the condensation and entrain- 
ment through a suction tee, receiving the initial or boiler pressure 
through its forcing end. The initial pressure is supplied through a 
pipe of suitable diameter, connecting directly with boilers or with 
a steam main, where the pressure is not diminished by friction or by 
velocity. This is the equalizing pipe, and unites the initial and ter- 




, T~T7TTVri 
rTTTTTT 



FIG. 1.— DIAGRAM SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF GRAVITY 
RETURN SYSTEM. 



The steam allowed to pass from the top of the separator through 
the reducing valve creates a lifting action from the receiver to the 
separator, whereby the water is carried up with the steam in finely 
divided sections to the separator and fills up in the return pipe above 
the check valve, until a column is formed in the return pipe above the 
water line in boilers. This column increases in height until its 
weight, plus the terminal pressure of steam contained in the sepa- 
rator, is greater than the steam pressure on the water line in the 
boilers. Then the resistance of the boiler pressure on the check 
valve is overcome and the water flows continuously from the separa- 
tor into the boilers. It will be noticed that at no point in the return 
system is the pressure reduced. In this respect the system is unlike 
that using pumps, where the condensation is taken from a tank or 




FIG. 2.— HOLLY REDUCING VALVE. 



trap, for in this case the water is pumped from a temperature which 
is much less than that in the boilers the difference in temperature 
being a direct loss. 

The reducing valve is e.xceedingly ingenious and simple in con- 
struction. It consists of only three parts — a receiving chamber, a 
disk and a discharge chamber. The pressure from the receiving 
chamber passing through a central opening, is deflected by a disk 
and forced to enter the discharge chamber by circulating around the 
disk, thus producing a slight pressure on its upper surface. This 
pressure equalizes a proportionately greater pressure on the smaller 
surface exposed to the opening from the receiving chamber. 

The system has been adopted by a large number of prominent 
power users. Included among them are such companies as the Met- 
ropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York City, and the Con- 
solidated Traction Company, of Newark, N. J. The chief engineers 
of both these systems speak in the highest terms of the results se- 
cured. Among other users are the West End Street Railway Com- 
pany, of Boston; the Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company, of 
Providence ; the Staten Island Electric Railway Company, the Port- 
land Street Railroad Company, and the Holyoke Street Railroad 
Company. 



A New Rail Cleaner. 



minal pressures in the receiver, so if there be a loss throughout 
the power system it will be made up in part, or nearly in full, in this 
device, and the action of the suction tee is to draw from behind the 
forcing end the water of condensation from all drips into the receiver. 

From the opposite end of the receiver a vertical riser extends to 
some elevation above the water line in boilers, and terminates in 
a separator, usually a vertical pipe made larger in diameter. This 
forms a separator, but, unlike other separators, the quantity of steam 
passing through is very small. From the bottom of this separator a 
pipe extends down to the boilers, and has direct connection with 
each through lateral pipes, each provided with gate and check valves. 
From the top of the separator a small pipe, usually one-half inch or 
three-quarter inch, also drops through with the return pipe to 
the boiler or engine room, and is provided with a Holly reducing 
valve (see Fig. 2) at some point easy of access. This valve will re- 
duce from 160 to five pounds, and allows a very small quantity of 
steam to pass, usually into the heating circulation or heater. If 
wasted, the quantity would be so small that its cost would be insig- 
nificant, as compared with the amount of water returned. 



A new type of rail cleaner or sweeper, which strongly commends 
itself, has recently been brotight out by the Hunter Automatic Fender 
Company. The device consists of two round steel brushes mounted 
upon a shaft, so that each brush is located over one of the track rails. 
The brushes are operated by a sprocket chain and wheels, taking the 
necessary power from the car axle. They can be easily and quickly 
thrown into or out of action, by means of a lever on the platform. 
When out of action the brushes are carried some ten inches above 
the rails. When in action they revolve in the opposite direction to 
that of the car wheels, and are guaranteed to thoroughly clean the 
rails of snow, sleet, mud or dirt of any kind, thus giving the wheels 
a clear and clean rail. The idea is to make each motor car of a line 
its own track sweeper or cleaner, and it seems to be a thoroughly 
practical one. This device was used on the cars of the South Coving- 
ton Cincinnati Street Railway Company last winter, and that com- 
pany speaks of it in the very highest terms. The Hunter Automatic 
Fender Company has acquired the patents, and is the manufacturer of 
this"device, and the company is so confident of the success of its rail 
cleaner that it will send a trial one free on three days' notice. 



6o 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xll. No. i. 



Wheel Manufacture in Cleveland. 



The street car wheel department of the Cleveland foundry, 
operated by the Dorner & Button Manufacturing Company , furnishes 
some interesting information regarding the processes of manufac- 
turing and methods of testing street car wheels for all classes of ser- 
vice. Although the company is making a specialty of its double 
plate wheel, which is fully described below, the output includes 
wheels of any size or weight that may be required, either for 
motor cars or trailers. The capacity of the foundry, with its nu- 




FIG. 1.— INTERIOR OF CASTING HOUSE. 

merous annealing pits, is ample for 
all requirements, while the extensive 
machine shops of the company are well 
equipped for finishing the wheels and 
mounting them on the axles. 

The foundry is conveniently located 
in the outskirts of the city, where raw 
materials, owing to excellent transpor- 
tation facilities, are laid down at mini- 
mum expense, and the finished product 
can be as advantageously shipped di- 
rect to the purchaser. 

The interior arrangement of the works 
is quite well shown in Figs. I, 2 and 3. 
Fig. I shows the interior of the cast- 
ing house, where the arrangement of 
the molds is entirely different from any- 
thing we have hitherto illustrated. The 
molds are arranged in circles, with a 
crane standing in the center of the circle 
and carrying the ladles of metal from 
mold to mold. In the foreground are 
two molds, one of which is closed and 
the other open, showing the space into 
which the molten metal runs to form 
a wheel. These central cranes are dis- 
tributed through the shops within reach 
of each other, and thus form an exceed- 
ingly convenient arrangement; and 
while commanding each circle of molds 
they also enable any load to be carried 
up and down the shop, in case of neces- 
sity, from one crane to the other. In 
the engraving, half of the circle, which 
contains sixteen molds, is shown. 

In Fig. 2 is an interesting view taken 
from an instantaneous photograph within the foundry, showing the 
very act of filling the molds with melted iron. In the foreground 
is shown one of the ladles swung by a bale from the crane, and 
also the double handle by which the molder pours the iron into the 
mold. In the distance is shown another ladle, which is being oper- 
ated in the same way, and also the great ladle in front of the 
cupola from which the smaller ones are filled. The difficulty of 
making a photograph of this kind, which must be in some respects 
semi-instantaneous, and in others must have considerable time in 
order to bring out the dark portions of the shop, will be appreciated 
by those who have tried to get good views of work of this character. 



Fig. 3 shows the annealing pits. It is well known that a cast 
iron car wheel when it is cooled in the ordinary way, if it does not 
actually break by its own unequal contraction in cooling, would 
usually yield upon so small a provocation in the shape of a blow as 
to be of little value. One of the requirements, therefore, of making 
a perfect cast iron wheel is to so anneal the metal as to relieve the 
soft web and hub from all strain caused by the shrinking of the hard 
chill and thick rim. At the same time, this annealing must be so 
exactly done that the immense hardness of the chill is not disturbed. 
The annealing pits of the Cleveland foundry, where this part of 
the work is cared for, consists of wells built of a fireproof brick 
and surrounded by non-conducting material. Into 
these the wheels are lowered by the peculiar and 
ingenious forms of hooks shown. Each one of 
these hooks holds the wheel by the center, and, 
upon the tripping of a clutch when the wheel has 
reached the bottom of the pit, lets go its hold and 
is again hoisted out to take on another wheel. The 
wheels, after lying in the sand from eight to fif- 
teen minutes, are sufficiently hardened to stand 
handling, although one is occasionally found so 
soft as to "bleed," according to the founder's 
phraseology; that is, some of the central portions 
are still in a melted state, and upon being lifted 
from the sand these portions run out. Being still 
red hot and at about the best temperature for 
annealing, they are placed in the annealing pits 
tightly closed, and are left for a given time, which 
depends upon the various conditions of weight, 
size, service and atmospheric conditions. When 
they are removed, they usually undergo a severe 
series of tests, to determine the uniform hardness 
of chill and general quality of the wheel. At the 
same time, while undergoing these physical tests, 
they are carefully inspected for all the different 
defects to which even the best wheels are subject. 
Defective wheels are, of course, at once thrown 
out and sent to the drop to be broken up. The 
percentage of imperfect wheels" in a carefully 
managed foundry where there is a good system 
of molding is, however, exceedingly small, skill 
and care reducing these defects to a minimum. 

Figs. 4 and 5 show front and back views of the 
Dorner & Dutton double plate car wheel. Steam 
railroad men will need no explanation regarding 
the superior strength which a double plate wheel 
has over a single plate. The double plates, start- 
ing from both the inside and outside of the wheel, 
and finally uniting and passing on to the tread, 
but brokenup on the back by a series of ribs taking 




FIG. 2— FILLING THE MOLDS. 

the place of spokes, increase the strength of the wheel enormously, 
without interfering with the depth of chill or other essential features. 
In fact, the depth of metal forming a part of the tire of the wheel and 
starting out into the plates is practically not very different from that 
of the spoke wheel. Just what the difference in strength is may be 
seen from the tests of the two wheels, of which the broken sections 
are shown in Figs. 7 and 8. In weight there was a difference of but 
fifteen lbs. between these wheels, though one only gave way with 
eight blows from a 145 lb. drop falling sixteen feet, while the other 
resisted but six blows from a twelve foot drop. The curved form of 
the ribs and of the plates themselves has a double office to perform. 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



The first of these is to enable the metal to shrink and readjust its 
particles in cooling, so as not to leave any strain within the wheel, 
and the other is an even greater advantage in imparting to the 
wheel a certain amount of elasticity. It is not generally known that 
within the limits of its power to bend cast iron is one of the most 
elastic metals with which we have anything to do. Although the 
cushioning effect of the curved plates and spokes is not to be 
measured by feet and inches, yet the effect of a blow delivered upon 
a wheel which is of such a shape as to utilize the elasticity of the 
iron is very much less than in a wheel of different form. The 



inches, instead of seemingly less than one-half that amount. Great 
care was taken in making this photograph and an effort was made by 
the photographer to remove the stain, but it was not successful. 

The character of the iron of which these wheels are made is very 
well shown in Fig. 6, which is a photograph somewhat reduced from 
a section of a test bar, such as is cast with every lot of wheels made. 
This bar is cast against a chill, and it shows the normal depth of pen- 
etration considerably over an inch. A slight rusting of the section 
before it was photographed destroyed some of the characteristics of 
the metal, and the photograph therefore is not as brilliant as it would 





!FIG. 3.— ANNEALING PITS. 

Dorner & Button Manufacturing Company will be pleased to furnish 
photographs, illustrations and further description of this new double 
plate wheel. 

Fig. 7 is from a photograph of a section of the double plate thirty- 
three inch wheel for motor service. The chill of this sample is exceed- 
ingly hard, scratching glass with considerable ease. The depth of the 
chill is shown in the photograph by the fineness of the grain. The two 
samples, Figs. 7 and 8, actually appear to be very similar in charac- 
teristics. The tread is smooth and free from chill cracks. The 
weight of the wheel was 365 lbs., and was made to withstand a break- 
ing test of eight blows of a 145 lb. drop falling from a height of six- 
teen feet. The sample piece is soft enough to batter under the ham- 
mer very easily. The greatest depth of chill on these samples is an 
inch. The flanges of both samples. Figs. 7 and 8, are thoroughly 
and fully chilled, and the wear of the flanges should be of the very 
best. 

Fig. 8 shows a section broken from a thirty-three inch spoke 
wheel, having a weight of 350 lbs. It withstood six blows from a 




otherwise have been. By 
comparing the grain of the 
soft iron with that of the 
wheels, shown in Figs. 7 
and 8, it will be seen that 
there is very little difference 
between them. The speci- 
men is, perhaps, slightly 
softer and more open than 
one of the wheels, but is less 
so than the other. The difference, however, is probably as small 
as would be found in two samples from the same ladleful of metal. 



FIG. 



Frog and Crossing Works lo be Sold. 




The works of the New York Frog & Switch Company, which are 
located at Hoboken, N. J., and which were recently put into the 
hands of a receiver, are to be sold at auction 
on January gth. The buildings occupy 
sixteen lots well located for manufacturing 
purposes and have been erected since 1891. 
The plant is equipped with all modern 
machinery including a seven ton open 
hearth steel furnace, a Shaw electric crane, 
etc. Two sidings from the Weehawken 




ST P. 'J^AY jBurr,'j,. 




FIG. 4.— DOUBLE PLATE WHEEL. 



Mo. 5.— uuUbLE PLATE WHEEL, 



FIG 7. 



125 lb. drop falling twelve feet. It has the same characteristics as 
the other sample, although perhaps the iroa is a trifle softer where it 
is not chilled. The chill, however, scratches glass with equal ease 
and shows a smooth tread and flange. In one respect the photo- 
graph does not do the wheel justice, for it will be noticed just inside 
the root of the flange that there is a dark spot appearing like a soft 
place in the chill. This, however, was due to a slight rust spot on the 
specirnen, probably caused by the touch of a damp finger. In reality 
the chill extends entirely outside of this spot across the wheel, the 
depth of chill from the point of chill upward being one and three-eighths 



Branch of the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad extend into 
the works of the company. Shipments can also be made over nearly 
all the trunk lines by the New Jersey Junction Road. 



Cherryfield & Milbridge Street Railway Company, of Cherry- 
field, Me., has been incorporated to build an electric railway from 
Cherryfield to Milbridge, a distance of five miles. Capital stock, 
$30,000; par value, $100 per share. Directors: S. D. Leavitt, of East- 
port, Me.; Geo. A. Curran, of Calais, Me. , and others. 



62 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



Large Car Works in Chicago. 



The Wells & French Company occupies the anomalous position 
of being the oldest and newest car concern in the West; oldest in 
point of age and experience, and newest by reason of the recent de- 
struction of its entire plant. The fire which occasioned this resulted 
in the rebuilding of extensive works during the past twelve months. 




both elevated and cable lines. This ample space is wholly utiliz^'^ 
by the companj' for its various buildings, lumber yards and track^- 
.Situated on the Chicago River, it has unusual facilities for handling 
material used, such as lumber, coal and iron, and its own system of 
tracks and switches connects directly to the lines of the various steam 
roads which center in Chicago. Inasmuch as the great drainage 
canal will enter the river directly opposite its works, the company 
has the prospective advantage of very cheap water. 

Entering the grounds at Blue Island Avenue, 
we come to the various buildings in the order 
named: The planing mill, power department, 
machine shops, blacksmith shops, woodworking 
shop, erecting shops of the freight car department; 
these augmented by such shops as the tin 
shops, bolt and shear shop, storeroom and paint 
shop, etc. In none of these departments is there 
anything particularly characteristic to be noted, 
excepting, perhaps, the general plans and con- 
struction of the various buildings, with a view 
toward facilitating the work. It is also 
noticeable that the machinery is new and con- 
siderable of it built for special and multiple 
work. For instance, there are machines in the 
woodworking department to finish door posts 
and to cut out carlines at one operation; to drill 
timbers twelve feet in length, any width, with 
different size drills at one operation, and many 
other machines devised by the company for 
special work. 

In the machine shop there are machines to 



So carefully and intelligently was this work 
planned that the result is an ideal arrangement 
for the purpose intended. The factory is now 
thoroughly equipped with the latest improve- 
ments in machinery, tools and devices for practi- 
cally and economically doing electric or other 
street car work of every description. 

For forty years past the company. has been 
doing miscellaneous work, building bridges, 
street cars, freight cars of various kinds and 
special cars, such as grain elevator cars, snow 





IN AND ABOUT THE WORKS OF THE WELLS & FRENCH CO. 



sweepers, mining cars, etc. Bridge work, however, was practically 
abandoned two years ago by the company, at which time it was 
decided to go more extensively into the building of street cars. 
This plan was interrupted through the great fire of 1894 which 
wiped its plant out of e.xistence. 

The company's property embraces about twenty-seven acres, 
located almost in the heart of the manufacturing district of Chicago, 
and extending from Blue Island Avenue on the north to the Chicago 
River on the south, a distance of one-half mile, and is reached by 



drill transoms and arch bars at one operation. 
In the bolt and shear shop are punches that will 
punch as many as twenty different sizes at one 
time. 

The next new building to the south is a power 
house, erected for the purpose of heating the 
main shops. This building is considered 
thoroughly fireproof, with vaulted roofs, so that 
it can be occupied with safety should a serious 
fire again occur. The Sturtevant method of 
heating is employed, which consists of two im- 
mense Sturtevant fans which are located in this 
building, forcing hot air through iron ducts into 
the various buildings of the company. This build- 
ing also contains fire pumps and apparatus for 
safety purposes. 

Proceeding from this building, we next come 
to the soft castings foundry, a new building par- 
ticularly well lighted and ventilated, and which 
is equipped for turning out fifty tons of soft 
castings per day, the quantity now being used by 
the company. Machinery is used for this work 
wherever possible or practical, and is all driven 
by electric motors. 
From the soft castings foundry we next come to the wheel 
foundry, which is unquestionably the most modern designed building 
of its kind in the United States. All the work is done automatically. 
The molds are handled with both hydraulic and compressed air 
hoists. The wheels are also conveyed in this manner into and out of 
the pits. The large ladle is tipped by a compressed air cylinder, 
making the action easy and certain. All of the machinery in this 
building is also driven by electric motors. The output of this build- 
ing is 400 wheels per day. Recognizing the fact that street car 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



63 



wheels require a tougher and stronger iron than ordinary car wheels, 
a separate cupola is used for the special mixture and for street car 
wheels only. The company is making a specialty of this part of its 
business, aiming only at a high quality and uniform standard. 

The planing mill in the street car department is the next build- 
ing in our course. This shop is provided with all new machinery of 
the most improved and modern pattern. Next to this is located the 
street car building shop proper, with a capacity of eighty cars on the 
floor. Over this, on the second floor, are the 
various finishing rooms for the smaller detail 
work of street cars, the arrangement being such 
that all of the heavier work is done on the ground 
floor. Electricity is likewise the exclusive mo- 
tive power in this building, several large Siemens 
& Halske motors being used, the current being 
supplied from a Siemens & Halske direct con- 
nected generator of 400 h. p. capacity located in 
the power house of this department, and which 
supplies the current for the motors in the foun- 
dries before described, and for grinding paint in 
the paint house, as well as furnishing light for 
the entire plant. The motors used are mostly 
twenty-five H. r. Beyond this large erectfng 
shop is the paint shop of equal dimensions. This 
building will be extended 500 feet further early 
in the spring. Lumber to be dried in the kiln 
is loaded on special cars for this work which are 
run into the kiln where the lumber is dried with- 
out unloading. 

The works are turning out an excellent line 
of cars. 



which is absorbed by the wood. This method of treatment is said 
to "have given even better results than have been obtained from some 
of the more pretentious and elaborate processes. 

In this connection, it may be said that this wood preservative 
has been extensively and successfully used in this country on dock 
platform and building, car and telegraph construction, and notwith- 
standing the traditional conservatism of the farmer, large quantities 
have been used in the construction of farm and other fences, for 





vineyard stakes, fisherman's poles, etc. Its ease 
of application and low cost makes it available 
for uses on street car lines. 

Mr. Ouincy, treasurer of the O. & C. Com- 
pany, advises us that the inquiries frequently 
received and the unsolicited business, which has 
already come to that company from the street car 
systems of the country, have led him to establish 
a street car department which will take up the 
special work of extending to street c.ar lines a 
proper presentation of the company's specialties. 



VIEWS IN THE WORKS OF THE WELLS & 
FRE^JCH CO. 

Carbolineum as a Tie Preservative. 



The Q. & C. Company, which for more than 
eight years past has paid particular attention 
to the preservation of railway ties from destruc- 
tion, by reason of the cutting in of the ties by the 
flanges of the rails, has completed arrangements 
in Germany for the manufacture of a specially 
prepared Carbolineum, which is called the O. ilt 
C. In its preparation especially, reference is 
made and great attention given to its more per- 
fect adaption to the climate and woods of this 
country which, up to this time, has never been 
considered. By the use of this product it is 
claimed that timber, whether used in ties, plat- 
forms, docks, buildings or cars, will be well pre- 
served so that its period of life and usefulness is 
much extended. 

One of the main difficulties which has stood 
in the way of the adoption of the more general processes of wood 
preservation has been the fact that the first step required the erec- 
tion of elaborate and expensive plants, or, where the amount of 
timber to be treated did not warrant this expense, the added cost of 
transportation to and from established plants added very consider- 
ably to the cost and in many cases caused perplexing delays. 

One of the chief advantages of Carbolineum is the ease and sim- 
plicity of the methods of application which can be readily accom- 
plished by spreading the product on the surface of the timber with 
ordinary paint brushes, two coats being given. In many cases, the 
timbers, poles, ties, fence posts, etc., are dipped in the Carbolineum 




The Servis tie plate manufactured by this company is especially 
adapted to all lines using cross ties and it has proved itself to be such 
an effective rail fastening, that the railways of the eastern and west- 
ern mountain ranges have to a considerable extent discontinued the 
use of rail braces on their sharp curves, and the Servis tie plate, 
which both preserves the tie and securely holds the rails, has been 
substituted. It is claimed that, in every instance, the Servis tie plate 
has been found to hold the rails securely to gauge where rail 
braces had previously failed. 'While the rolling stock of street rail- 
ways is not so heavy as on steam railroads, the use of the best 
construction, it is generally admitted, is quite as important. 



64 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. i 



Automatic Governor. 



Double Spindle Lathe. 



The accompanying illustrations show the governor used by The 
Brownell & Company on its automatic engines. In the illustrations 
Fig. I is a view of the complete governor. Fig. 2 shows the main ec- 
centric removed, with the pin bolted to it, which fits into the hole in 
the auxiliary eccentric yoke: Fig. 3 shows this auxiliary eccentric 
yoke removed. The springs are also removed in this view. 

As will be seen the governor has the usual arrangement of 
weights and springs, and belongs to that class of governors in which 



The accompanying engravings show a double spindle lathe man- 
ufactured by J. J. McCabe, the object of which is to combine in one 
machine both a medium and a large lathe. Many street railway 
companies which have small repair shops have found that it has been 
necessary to put in one large lathe about thirty-eight in. swing, 
that they would have occasional use for on large work in addition to 
medium sized lathes. As already stated, the engraving shows one 
machine which accomplishes both results. 




FIGS. 1, 2 AND 3.— AUTOMATIC GOVERNOR. 



the eccentric swings from a fixed point. The principal feature of the 
governor is the manner in which the motion of the weights is trans- 
mitted to the main eccentric. As is shown in Fig. 3 the weights are 
connected by links to the ears of the auxiliary eccentric, which is 
fitted to turn upon the hub of the governor wheel, so that as the 
weights are moved the au.xiliary eccentric is turned around the shaft. 
This auxiliary eccentric is fitted with a yoke or strap, which is shown 
in position in Fig. 2 and removed in Fig. 3. In this yoke is a hole 
which receives the pin bolted to the main eccentric in Fig 2. Thus 
as the auxiliary eccentric is turned around the shaft its yoke is 
thrown across, carrying with it the main eccentric, which is thus 
moved nearer to or farther from the center, and thereby decreasing 
or increasing the throw. 

The advantages of this combination of eccentrics are that the 
governor is mechanically locked in every position it assumes, and 
can only be moved by pulling on the weights, the pull of the valve 
having no effect whatever, while at the same time the governor is 
free and certain to act. To reverse the governor the pin bolted to the 
main eccentric is changed to the holes shown on the opposite side in 
Fig. 2, the weights and springs are changed to the holes provided 
for them, and the operation is complete. 

The governor is compact, yet all adjustable parts are very ac- 
cessible. All wearing parts are circular in form, thus insuring 
smooth, uniform wear. The entire wear of the governor is taken up 
by two simple adjustments. The governor was designed by H. C. 
Clay, superintendent of the engineering department of The Brownell 
& Company. 



The " W. E." Clip. 



The automatic clip shown herewith is of malleable steel, having 
a height of 2}i in., a length of 2i{ in., and a weight of 4)^ ounces. 
It is automatic in its adjustment to any size wire, from No. 2 to 
No. 00, and is adapted to fit any hanger, having a ^ in. stud, with- 
out the aid of any extra attaching plugs or special attachment of any 




As is well known this result can be secured by "raising blocks," 
but as machinists know, this method is by no means entirely satis- 
factory. 

As shown in the front view, the lathe is adapted for use on the 
smaller work, and is no different from the regular 24 in. lathe of the 
same make, except that the end of the spindle projects somewhat 
more to give room for the pinion that drives the supplementary 




FRONT VIEW DOUBLE SPINDLE LATHE. 

spindle, and the tail stock is somewhat heavier than it otherwise 
would be. In other respects the lathe is unchanged, and handles 
just the same as the regular 24 in. lathe ; the intermediate being 
moved out of engagement with the pinion so that the supplementary 
spindle can remain at rest. 

When the larger work comes along, it is only necessary to con- 





THE "W. E." CLIP. 

kind. The grip obtained on the trolley wire is limited only by the 
amount of power which is applied to the expansion nut. 

The trolley wheel does not touch the clip. The latter is V 
shaped, like the groove in the wheel, tapering to a point where it 
clamps the wire, which it does in such a manner as to leave the bot- 
tom of the wire perfectly bare and free, giving a smooth unbroken 
line for the wheel to travel on. The clip is manufactured by the 
Western Electric Company. 



George B. Larrai ee, of Salem, Mass., has been appointed super- 
intendent of the Milford, Holliston & Framingham Electric Rail- 
way Company, and will open an office in Holliston. 




REAR VIEW DOUBLE SPINDLE LATHE. 

nect up the gears, put a suitable face plate or chuck on the upper 
spindle and put the work on the upper pair of centers, an extra 
tool post being provided for bringing the tool up level with the center 
if this is desired, though it is, of course, not always necessary. 

The upper spindle that carries the large work is powerfully 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



65 



triple geared, ratio being twenty-two to one. The regular spindle, 
with swing of 24 in., is the standard size that is adapted for the or- 
dinary run of work, and with its many "new features" it is a very 
handy lathe for light and medium work. Box legs are now put on 
in order to add to the rigidity of the machine. The extension of car- 
riage slide will be noticed on the cut of the rear view. This is for the 
purpose of giving the tool rest a full bearing when boring to the center 
of upper spindle. The other features of the lathe will be readily under- 
stood from the engravings, though it might be added that the tool 
posts, though in appearance just like the ordinary ones, are really dif- 
ferent and probably more than twice as stiff and three times as good 
generally as the regular post of that type. 

The lathe as shown has a 10 ft. bed, takes 6 ft. lietween centers, 
swings over the carriage 24 in. and 38 in., has i y\, in. hole through 
spindle, and weighs 5,500 lbs. 



A New Station in Philadelphia. 



The People's Traction Division of the Union Traction Company, 
of Philadelphia, has recently put in operation a power station at 
Ogontz, a suburb of Philadelphia. The station has at present 3,000 
H. P. capacity, with an ultimate capacity of 4,000 ir. p. It is on the 
route of the York Road Line of this company, the popular trolley 
party route. It is novel in a number of particulars, as will be seen 
from the accompanying engraving, showing the engine and gener- 
ator room. 

The engines are of the vertical type, manufactured by the E. P. 
Allis Company. The cylinder dimensions are 26 and 48 X 48 in., 
and take steam at 125 lbs. pressure. The flywheel is twenty-five 
feet in diameter, and has a weight of 100,000 lbs. The shaft is 




INTERIOR OF POWER STATION OF UNION TRACTION CO., AT OGONTZ. 



Calendars and Catalogues for 1896. 



The New Year has been marked with the usual number of new 
catalogues and calenders. Those which we have seen have been on 
the whole remarkably handsome and tastefully printed. Among the 
calendars which are particularly so which we have received are 
those published by the Knowles Steam Pump Works and J. H. Sted- 
man. Among the catalogues which are especially attractive and 
which have been sent to us are those published by the Metropolitan 
Electric Company, the Western Electric Company and the Weir Frog 
Company. 



Trade Journals Consolidate. 



It is announced that the Natiotial Car Locomotive Builder, of 
New York, and the /fOTi-r/raw Engineer Railroad Journal, oi the 
same city, both monthly periodicals in the steam railroad field, will 
consolidate in January, 1896. M. N. Forney, editor of the latter 
journal, will be editor of the new publication, which will probably 
bear a name uniting the titles of both of the former papers. Both 
periodicals are well known and we cordially wish every success to 
our contemporary. 



twenty-two inches in diameter. The engine is direct connected to a 
Siemens & Halske 800 K. w. generator. 

A novel method of connecting the engine and generator shaft 
is employed, the object being to prevent the breaking of the crank 
pin in case the end of the shaft should settle and thus throw the 
shafts of engine and generator out of line. To guard against this 
emergency the armature shaft is not rigidly connected to the shaft 
between the two cylinders. 

The result sought is accomplished by making the crank of the low 
pressure cylinder, the cylinder nearest the generator, rigid on to one 
crank disk. The other end of the crank pin is keyed in a box which 
is fitted accurately into a radical slot in the crank disk at the engine 
end of the armrture shaft. This does not interfere in any way with the 
transmission of power from the engine to the generator, as there is, 
of course, no backlash, but would permit, in case of accident, the 
tilting of the armature shaft at an angle to the engine shaft. 

The plant is a very compact one, and is handsomely finished, 
resembling in this particular the Delaware Avenue power station of 
the same company. The steam generating plant consists of Berry 
boilers, and the condensers are of the Schutte type. 



The Albion Construction Company of Chicago, 111, has been in- 
corporated to construct and operate street railways. Capital stock 
$25,000, par value $100 per share. Incorporators, Wm. B. Fitzgerald 
Wm. P. Black, Albert H. VoUintire. 



66 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



;0. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



A New Air=Brake Compressor. 



Street Railway Track Cleaner. 



The Standard Air-Brake Company were pioneers in the manu- 
facture of air-brakes for street railway cars, and that company has 
been constantly striving to solve the numerous problems which sur- 
round the braking question. It is only just to them to state that it 
is due largely to their special, concentrated efforts that increased 
attention has been given to better brakes. 

The cut shown herewith illustrates a new, special type of com- 
pressor for high speed electric cars. There are cases where a rail- 
way company, operating cars at high speeds, is reluctant to adopt an 



The arrival of cold weather has brought to the attention of street 
railway managers the necessity of keeping tracks clean from snow, 
ice and slush. A new device to accomplish this result has been 
brought out by the Hickley Launch & Electrical Manufacturing 
Company, and is illustrated herewith. Thq principle is that each 
car shall be its own street cleaner, and the method employed seems 
efficacious and simple. Two circular brushes are attached in front of 
the truck, as shown, at such an angle that the motion of the car 
drives the brushes, which are revolved by the friction of the rails. 

The brushes are either of 
rattan, brass or flat, galvan- 
ized spring steel. They are 
mounted on a triangular 
frame which is so hinged 
that by a simple lever move- 
ment the brushes are lowered 




TRACK CLEANER. 



NEW STANDARD AIR COMPRESSER. 



electrically-driven compressor, on account of cost. In such cases, 
and where there is a free a.xle obtainable, the difficulty is met by the 
use of this geared compressor. Its use will effect a saving in cost 
over the electrically-driven type. 

The construction of the new geared compressor is designed to 
meet the severe requirements of to-day's practice. It will be noticed 
that the gears are entirely enclosed and they are therefore protected 
against dirt, slush and water. They are of cast special cut steel. 
This, as is well known, means long life. The cut steel gears used on 
modern electric motors attest this fact. One of the officials of a lead- 
ing New England road stated recently that their steel cut gears had 
been running for over two years and showed no appreciable wear. 
The geared compressor bearings are similar to motor bearings and 
are provided with ample lubricating facilities. 

An important improvement effected by the use of this geared 
compressor is the ability to utilize the pony axle on a double truck 
car, while at the same time the speed of the compressor is brought 
within a practical limit. By this means the wear and tear is very 
greatly reduced and it is not necessary for the eccentric to make need- 
less revolutions. For slow speed cars the eccentric encircling the axle 
answers perfectly. On higher speed cars, however, it is not neces- 
sary to have eccentric throw as often as the increased revolutions 
make necessary, for it leads to unprofitable wear. 

Another great improvement in the geared compressor is the 
valve arrangement, by means of which it is now possible to unscrew 
valves without loss of time and to restore them (or others) to place 
in less than five minutes. This makes it unnecessary to remove the 
car from service in case valves require adjusting or attention. The 
replacing can be done while car is in service. To admit of increased 
speed the valve ports have been enlarged and apparatus designed 
in various details for this end. The cut does not show that the 
compressor is meant to be elastically suspended. The supports are 
flexible, and allow the compressor to meet every condition of swivel- 
ing and the upward and downward jolt as well as side play of car 
body and truck. This means that when the car rides on rough rails, 
no damage can result to the compressor, as all play is immediately 
taken up by the new method of suspension. Any jar of the wheels 
or axles is not imparted to the compressor. In this respect the sus- 
pension resembles the latest support of the modern motor. It is 
obvious that air-brakes and electric motors must go hand in hand, 
and the makers of both are likely to be in the van of the struggle for 
improvements. 

A special feature of the geared compressor is that there is no 
chance for the lubricant or oil to escape. This is accomplished by 
an ingenious arrangement (not shown in cut) and the continuous 
lubrication of crank shaft is also secured. At the same time there 
is provision made for draining the compressor when it becomes nec- 
essary. 

This new geared type will be appreciated by managers of high- 
speed roads who, while realizing the vital need of power brakes, do 
not feel able to pay the increased cost of the electrically driven com- 
pressor for the air-brake system. The company now builds an axle- 
driven compressor for moderate speed cars, a geared type for high 
speed cars, and an electrically driven type for cars making extraordi- 
nary speeds. It is thus possible for every car in existence to be 
equipped with an air-brake. 



The Metropolitan Traction Company has decided to increase 
the salaries of the conductors employed on its Broadway line. 



or raised from the track. They have been found particularly useful 
where a nose plow is used, since they remove the skin or thin layer 
of ice and snow on the rails, usually left by the plow. 

The Hickley Company is also supplying, when desired, steel 
nose plows, a foot deep, which run just in front of the brushes, tak- 
ing off snow to the depth of one and a half or two inches, the brushes 
caring for the rest. These plows are operated, like brushes, by a 
lever from the platform. The brushes have a diameter of from 
eighteen inches to two feet, depending on the height of the car, and 
a width of ins. of bristles. The brushes have been operated very 
satisfactorily on the Seashore line, at Asbury Park, N. J. 



The Johns' Exhibit at the Atlanta Exposition. 



The exhibit of the H. W. Johns Manufacturing Company at the 
Atlanta Exposition was situated in the Electrical Building, not far 
from the General Electric Company and across the aisle from the 
Fort Wayne Electric Company, and contained the most recent and 
characteristic forms of the trolley line and Valcabeston insulating 
materials. Brass frogs or switches, insulated trolleyjbreaks and 




H. W. JOHNS' EXHIBIT, ATLANTA. 

crossings, wooden tree insulators, etc., were also shown. In a panel 
between the sample board was arranged a large number of the forms 
in which Vulcabeston is furnished for use in street car controllers of 
the various manufacturers ; and also commutator rings and shapes 
for special purposes. One of the glass cases situated in the front of 
the space was filled with still further illustrations of the adaptability 
of Vulcabeston to a great variety of purposes ; such as for brush 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



67 



holder bushings, washers, insulating sleeves, commutator rings, arc 
lamp parts and magnet spools in a great variety of sizes and shapes. 

In another glass case was illustrated the association of Moulded 
Mica and Monarch insulating materials with metal parts by an ex- 
hibition of well known switches and other devices. A. space, how- 
ever, was reserved for a beautiful specimen of crude Asbestos rock, 
showing in places the delicate fibre of Asbestos, and resting upon a 
sheet of Vulcabeston one-sixty-fourth inch thick. 

Within the space on tables was shown a number of Electrotherms, 
which are new articles in the trade. They are heating devices, con- 
sisting of resistance wires covered with Asbestos, the whole being 
securely woven together to form an indestructible mat. Wires for 
conveying the electric current are provided and a plug for insertion 
in any wall fixture. A regulating device determines the amount of 
current which shall pass into the resistance wires, which soon become 
warm and communicate their heat to the Asbestos, thus producing 
and localizing a temperature which may be regulated and used for 
many medicinal, surgical and household purposes. The Electro- 
therm was also shown in forms for use in street cars. Those already 
in use have proved so satisfactory and economical in operation that 
the company has been obliged to increase its facilities for manufac- 
ture to supply the demand. 

Altogether the exhibit was tastefully arranged and very com- 
plete and attracted a large share of attention. j 

Improvements in Engine and Dynamo Building. 



The J. H. McEwen Manufacturing Company, the builder of 
automatic engines, has entered the electrical field and is building 
dynamo electric machinery in connection with its engine business. 
The company's high speed engines, which have been in market for 
about four years, have gained an enviable reputation. The com- 
pany claims that for direct connected apparatus much better results 




FIG. 1. 



can be obtained when both engine and dynamo are built by the same 
company, assembled and thoroughly tested before leaving the works. 
Then again all parts can be standardized and made duplicate, and 
can be turned out at less cost than it is possible when the engine is 
built by one company and the dynamo by another in widely different 
localities. 

This company has made some recent improvements in the details 
of its engines, notably in the governor and cross head. The govern- 
or, see Fig. l, has one bearing, and that a roller pin bearing, which 
requires no lubrication, so that the want of lubrication will not affect 
its regulation, and as the spring is the only part that is adjustable, 
there cannot be any trouble from misadjustment. The engine must 
regulate well, as the builders guarantee that every engine will not 
run one revolution slower when fully loaded than when running 
empty, and a reduction of boiler pressure from the greatest to that 
necessary to do the work, will not reduce the speed of the engine one 
revolution. 

Fig. 2 shows the construction of the cross head. The shoes are 
held in position by eccentric bolts. To adjust position of shoes for 
wear, it is only necessary to loosen nut and turn the eccentric bolt 
to such an extent as is necessary to give proper adjustment. Then 
tighten nut, and it will remain in that position. It will be noticed 
that shoes swivel on the eccentric bolts, so that it is impossible for 
shoes to hav^ anything but a full bearing. 

The Thompson-Ryan dynamo represents a radical departure 
from the beaten tracks of dynamo design. The most important 
feature is a set of series windings surrounding the armature, and 
termed balancing coils. This feature, which is the invention of 
Prof. Harris J. Ryan, of Cornell University, was introduced for the 
purpose of balancing armature reaction. The field castings are of 



three pieces of steel which are held together by four bolts. One of 
these castings is the " pole ring," shown in Fig. 3, through which the 
balancing coils are wound, and the other two constitute the field ring 
proper. Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6 is a view of the completed pole ring. The field ring, Fig. 
7, shows on its internal periphery the " pole necks," around which 
the coils are placed. It will be seen that the field ring is of such a 
shape as to entirely enclose the field coils, thus thoroughly protect- 
ing them from mechanical injury. On account of the very small 
amount of field energy required the rise in temperature of the field 
coils is very slight, notwithstanding the fact that these coils are so 
nearly surrounded on all sides. No compound winding is used on 
these dynamos, since, it is claimed, the balancing coils afford a com- 
pounding more effective than the compound coils of the ordinary 
dynamo. 

The armature cores are of thin plates of a special steel, the dis- 
tinctive feature of which is its unusually low hysteresis loss. The 
plates are stamped out in the form of rings, and a series of long 
slots are punched near the edges. These rings are then clamped 
firmly to a central hub or spider by means of brass end plates. 
There are no bolts passing through the laminated core, and no iron 
comes in contact with these plates. As a consequence of this there 
is no leakage of magnetism and no development of potential in any 
part of the core to cause eddy currents and waste energy. The holes 
in the plates form "tunnels," in which the armature windings are 
placed. Fig. 6 gives a very good idea of the appearance of the fin- 
ished armature core. 

Another peculiarity of this machine is the large number of poles 
used. This feature, which in ordinary designs would be bad prac- 
tice, is a valuable one of this peculiar style of design, enabling the 
builders to greatly shorten their armature conductors, and to use on 
all their armatures what may be described as the cylindro-hexagonal 
style of drum winding. In this winding, all parts of every conduc- 
tor of any particular layer on the armature lie in the same cylindric- 
al surface, and the windings do not bend down over the end of the 




FIG. 5. 



armature core at any point, and the conductors being placed through 
the core and below the surface, no binding wire is necessary. 

The armature being large in diameter the central opening is 
also large and extends entirely through the armature from end to 
end, thus affording large heat radiating surface. The principal ven- 
tilation is effected by the winding itself. The conductors cross one 
another in such a way as to form a sort of open lattice work with in- 
numerable radial openings, through which the air circulates in great 
quantities. 

The efficiency of the dynamo is given as high, approximating in 
the 200 K. \v. size 90 per cent, within the range of ordinary service. 

Another important feature of this dynamo is the great ease with 
which two or more machines may be worked in parallel. They may 
be thrown in parallel while differing widely in voltage produced, and 
each machine will take its due proportion of the load, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that they may be greatly over compounded. 

The Thompson-Ryan dynamos will be built in sizes up to 1,500 
K. \v. capacity, both belted and direct connected. 



Book of Views. 



The Hartford & West Hartford Railroad Company, of Hartford, 
Conn., has recently published a pamphlet devoted entirely to views 
along its line. The pamphlet is very handsomely printed and the 
views are tastefully arranged. The railway extends from Hartford 
to Farmington and Unionville through a most picturesque country, 
part of it being close to the Farmington River. The line also passes 
several parks. 




FIG. 3. FIG. 4. 



68 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



Direct Connected Generator Work. 



The Eddy Electric Manufacturing Company, Windsor, Conn., 
has been building for some time past a type of generator for direct 
connection, which has received universal praise from its users. The 
demand for a machine requiring a minimum of floor space and atten- 
tion has so increased within the last few years that this class of ap- 
'paratus has become a large portion of the factory's output, and es- 
pecial care and thought has been expended in producing the ma- 
chine. 

The frame is of the multipolar type with cast steel poles bolted 
to a cast iron frame. This frame is adapted to be supported from 
the engine base in either of two ways, as may be most covenient to 
the engine builders. The frame may be bolted by means of lugs on 
the side to the sub-base, or it may rest directly on the sub-base and 
be bolted thereto at the bottom. The illustration shows the latter 
method. 

The field coils are wound on highly insulated metal spools, the 



either in its manufacture or in connecting the trolley line to it. 
Rights, lefts, Ys and crossings are made in practically the same 
manner. 

The switches are used exclusively by the Cleveland Electric 
Railway Company, Detroit Railway Company, London Street Rail- 
way Company, London, Ont., Erie Electric Motor Company, and are 
extensively employed by various roads throughout the country. 
They are manufactured by Horsburgh & Scott, who have hardly been 
able to keep up with their orders this season for these goods and 
their gears, pinions, etc., and are preparing to make quite extensive 
additions to their works. 



Car Jacks. 




A handy jack is not only a most convenient tool in a street rail- 
way car house and repair shop, but is absolutely necessary for con- 
venience of handling cars and removing wheels and other purposes. 

In the last issue of the Street Railway 
J lURNAL there was published an engrav- 
n J showing a very convenient jack man- 
ufxctured by the National Jack Company. 
The accompanying engraving. Fig. 2, 
sho ws the jack in use. It occupies when 
closed only a small space 4 in. X 24 in. 
and weighs but thirty pounds, so that, if 
des red, one can be carried on every car. 
'ihe range of hoist is fourteen inches. 




FIG. 



-CAR JACK. 



DIRECT CONNECTED GENERATOR AND ENGINE. 



series and shunt coils being in separate compartments. The arma- 
ture consists of a sleev'e which supports the core and commutator. 
The winding is made up of copper bars laid in slots cut in the sur- 
face of the core and thoroughly insulated from it and from each 
other. These bars are connected at the ends by spiral connectors so 
arranged as to avoid crossings of conductors of a maximum potential 
difference. The armature is thoroughly ventilated by apertures 
among the laminations of the core. The commutator consists of 
segments of hard copper held in place by collars bolted together. 
The bolt nuts are so arranged as to be of easy access when the ar- 
mature is in place in the machine, and are prevented from jarring 
loose by a convenient nut lock. 

Either tangent or end contact brush holders are provided, which 
are supported on a rocker arm from the bearing. 

These machines run exceedingly cool and practically noiseless, 
and without sparkiag when operating continuously at any load 
within their rated capacity. They are of high efficiency even under 
light loads. These machines are at present built in sizes up to 
200 K. \v. 



Improved Trolley Switch. 



The improved trolley switch illustrated herewith, is claimed to 
possess those very desirable qualities, lightness and strength. The 




TROLLEY SWITCH. 




FIG. 2.— CAR JACK IN OPERATION. 



and the jack shown is built to raise ten tons. One end of the car can 
be set off sixteen inches and back on the rails with one throw each 
way in four minutes. 



The Second Avenue Traction Company of Pittsburg, Pa., has 
switch pan is formed of No. 16 steel, and the leads are strong and bought land and will build five brick car barns. W. J. Burns is 
easily adjusted. No solder is used in connection with this switch, general manager. 



January, 1896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 69 



St^REET- RAILWAY' 





''''''' ^a^.. 



NEWS 




lIl'lTl'.tflH'. 



Buffalo Notes. 



This city is a battle ground of street railway interests and has 
been ever since Tom Johnson and his associates organized the trac- 
tion company and set about to obtain the right of way through the 
streets. It would take a volume to outline the case and only results 
will be noted. The decision of Judge Spring, of the Supreme Court, 
is one of these. It had never been settled lieforc what should be the 
mode of procedure in obtaining the consents of the three bodies 
that have jurisdiction in the case — the State Railroad Commission, 
the Common Council of the city, and the people owning real estate 
fronting on the streets to be traversed. Judge Spring decides that 
any one may be obtained first and that the order is a matter of indif- 
ference. 

The Traction company, therefore, proceeded on all three at once. 
At the first hearing before the Board of Aldermen consent was ob- 
tained with but one dissenting vote, but this action was soon looked 
upon as precipitate, and further action will be taken before the final 
consent of the city can be obtained. The Railroad Commissioners 
have granted two long hearings and the case before them is closed, 
with the exception of the argument to be made by council in Albany. 
There is a lull in the proceedings just now. 

The old company is strengthening its service. It has laid a new 
double track through Court Street, for which it has had the franchise 
some time, and has put on a new line of cars from Niagara and Con- 
necticut Streets across to Main Street at Allen. The contention of 
the new company is that the present service is defective in cross- 
town lines and this is in a way admitted by the old company, which 
adds as a reason that it has been unable to obtam the consent of 
property owners to use such streets as Utica and West Ferry, which 
are essential to strengthening the system in that way. 

The local world is still full of trolley schemes for connecting 
Buffalo with outlying towns. The last venture reported is a line 
from Lockport to Buffalo, with extension to Wilson on the Lake On- 
tario shore, which has developed rapidly of late as an excursion cen- 
ter. Right of way is already being obtained, beginning at Michi- 
gan Street, Lockport. 

The public is still looking with considerable astonishment on the 
amount of traffic the Ely cars are getting on the Niagara Falls route. 
They are well filled and ought to be paying good profits. The com- 
pany has ordered a large number of new cars for the summer travel, 
and will reap a harvest then, according to all indications. The 
Niagara Power Company is now furnishing the power to these cars, 
so that this current already comes to the city line. 

The aldermen of Batavia have granted A. B. Wilgus, of New 
York, who had a franchise to build a trolley line in that town, an 
extension of time from December to August. The line is to be three 
miles long, and will run to Horseshoe Lake, east of the town. Mr. 
Wilgus is negotiating with the Niagara Tunnel Company to furnish 
the power. 

San Francisco Notes. 



The Market Street Railway recently built two miles double track 
electric road in eight da3's. This work covered an extension of the 
Mission Street jine to the new Ingleside race track. Six hundred and 
fifty men were employed most of the time. The company has re- 
cently changed the Ellis Street line from cable to electricity, and 
' work on changing the Oak Street line to electricity is now under 
way. The Alameda Street power station of the company has re- 
cently been increased by the addition of a 1,200 h. h., vertical triple 
expansion condensing Union Iron Works engine directly connected 
totwo400 K. w. Siemens & Halske generators. 

The Sutro Railway built by Mayor Sutro, and connecting the 
main part of the city with the Golden Gate Park by transferring to 
the Sutter Street Railway, is nearly completed and will be opened for 
traffic February ist, 1896. In the track construction sixty pound Tee 
rail is used, spiked directly to redwood ties and bonded with three 
No. o per joint. The overhead work is the usual span wire construc- 
tion. Substantial 8 in. X 12 in. X 30 ft. square sawed redwood poles, 
set 6 ft. in the ground being used. The motor equipment will con- 
sist of six G. E. 800 double car equipments, six Westinghouse 12 A, 
25 H. P. double car equipments and fifteen 50 11. P. double Walker 
equipments. The 25 11. p. motors are to be used on 26 ft. single 
truck cars, and the 50 11. v. motors on 38 ft. double truck cars. The 
trucks are of the Brill manufacture, and the car bodies of the Cali- 
fornia type, having an open section at either end, and a closed sec- 
tion in the middle. The open sections have glass fronts, and the 



bodies are painted white with gilt Icitjring and present an attractive 
appearance. The roofs are painted vermillion. 

The Oakland Consolidated Street Railway Company has under 
construction an addition to its power plant consisting of a 400 K. w. 
Walker generator driven by rope transmision from a 600 ir. v. hori- 
zontal tandem compound condensing Buckeye engine. 

The Piedmont tV Mountain View Railroad of Oakland has finished 
changing its entire system from cable to electric. On one branch it 
was found impossible to avoid a 15 per cent, grade. No trouble, 
however, was experienced in ascending it when using two w. p. 30 
General Electric motors. 

Surveys are being made for the construction of an electric road 
to the top of Mount Tamalpais an elevation of 2,700 ft. near San 
Rafael on the opposite of the Golden Gate from San Francisco. The 
line will be about four miles long and will probably involve some 
such devices as are used on the Mount Lowe Railroad near Pasa- 
dena. 



News Items. 



Akron, O. — Samuel Thomas and Calvin S. Brice, of 80 Broad 
way, New York City, have bought the Akron Street Railway and the 
Akron General Electric Company. The price paid is stated to be 
f 1,200,000. 

Baltimore, Md. — The City & Suburban Railway Company has 
been granted a franchise to build a new line from the city limits to 
Hammond's Ferry road. F. D. Shaffer is purchasing agent. The 
office of the company is at York Road and Carroll Avenue, Balti- 
more, Md. 

The Baltimore & Gunpowder Electric Railway Company has 
been granted a franchise for an electric railway from the eastern 
limits of Baltimore to the Gunpowder Falls. Among those inter- 
ested are James Young, James Gilmore, C. B. McClean and F. J. 
Schneider. 

The Columbia & Maryland Railway Company has been granted 
the right of la)'ing its tracks on Wilkens Avenue. Thomas M. Lan- 
ahan is president, and R. S. Carswell is secretary of the company. 

Bath, N. Y. — The Bath & Lake Keuka Railway Company has 
been Incorporated to build an electric railway from Bath to Ham- 
mondsport. Capital stock, $100,000. Directors: Isreal A. Kelsey, 
of West Haven, Conn.; John T. Prince, of Boston, Mass.; John T. 
Prince, Jr., C. L. B. Tyler, F. H. Viels, George E. Tyler, Charles M. 
Hyde, R. J. Carpenter, John L. Miller, of Corning, N. Y. 

Belleville, Ont. — The Belleville Traction Company (Ltd.) has 
been incorporated to build an electric railway in Belleville. Capital 
stock, $100,000; par value, $100 per share. Incorporators: S. A. 
Lazier, T. C. Lazier, R. C. Lazier, S. S. Lazier and S. D. Lazier. 

Binghamton, N. Y. — The new line of the Binghamton Railroad 
Company to Union has been formally opened to the public. G. T. 
Rogers is president of the company. 

Chicago. 111. — Commissioner Kent has issued a permit to the 
Chicago City Railwaj' Company, allowing it to extend its Clark Street 
line to Washington Street, under the conditions of the ordinance 
passed recently by the council. The company agrees to pay $25,000 
to the city on the day the first car runs over the line. 

Dedham, Mass. — The directors of the Norfolk Street Railway 
Company, which has recently been granted a franchise, are J. R. Bul- 
lard, T. T. Robinson, H. C. Deland, J. W. Chase and F. F. Favor, 
all of Dedham, Mass., F. Doane, of Norwood. Mass. and A. A. 
Whittier, of Boston, Mass. 

Gorham, Me. — At a recent special town meeting the question of 
an electric railway from Gorham to Westbrook was discussed. A 
committee consisting of Stephen Hinkley, Geo. B. Emery and Geo. 
W. Reynolds was appointed to continue the effort to secure the road. 

Hartford. Conn. — F. T. Levy, of Springfield, has secured the 
contract for building five and one-half miles of the Hartford, Man- 
chester & Rockville Tramway. 

Jersey City, N. J. — The Consolidated Traction Company has 
been given permission to erect a trestle over the tracks of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, G. Campbell is purchasing 
agent for the company. 

Kanras City Mo. — The ordinance granting a franchise to the 
West Side Street Railway Company has been read in Council and 
referred to the Streets, Alleys and Grades Committee. T. J. Fry is 
interested. 



70 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



Knightstown, Ind. — The New Castle & Knightstown Electric 
Railway Company has been incorporated to build an electric railway 
seventeen miles long. T. J. Smith, of Indianapolis, Ind., is one of 
the incorporators. 

Lee's Summit, Mo. — W. E. Winner is interested in a projected 
electric railway to be built from Lee's Summit to Dodson. Louis 
Lamkin can probably give further information. 

Little Falls, N. Y. — A franchise has been granted to the Little 
Falls & Richfield Springs Electric Railroad Company by the town of 
Columbia. Mr. Zoller, of the Girvan House, is interested. 

Lockport, N. Y. — Milton Tennant, of Lockport, is interested in 
an electric railway to be built from Lockport to Buffalo. 

Lodi, N. J. — The New Jersey & New York Railroad Company 
will build an electric railway to Hasbrouck Heights. H. W. De For- 
est, 62 William Street, New York City, is president of the company. 

Lorain, O. — The county commissioners have granted the Lorain 
Street Railway Company the right to extend its line across the via- 
duct over the Black River. J. K. Frye is purchasing agent for the 
company. 

Madison, Wis.— W. T. Fish, of Madison, Wis., and H. C. 
Adams, of Wingra Park, have received a franchise to construct an 
electric railway several miles long. 

Mansfield, O. — The Mansfield, Savannah & Wellington Electric 
Railroad is being organized to build an electric railway from Mans- 
field to Wellington, O. T. Y. McCray, of Mansfield, is interested. 

Memphis, Tenn. — The Memphis Street Railway Company lately 
incorporated has been granted a franchise. 

Meridian, Miss. — The Electric Railway Company, of Meridian, 
is still on the market for trucks. W. R. Hall is manager of the 
company. 

Milwaukee, Wis. — The Milwaukee Street Railway Company 
has announced its intention of extending its line to North Milwaukee 
in the spring. C. D. Wyman is general manager. 

Montreal, Can. — Notice has been given that application will be 
made to Parliament for an Act to incorporate the Montreal and South 
Shore Highway Bridge & Electric Company with power to build an 
electric railway and also bridge over the St. Lawrence. R. V. Sin- 
clair, of Ottawa, is solicitor for the applicants. 

Nashville, Tenn. — The Nashville Street Railway Company has 
received permission to extend its line for a short distance on West 
Line Street. 

New Haven, Conn. — The officials of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad Company are taking active steps toward the 
introduction of electricity on their lines. Charles P. Clark, of New 
Haven, is president. 

New London, Conn. — The New London Street Railway- Com- 
pany has purchased land and will erect a new power house. L. 
Bentley is superintendent and purchasing agent. 

New Philadelphia, O. — C. E. Mitchener, of New Philadelphia, O., 
has been granted a franchise for an electric railway from New Phila- 
delphia to Uhrichsville. Work will not be commenced until next 
summer. 

New York, N. Y. — The Metropolitan Traction Company is pre- 
paring to make a test of the Johnson-Lundell closed conduit system. 
A section of track is to be equipped at the foot of 34th Street. 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. — The Niagara Falls & Lewiston Railroad 
Company has applied for permission to extend its line. J. K. Brooks 
is superintendent of the company. 

Norfolk, Va. — The Port Norfolk Electric Railway Company has 
been petitioned to extend its line to Norfolk. M. W. Mason is gen- 
eral manager and purchasing agent of the company. 

Norway, Me. — The Norway & South Paris Electric Street Rail- 
way Company has chosen a committee consisting of H. L. Shepherd, 
of Rockland, and George L. Beal, of Norway, to confer with the 
officials of the Grand Trunk about operating the branch railroad 
from South Paris to Norway by electricity in place of steam. 

Oakland, Cal. — Felix Chapplet, of Oakland, Cal., and D. Chis- 
holm, of Hay wards, Cal., who were granted a franchise some time 
ago, will probably build their road soon. 

Orange, N. J. — The Orange Mountain Traction Company has 
been incorporated to take over the property of the Orange Mountain 
Cable Company. Capital stock, $150,000. Incorporators; W. G. 
McFarland and L. G. Dodge, of Philadelphia, and Wm. S. Hood, of 
Camden, N. J. 

Ottawa, Que. — The Ottawa Electric Railway Company will 
build a large new building at Hintonburg in the spring to be used 
for theatrical purposes. J. W. McRae is president of the company 

Peoria, 111. — The Consolidated Street Railway Company will 
make several extensions and improvements in its line in the spring. 
J. N. Ward is a director of the company. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Franchises have been asked for the Enter- 
prise Street Railway Company, the East Philadelphia Street Railway 
Company and the Western Philadelphia Street Railway Company. 
These companies were incorporated some time ago. J. C. Mc- 
Naughton, of 2034 Race Street, Philadelphia, is interested in all of 
these companies. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. — A charter has been issued to the City Inclined 
Plane Company, which intends to build an inclined plane from a 
point on Fourth Avenue over the Monongahela River to the top of 
Mount Washington. The structure will be about 6,000 feet long and 
forty feet wide, with double tracks, and a grade of between nine and 



ten per cent. Its chief feature will be a suspension span 1,565 feet 
long. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. — The Duquesne Branch West Side Railroad 
Company has been incorporated to build an electric railway in Alle- 
gheny County about ten miles long. Capital stock, $100,000. Presi- 
dent, James D. Gallery, of Pittsburgh; directors, John C. Reilly, W. 
J. Burns, John S. Scully, and Wm. D. Evans, of Pittsburgh, and 
James W. Scully, of Allegheny. 

Portland, Me. — The Standard Electric Car & Power Company 
has been organized to develop a certain invention of improvement 
for electric railways. Capital stock, $500,000. Officers: President, 
J. K. Wightman, of Boston, Mass.; treasurer, G. C. Hackett, of Wake- 
field, Mass. 

Portland, Ore. — A decree of foreclosure has been taken in the 
suit of the Mercantile Trust Company, of New York, against the 
Portland Consolidated Street Railway Company. The amount of the 
decree is $452,775- 

Pottstown, Pa. — The Pottstown & West Chester Electric Rail- 
way has been incorporated to build an electric railway from Potts- 
town to West Chester, a distance of twenty-two miles. Capital 
stock, $500,000. Directors; J. P. Robinson, of Philadelphia, Pa.; 
A. C. Ash, of Trappe, Pa.; H. P. Clay, of Pottstown, Pa.; H. H. 
Robison, of Collegeville, Pa.; F. D. Ash, of Spring City, Pa. 

Providence, R. I. — A temporary organization under the name 
of the Providence & Taunton Street Railway Company has been in- 
corporated to build an electric railway from Providence to Taunton, 
Mass. Capital stock, $30,000. Directors are Earl H. Potter, of See- 
konk, Mass.; Reuben Bowen, of Rehoboth, Mass.; N. A. Walker, 
Dighton, Mass.; Josiah King, of Seekonk, Mass.; Fred. E. Perkins, 
Johnston, R. I.; W. B. M. Miller, of Providence, R. I., and Peter 
H. Corr, of Taunton, Mass. A permanent organization will be in- 
corporated in a short time with a capital of $250,000 or $300,000. 

Providence, R. I. — The Union Railroad Company has been 
asked to extend its lines in the Seventh Ward, which will probably be 
done. A. T. Potter is general manager and purchasing agent for 
the company. 

Richmond, Va. — John C. Robertson, of Richmond, is interested 
in an electric railway proposed to run between Richmond and 
Huguenot Springs. 

The Frederick & Middletown Electric Railway Company has 
awarded the contract for grading its roadbed, between Middletown 
and Braddock Springs, a distance of three and one-half miles. This 
distance was divided into five sections. The first and second were 
awarded to L. F. Kefauver, the third and fourth to D. E. Kefauver 
and the fifth to Mr. Mann, of Catoctin Mountain. 

Ridgeway, Ont. — The Crystal Beach Improvement Company, 
of Ridgeway, has decided to build an electric railroad between Ridge- 
way and Crystal Beach. 

Rochester, N. Y. — A. Frederich & Son has secured the contract 
for building the new repair shop for the Rochester Railway Com- 
pany. 

Rockport, Mass. — W. B. Ferguson, of Maiden, Mass., is inter- 
ested in a proposed six mile electric railway in Rockport. 

Sacramento, Cal. — The Sacramento Electric Power & Light 
Company has been incorporated to build an electric railway in Sac- 
ramento. Capital stock, $1,500,000. Directors; Albert Gallatin of San 
Francisco, A. J. Ralston, H. P. Livermore, C. P. Livermore and 
Joshua Barker, of Oakland, Cal. 

Sacramento, Cal. — The Sacramento, Fair Oaks and Orange 
Vale Electric Railway Company has secured the right of way for its 
road to the American River. L. T. Hatfield is president. 

St. Johnsbury, Vt. — John Hale, of St. Johnsbury, is interested 
in an electric railway which will probably be built in this place. 

St. Louis, Mo. — The Central Railway Company is contemplat-. 
ing the erection of an electric power plant. Wm. S. Long may be 
addressed concerning the same. 

Salem, Va. — J. W. F. Allemong, president of the Salem Improve- 
ment Company, is conferring with the Basic City, Bridgewater & 
Western Electric Company in regard to the construction of an elec- 
tric line from Salem- to Blacksburg. 

San Antonio, Tex. — The San Antonio Edison Company has 
asked for a franchise over several streets of San Antonio. 

San Francisco, Cal. — The Market Street Railway Company con- 
templates the immediate extension of its Mission Street electric line, 
a distance of about two miles. R. P. Schwerin is purchasing agent 
for the company. 

San Jose, Cal. — The Board of Supervisors of Santa Clara 
County, Cal., will receive bids until January 8, 1896, for the purchase 
of a street railway franchise, the road to be operated by electricity. 

Santa Monica, Cal. — Surveys for the Los Angeles & Santa 
Monica Electric Railway have been made and work will commence 
soon. Thomas James, Town Engineer, can give further particulars. 

Schomberg, Ont. — L. E. Hambly is interested in an electric rail- 
way proposed to run from Aurora to Schomberg. A. B. Armstrong, 
of Toronto, is solicitor. 

• Scranton, Miss. — Martin Turnbull has asked the Board of Alder- 
men for a franchise for an electric railway from East Pascagoula to 
Scranton. Part of his petition was granted, and the balance was re- 
ferred to a special committee composed of S. R. Thompson and C. 
E. Chidsey. 



January, 1896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 7i 



South Bend, Ind.— The South Bend Street Rail way Company 
has been incorporated. Capital stock, $300,000; par value, $50 per 
share. Incorporators: J. B. Birdsell, F. C. Niprold, A. L. Brick, W. 
A. Funk, J. McM. Smith. 

Springfield, N. J. — The Premier Electrical Company has been 
incorporated to deal in electrical apparatus and appliances. Incor- 
porators: L. A. Jackson, and Daniel Jackson, of New York City, and 
Leon Abbot, of Hoboken, N. J. 

Stamford, Conn. — The Stamford Street Railroad Company has 
presented a petition asking permission to extend its lines in many 
places, and to lay double track on the more important streets. G.W. 
Peirce is superintendent. 

Staten Island, N. Y.— The Board of Trustees of Edgewater has 
granted the Staten Island Electric Railroad Company a franchise 
for its line on several streets of the village. Geo. B. M. Harvey, 32 
Nassau Street, New York City, is interested in this company. 

Staunton, Va. — The City Street Car Company has decided to 
equip its lines with electricity at once. No new cars will be needed, 
but complete overhead and power horse equipment will be required. 
J. H. Vail, 39 Cortlandt Street, New York City, will give specifica- 
tions. 

Steubenville, O. — Aultman & Lovejoy, of Chicago, are inter- 
ested in a street car manufacturing plant to be built in Steubensville. 
Capital stock, $50,000. 

Tacoma, Wash. — The Seattle, Tacoma & Portland Electric 
Railway Company is being organized to build an electric railway 
from Tacoma to Seattle, and finally to Portland. H. L. Thomas, of 
Seattle, is interested. 

Tarentum, Pa. — The Tarentum Traction Passenger Railway 
Company has extended its line as far as Bailey's Run. The com- 
pany also announces its intention of building a bridge over the 
West Pennsylvania Railroad tracks at Ferry Street. J. B. Crawford 
is superintendent and purchasing agent. 

Terre Haute, Ind. — James B. Dickson, manager of the Terre 
Haute Opera House, is interested in an electric railway to be built to 
Brazil. 

Toronto, Ont. — Tamblyn & Gibson, of Toronto Junction, Ont., 
have secured the contract for building the extension of the Toronto 
Suburban Electric Railway through Weston. 

Valparaiso, Ind. — A franchise to build an electric railway in 
Porter Countv has been gramed to Arthur J. Bowser, of Chesterton, 
Ind. 

Washington, D. C. — A bill has been introduced in the Senate to 
incorporate the East Washington Heights Traction Company. 
Among those interested are: James G. Berrett, Archibald M. Bliss, 
Hamilton Disston and George S. Boutwell. 

White Plains, N. Y.— The New York, Elmsford & White Plains 
Railway Company has asked for permission to extend its line in sev- 
eral directions. The franchises will probably be granted. The most 
important of these extensions will be from White Plains to Mamar- 
oneck. 

Worcester Mass. — H. L. Pierce is interested in the proposed 
Worcester North Street Railway Company, work upon which will 
probably be begun soon. 

York, Pa. — The York Street Railway Company will be extended 
in the spring. J. H. Mellinger is superintendent of the company. 

Youngstown, Pa. — Hugh Keogh, of Lancaster City; S. H. 
Miller and E. Saxman, of Latrobe, are interested in an electric rail- 
way about twenty miles long to be built in Pennsylvania. 



The California Street Railway Association. 



A meeting of officials of leading street railways of California 
was held December 16, 1895, at San Francisco, and a general organ- 
ization perfected for the purpose of consolidating the mutual inter- 
ests of the officers and corporations operating the street railways of 
the state. 

The association- is patterned on the lines of the association in 
New York and other states. Not all the roads of California were 
represented at the first meeting, but since the main ones have 
pledged their interests, there is no doubt that the others will follow. 

There were about twenty of the street railway men present. S. 
B. McLenegan, of the San Mateo electric road, was made temporary 
chairman. 

There were present E. P. Vinmg, general manager. Market 
Street Consolidated, of San Francisco; J. E. Morris, of the Highland 
Park road; F. W. Wood, of the Los Angeles Consolidated; Mr. 
Wheeler, of the Oakland, San Leandro & Hay wards road; A. K. 
Grimm, of the Oakland Consolidated; A. W. Baron (division super- 
intendent of the Market Street cable system) and M. D. Stein. As- 
surances were given also that the various lines of Sacramento, San 
Jose and other California cities might be counted on to act in con- 
nection with the association. 

Mr. McLenegan submitted a constitution, drafted partly from 
that of the New York Association. It was adopted. 

Col. Charles F. Crocker was then elected president and J. E. 
Morris, secretary and treasurer. An executive committee, consisting 
of E. P. Vining, F. W. Wood and Mr. Wheeler were also elected. 
Messrs. M. D. Stein and A. W. Baron were also named as a com- 
mittee to formulate suitable by-laws and report at the next meeting. 



Steel Plate Engraving in Philadelphia. 

It may be true that Philadelphia is a slow place, but the busi- 
ness transacted there and the enviable reputation which the " yuaker 
City" has for reliability and solid worth in all its business dealings, 
more than offsets any joking allusion to its supposed slowness. A 
recent instance of how business men of Philadelphia are not slow 
when it comes to the matter of securing good and reliable trade, and 
creating or providing the means of handling it, is offered by the house 
of T. A. Bradley, the well known bank note engraver and steel plate 
printer. This concern has n«w one of the largest plants in its own 
line of business in Philadelphia, and the instance we refer to was 
their securing of the big contract in New York City to print 50,000,- 
000 tickets for use on the New York and Brooklyn Bridge. This 
work has heretofore usually been done by the large bank note com 
panics, and doubtless would have gone that way again, but for the 
fact that T. A. Bradley this year started a remarkable innovation 
in his business by the introduction of steel plate printing presses, 
which he claims are the first ones to be used in practical work by 
plate printers in this country. It is a feather in the cap of Philadel- 
phia, as well as in that of Mr. Bradley, that so large an order was 
captured by a "Quaker City" concern, tor it implies a thorough up- 
to-date condition of things in that burgh, against which the bidders 
from even the metropolis had apparently very little show. A 
further extension of his facilities for handling large contracts, such 
as the one just instanced, is contemplated by Mr. Bradley. His 
business has been extending during the past few years all over the 
country, five men being on the road all the time for the house, while 
round the holiday season, when the demand for steel plate calendars 
runs very high, this number is largely increased. The calendar 
business this year shows a marked improvement over that of last 
year and the year previous. Fully three times the volume of busi- 
ness in the line of c;alendars alone has been done this year as com- 
pared with last, and Mr. Bradley expects that the favorable re-action 
in his own line of trade, which has characterized the past two months, 
will continue throughout next year. 

^ 

A Pennsylvania Insurance Corporation. 



A comparative examination recently made by a prominent com- 
mercial publication upon casualty insurance appears to have demon- 
strated the strength ot the position held by the Guarantors Liability 
Indemnity Company, and the falsity of attacks made by competitors 
upon that company. The conclusions drawn by this publication are 
substantially as follows: 

1. A careful examination of the statements furnished to the in- 
surance department since the company's existence shows that the 
percentage of total expenses to premium receipts is less than that of 
any casualty company taking business in Pennsylvania. For the six 
months ending June 30, 1895, the percentage of disbursements to in- 
come of the Guarantors Company was but 54.3 per cent., and this 
percentage is said to be constantly decreasing. 

2. The editor has satisfied himself by personal inquiry that the 
rates obtained by the company are equitable for the bondholder and 
the corporation, and that the company has refused to meet the cut 
rates offered by its competitors, thereby turning unprofitable business 
into their hands. 

The company's business has had an almost phenomenal growth 
especially considering the fact that it has been met by the sharpest 
kind of competition from the older companies, who have, it is alleged, 
-ormed a trust which the Guarantors refused to join. 



A New Car Company. 



A new company has recently been formed for the manufacture of 
cars, which will absorb the business of James A. Trimble, of New 
York; the plant of the Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing Company, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and that of the J. W. Fowler Car Company, of 
Elizabethport, N. J. The oflScers of the new company are: President, 
J. A. Trimble; secretary, W. L. Brownell; treasurer, C. L. Camman, 
Jr. ; manager of truck and foundry department, W. C. Wood. The 
company will occupy the extensive car works at Elizabethport, for- 
merly occupied by the J. W. Fowler Car Works, and will have a 
yearly capacity of 1,500 cars. The factory and machinery of lames 
A. Trimble, formerly located at East 28th Street, New York, will be 
moved to this plant, and the plans and diagrams of Mr. Trimble will 
be largely followed in the new work. The register business will 
form an important department of the business, and this will be 
pushed to its full capacity. The track and special work will be in 
charge of W. C. Wood. 



Personals. 



Mr. Edgar Peckham, president of the Peckham Motor Truck 
& Wheel Company, was the recipient on December 25th of a hand 
some silver pitcher, the gift of the employes of his factory. Later in 
the evening Mr. Peckham was serenaded by the Peckham -band. 

Mr. Charles W. Wason has severed his connection with the 
Cleveland Electric Railway Company, and will devote his attention to 
the different interurban electric railways with which he is connected, 
most of which center about Cleveland, 'and to his other interests. 

Mr. C. O. Mailloux, electrical engineer and expert, who has been 



72 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



traveling for some time in Europe, accompanied by Mrs. Mailloux, 
has just returned. While abroad Mr. Mailloux has made a careful 
study of the street railway and electric lighting systems on the other 
side. 

Mr George H. Baker, editor of the Ahitional Car Locomotive 
Builder, has resigned his position with that paper. Mr. Baker has 
long been recognized as one of the authorities in the field covered by 
this long established paper and has made many acquaintances and 
friends. 

Mr. Joseph R. Roy, who has been until recently chief engineer 
of the Montreal Park & Island Railway Company, has resigned his 
position and has opened an office in Montreal as civil and general en- 
gineer. Mr. Roy is an associate member of the Canadian Society of 
Civil Engineers. 

Mr. Clarence E. Stump, well known in the street railway and 
electrical field, and formerly business manager of the Street Rail- 
way Journal has been appointed General Manager of the Electrical 
E.xposition which is to be held in New York City, commencing May 
4th and continuing until the first of June. 

Mr. Elmer P. Morris has recently formed a business connection 
with the Railway Department of the General Electric Company , and 
will be stationed at Cincinnati. Mr. Morris was formerly with the 
General Electric Company and more recently a me.nber of the firm 
of Morris & MacCurdy, of Indianapolis and is very popular in the 
street railway field. 

Mr. H. A. Everett, vice president and general manager of the 
Detroit Railway, is one of the best known street railway managers 
in the United States. He is a son of Dr. A. Everett, the street rail- 
way pioneer in Cleveland, and 
received his training with the 
East • Cleveland Railroad Com- 
pany, of that city, serving in all 
departments and obtaining a 
thorough education in every de- 
tail. He became, in time, the 
head of his line in that city, and 
after the consolidation resulting 
in the present Cleveland Electric 
Railway Company, or " Big 
Consolidated," he wasprominent 
and active in the management 
of the new company. With the 
great impetus in electric railway 
construction of the present 
decade, Mr. Everett extended 
his interest to other cities, and 
became identified with street 
railways in Toronto, London, 
Montreal and Winnipeg, Can., 
and, recently, with the Detroit, 
Railway, of Detroit, Mich. He 
is also largely interested in a 
number of interurban lines cen- 
"• ^- 1"-^ KRi'.ri'. tering at Cleveland. - Connected 

with Mr. Everett in most of his recent enterprises here have been the 
Messrs. Pack, of Cleveland and Detroit. George W. Pack, presi- 
dent of the Detroit Railway, is also president of the Pack-Woods 
Company, of Michigan, and is prominent in lumber, railroading, 
banking and insurance circles in Michigan and Ohio. Albert Pack, 
secretary and treasurer of the Detroit Railway, is a well-known 
and influential figure in Michigan state politics. 

Mr. William P. Seguine, lately of the Frost Veneer Seating 
Company of New York, and one ot the pioneers in the perforated 
seat and veneer business, has recently formed a connection with 

Edward B. Jordan, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., and will have charge of 
the railroad department of that 
firm. With Mr. Seguine in his 
service, Mr. Jordan may well 
expect a large share of this im- 
portant trade. Mr. Seguine has 
made the subject of car seats 
and veneers a life study, and 
put into use the first veneer 
seating ever employed by a 
public conveyance. This was 
in the old steamer "Shady 
Side" more than twenty years 
ago. When the Third Avenue 
Elevated Railroad of New York 
was built, Mr. Seguine was 
awarded the contract for seat- 
ing all the stations from South 
Ferry to Harlem. He also se- 
cured a contract from the West 
Shore Railroad Company for 
supplying all the stations from 
New York to Buffalo with seats 
and settees, and has done business with a large number of railroad 
companies and car builders. He is a thorough mechanic and under- 
stands all departments of the veneer business, being equally at home 
in the veneer mill, in the factory, or setting up the work. His host 
of friends in the street railway field will be glad to congratulate him 
in this new enterprise. 





WILLIAM P. SEGUINE. 




Mr. Charles E. Billings, president and general manager of the 
Billings & Spencer Company, of Hartford, Conn., can truly be said to 
be the introducer of modern drop forgings in this country. Drop 

forgings were manufactured to 
a limited extent by Samuel Colt in 
the '50's, but the devices were 
crude, the work imperfect, and the 
limits of practical application 
narrow. Mr. Billings entered the 
employ of the Colt's Patent Fire- 
arms Company as tool maker and 
die sinker, in 1856. He had pre- 
viously served his time as an ap- 
prentice in the machine shops, at 
Windsor, Vt. Mr. Billings re- 
mained at Colt's Armory until the 
spring of 1862, when he closed 
a contract with E. Remington & 
Sons, of llion, N. Y., for drop 
forgings for their army pistols. 
This work was done at the city of 
Utica, N. Y. The first contract 
called for 25,000 sets, and was the 
first of an order for 280,000 sets. 
In the spring of 1865, Mr. Billings 
returned to Hartford and acted for 
Charles E. Billings. the next three years as superin- 

tendent of the manufacturing de- 
partment of the Weed Sewing Machine Compiany. In 1&69, he or- 
ganized the Billings cS: Spencer Company for the manufacture of 
repeating firearms. In 1870, he took up the manufacture of drop 
forgings as a specialty, and the company soon advanced to a com- 
manding position in this industry. 

The works of the company, particularly in their relation to the 
electrical industry in its manufacture of drop forgings for commu- 
tator bars and overhead material, were described in the May, 1895, 
issue of the Street Railway Journal, so that it need only be men- 
tioned here that the number of drop hammers has increased from 
two to si.xty, and the company now turns out about 400 tons of com- 
mutator bars alone during the year. The all-pervasive force in the 
development of the enterprise has been the inventive talent of Mr. 
Billings. A single instance will illustrate: while visiting the Edi- 
son Electrical Works, in 1886, he noticed the method of making 
commutator bars, which was by two pieces united by pins and solder. 
In a conversation which arose, the electrician of the works expressed 
the opinion that they could not be produced otherwise. On return- 
ing home, Mr. Billings cut the dies and in three weeks sent to the 
Edison Company an invoice of barb forged in a single piece from 
pure copper, and having a homogeneous molecular construction 
throughout. The present extensive commutator industry of the 
company is the result. 

Mr. Billings is a prominent figure in the mechanical industry 
and was elected October 2, 1895, president of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers. 



Obituary. 



Mr. Thomas McCoubray, at one time secretary of the National 
Electric Light Association died December 5th. Mr. McCoubray was 
well known in the electrical fraternity, and has held several positions 
of trust in the commercial side of different electrical companies. Ot 
late he has given his attention to invention and developed the auto- 
telephone system. He was a prominent member of the F. & A. M., 
and was a thirty-third degree Mason of the A. A. Scottish Rite. 



Sale of the San Diego Cable Railway. 



As announced elsewhere in this issue the cable plant, franchises, 
roadway and other property of the San Diego (Cal.) Cable Railway 
is offered for purchase. The sale will take place by auction March 
11 at the company's power house. If electrically equipped and with 
its parks as a pleasure resort it should be a good paying investment. 
It is possible to install at the station surplus power which can be util- 
ized for light and power. 



EQUIPMENT NOTES. 



Jos. Dixon Crucible Company, of Jersey City, N J., writes us 
that Dixon's Silica Graphite Paint will be used in painting all the tin 
work ai d skylights of the Post Office Department building at Wash- 
ington. A quantity will also be used on the Capitol and the District 
Government building 

Prentice Brothers, of Worcester, Mass , have issued a very use- 
ful catalogue of machine tools, most of which are applicable to repair 
shop use The catalogue, which is handsomely bound and printed, 
contains descriptions and illustrations of a variety of diills and 
lathes which have already become standard machines. 

The Sterling Supply & Manufacturing Company, of New York, 
reports an excellent business in its different specialties, especially for 



January, 1896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



the Sterling; brake, the invention of Thomas Millen, master mechanic 
of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York. This 
brake has been adopted as standard and is now used upon the follow- 
iuK roads, among others : The Metropolitan Street Railway Company, 
of New York; the Steinway Railway Company, of Long Island City; 
the Staten Island Electric Railway, and the Paterson Railway Com- 
pany. 

The Standard Air-Brake Company, of New York, rounded 
out the year by equipping the cars of the Brooklyn Heights Cable 
Road with its air-brakes and by making several shipments to 
Rurope. Now that air-brakes are here to stay, the Standard Com- 
pany's General Manager does not announce new sales, as he does 
nut find it necessary to refer to past sales, in making new. ' The 
air-brake is its own salesman.' Mr. Wessels says, and certainly 
through his untiring exertions, the company has a large number of 
orders on its books. 

George Cradock & Company, of Wakefield, England, supply us 
with the following interesting record of a cable supplied by them to 
the Brixton cable rai!way, of London, England. The cable was put 
in operation July 7th, 1893, and was removed November 9th, 1895. 
I he number of working days was 886, the number of cable miles run 
123,120, number of car or train miles run during this time i 791,293. 
The length of the cable was 30,000 feet. When new it measured 
inches in circumference. This wore down to three inches without 
break. 

Rodgers, Baldwin & Vickers is the title of a new firm which 
succeeds the firm of Rodgers & Baldwin, engineers and manufact- 
urers' agents, whose office is at 136 Liberty Street, New York City. 
Mr Albert Vickers, the new member of the firm, was formerly elec- 
trical engineer of the Syracuse Consolidated .Street Railway Company. 
The firm will not only do contract work and handle street railway 
specialties, but will do consulting engineering work as well. The 
addition of Mr Vickers to the firm makes a particularly strong com- 
bination for street railway business, as Mr. Baldwin served for 
many years as superintendent of a street railway company, and Mr. 
Rodgers has had an equally valuable experience in steam railroad 
work. 

The Laconia Car Company, of Laconia, N. H., is quite busy at 
the present time. The company has just delivered fifty closed cars 
to the West End road, of Boston. These cars have twenty-five-foot 
bodies, and are mounted upon double trucks. The company is also 
now delivering twenty-four cars with twenty-foot bodies on single 
trucks, to the Lynn and Boston road. These orders close up the sea- 
sons work on closed cars. The company is expecting shortly to 
build one hundred closed cars. The iron working department of the 
works recently turned out two hundred trucks for the West End road 
without interfering with the regular work. The steam car shop for 
building freight cars for sleam roads, which was recently destroyed 
by fire, is now entirely finished and is in full operation. 

The Peck Electrical Company, is the title of a company just 
organized, with headquarters at 15 Cortlandt Street, New York. E. 
F. Peck, the vice-president of the National Electric Light Associa- 
tion, who for the last ten years has been the general superintendent 
of the Citizens Electric Illuminating Company, of Brooklyn, is the 
principal organizer of the company. It is proposed to manufacture 
and deal in electrical specialties and supplies, and also to engage in 
electrical engineering in all its branches. Mr. Peck's long and prac- 
tical experience as superintendent of one of the largest and most suc- 
cessful electric lighting plants in the country, together with his 
recognized capacity as an electrical engineer, will undoubtedly com- 
mand for the company a large share of public and private patronage. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of Last Berlin, Conn., has 
just completed for the Standard Oil Company, at Constable Hook, 
N. J., a compounding building, 120 fr. x 130 ft. The roof trusses 
are composed of steel, with steel purlins and covered with galvan- 
ized, corrugated iron. '1 he Company has also just completed for the 
United Stales Projectile Company, at South Brooklyn, N. Y., the 
steel framework for a new annealing room. The building is ico ft. 
X150 ft., and is designed to be a fire-proof structure. The Alexan- 
der Smith & Sons Carpet Company, of Yonkers, N. Y., has placed 
the contract for its new dye house building with the Berlin Iron 
Bridge Company. 'I he building is 60 ft. X 172 ft., the steel roof 
trusses being arranged to carry cars on the lower chord for moving 
material about the building. 

The Mica Insulator Company, of New York, reports an excel- 
lent business in micanite plates, commutator segments and its other 
specialties. Micanite insulation in its various forms is winning a 
deservedly high reputation not only in this country but abroad. 
According to the London Elcctriial Eni:;inccr in the De Feranti alter- 
nator at Deptford, England, micanite insulation is used largely, 
being employed in both armature and field windings. In spite of the 
high voltai^e employed, this material is giving excellent results, and 
the Mica Insulator Company has recently established a factory at 
London, England, where micanite is manufactured in its various 
forms. The American factory of the Mica Insulator Company is at 
Schenectady, N. Y., where the company has recently purchased ttie 
entire business of theEmpire Electric Insulation Company , manufact- 
urers of oil insulating cloth and paper. 

H. E. Collins & Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., sole sales agents for 
the Cahall Vertical Water Tube Boiler, manufactured by the Aullman 
& Taylor Machinery Company, Mansfield, Ohio, report the following 
recent sales of Cahall boilers: Douglas Furnaces, Sharpsville, Pa., sec- 
ond order, 250 horse power; Mahoning Valley Iron Company, Youngs- 
town, O., third order, 300 horse power; Michigan Alkali Company, 
Wyandotte, Mich., third order, 250 horse power ; Shoenberger Steel 



Company, Pittsburgh, seventh order, 500 horse power; Traders' Paper 
Company, Lockport, N. Y , 500 horse power ; McKinnon Dash & 
Hardware Company, Troy, O., too horse power. The boilers for the 
Douglas Furnaces and the .Shoenberger Steel Company are for blast 
furnace gas, those for the Mahoning Valley Iron Company are for 
the utilization of waste heats from heating furnaces, while the others 
above mentioned are of the standard direct fired type. 

The Water Circulating- Grate Company, of Philadelphia, has 
recently received two very complimentary letters from users of its 
water grate which are worth reproducing. One is from McCallum cV' 
McCallum, of Philadelphia, who write under date of November 30, 
1895, as follows : "In answer to your inquiry with regard to the 
grates you put in for us at Wayne Junction, they have been in 
use for about three years and have in every way been satisfactory, 
effecting a saving of coal and increasing the capacitv of our boilers, 
and are apparently in as good order as when built." The other is from 
the Coe Brass Manufacturing Company, of Torrington, Conn., whosay 
under date of December 5, 1895 : " We have four of your grates in 
service on 72 ft. x 18 ft. horizontal tubular boilers, and are thoroughly 
satisfied with the performance of the grates and boilers which are 
equipped with them. We consider it the best appliance for burning 
coal under a boiler that we have ever seen. 

The Ohio Brass Company, of Mansfield, O., reports large ship- 
ments recently of steel wire track brooms, a complete assortment of 
several different sizes and styles of which the company keeps on hand 
constantly. The steel wire track brooms manufactured by this com- 
pany have gained a very considerable reputation on account of their 
lasting qualities, which is due to their being made from a carefully 
selected steel wire stock, of great elasticity, and of suflicient strength 
to meet the necessary requirements when used in this way. - The 
wires are securely seated in the back of the broom, which is made of 
a heavy hardwood block, making a very strong and substantial brush 
for winter service. The Ohio Brass Company is contemplating 
arrangements to place upon the market at once a new style of track 
brush holder that is claimed to be far superior to anything in this line 
that has ever been in use before. At this season of the year there is 
a very large demand for a device of this sort as an auxiliary to the 
other means usually employed in keeping the rails free from snow 
and sleet, and this new adjustable track brush holler will probablv 
find a very large sale. 

The Simonds Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburg is rapidly 
building up an excellent business as manufacturers of gears, pin- 
ions, trolley wheels and harps. The company keeps constantly on 
hand a large stock of finished goods. The trolley wheels are 
made of a special grade of bronze, fitted with a graphite bushing 
which provides against excessive wear, and insures constant lubrica- 
tion. The records kept by the Citizens Traction Company, of Pitts- 
burg, show the average life of this wheel to be over 11,000 miles. 
Special machinery is used in cutting the gears, which are 
made of malleable iron, cast iron, or steel, as required, and absolute 
accuracy, with a smooth, clean finish is insured. The company have 
also recently added to their manufactures the Thomas Safety Guard, 
which is made in two designs, one of whiLh can be attached to the 
front of the car, and the other attached direct to the truck. This 
fender is now in operation on the Citizens, Central and Second Ave- 
nue traction companies of Pittsburg. The officers of the company 
are Biddle Arthurs, president and treasurer ; John Jackson, vice- 
president and secretary, both of vvfhom are thoroughly practical men, 
who give careful attention to all the various details of business. 

The Standard Paint Company, of New York, manufacturers of 
P & B. insulating compounds in their various forms, reports a large 
business during the past year, not only in the United States, but 
throughout Europe. P. & B. preservative paints, insulating com- 
pounds, armature varnish, insulating tape and Ruberoid car roofing 
have come to be regarded as standard for the purposes for which they 
are intended, and on many roads P. & B. is looked upon as indispen- 
sable. The European business of the company is rapidly extendinj.;. 
R. L. Shainwald, president of the company, spent three months last 
year in establishing agencies in various parts of the continent for 
the sale of the P. & B. products, and in connection with Robert W . 
Blackwell has opened an office at 39 Victoria street, Westminster, 
London, for the sale of P. & B. products. At this address the crm- 
pany will carry a full stock, and this office will be the general Euro- 
pean headquarters of the company. Mr. Shainwald reports that the 
outlook is most gratifying, and these reports are fullv substantiated 
by actual business, which thus far has been beyond his expectations. 
The reputation of the P. & B. products throughout Europe seems t(j 
be as high as in this country. Foreign electricians and electric 
manufacturers seem to readily appreciate them. 

The Knowles Steam Pump Works, of New York, the manu- 
facturers of the Barnard apparatus for the artificial cooling of con- 
densing water, is finding much interest expressed in this svs'.em by 
railway managers. In the description of this system in our last 
issue it was stated that the plant was operated by a duplex air pump. 
In order to be strictly correct, the word ''twin," instead of " duplex," 
should have been used in this connection, owing to the accepted use 
of the latter phrase in describing the ordinary form of pumping ap- 
paratus, in which the valve of one side of the pump is operated by 
the piston movement on the other, and vice vei-sa. While this type 
of pumping apparatus has achieved great popularity on account of 
its smoothness of operation, and the absence of pulsations in the 
discharge water column, it is claimed by many to have a low 
efficiency and operating economy. In the "Vertical Twin Air 
Pump," two separate steam cylinders have their piston rods 
connected by links to a horizontal beam, and though the move- 
ments of pistons and valves are interdependent, they may be ad- 
justed while running, so as to make any length of stroke desired, 



74 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



with the maximum working efficiency. The superiority of vertical 
air pumps over horizontal said to be great, and the remarkable 
economy of the apparatus illustrated is shown by the fact that on the 
recent trial tests of the United States Cruiser Minneapolis, these air 
pumps (with surface condensers) required less than one-sixth per 
cent, of the entire power of the main engine, a performance said to 
be almost unparalleled in the history of marine engineering. 

Mr. George Kissam, the sole successor of Carleton & Kissam, 
of New York, reports that street car advertising business is booming ; 
that he has closed quite a number of large contracts, many of them 
including his entire list of cities. Doing probably the largest car adver- 
tising business in the country he is fully qualified to express an 
opinion upon the state of business in general, and the outlook for 
i8g6. He anticipates doing a much larger business next year than 
ever before. He states, however, and the fact seems to bear him 
out, that the price of street car advertising space does not keep pace 
with the rentals now demanded by the street railway companies for 
the advertising privileges in their cars, and the year 1895 shows a 
much smaller net return than '94, '93 and '92, while the volume of 
business for 1895 was much larger than that of any previoi;s year. 
There is a great misconception on the part of people who are unac- 
quainted with the details of street car advertising business, as to the 
immense amount of work that is necessary to keep the cars looking 
well, to meet the fierce competition of competitors, and to keep the 
rentals promptly paid up. This requires a large capital and a large 
force of employes ; and the business is peculiar in the respect that 
while the outgoes are always cash, and mostly in advance, there be- 
ing practically no credit, the advertising receipts are entirely depend- 
ent upon the credit system which means more or less prompt pay- 
ments of bills. The maximum of rates has been reached, and when 
obtained is about is% more than the rates of several years ago ; but 
the rentals of cars are all the way from 25 to 100^ higher. This has 
resulted in quite a number of the smaller people going to the wall, 
and the business is practically now in the hands of six large concerns. 
It is a peculiar business proposition that the railroad companies are 
actually getting about eight times as much out of the advertising as 
the lessees of privileges, and many of them think that is not enough. 
Mr. Kissam views the situation philosophically, but states that it 
takes a " mighty lot of hustling " to get business enough to fill the 
cars and come out on the right side of the ledger. Hence he does 
not blame the railroad companies for getting all the money they can, 
but states, and with justice, that there is such a thing as killing the 
goose that laid the golden egg. His annual payments in rentals to 
the railroad companies now exceed the sum of $300,000 annually. 

WESTERN NOTES. 

The G. C. Kuhlman Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, met with 
an accident at the end of November in a fire at its works which de- 
stroyed about one-third of the plant. The factory was fully in- 
sured, however, and the company commenced reconstruction imme- 
diately. I he delay in delivery of ordered work will be but slight. 
The company has secured the former Broadway car houses in Cleve- 
land for extending its works. 

Clift Wise, Engineer and Contractor, Chicago, believes that the 
prospects are unusually good for a large amount of electric railway 
work during 1896. and expects to close several good contracts shortly. 
This season he has constructed and engineered for the Chicago City 
Railway Company, the Aicher Avenue and Thirty-eighth Street 
electric line, the Ashland Avenue electric line, Vincennes Avenue 
and Sixty-ninth Street electric line, the Forty seventh Street electric 
line, besides doing a large amount of boulevard paving. 

The Kunz & Rau Gear Company, of Milwaukee, Wis., is en- 
joying an excellent business in the sale of electric railway motor 
gears of which it is a manufacturer. J. L. Kunz, of thecompany, has 
spent a great deal of time and money in perfecting a machine which 
considerably lessens the cost of producing gears, and by the use of 
this machine this company is enabled to compete with the lowest 
prices without sacrificing the quality of its gears. It is the com- 
pany's intention to secure the reputation of producing the best mate- 
rial on the market, and as the energies of the managers are devoted 
entirely to the manufacture of gears and pinions, there is no reason 
why they should not excel in this line. 

The Hunter Automatic Fender Company, of Cincinnati, reports 
that its business is very satisfactory, with a most encouraging out- 
look. After testing a number of different types of fenders, we 
understand that the Cincinnati Consolidated Street Railway Com- 
pany has placed an order with the Hunter Company to eq^ip all of 
its cars with this fender by February 15, 1896. The Hunter fender, 
we are told, has also been adopted by Superintendent Jenkins, of the 
South Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway Company. Unlike 
most fenders, the Hunter fender does not project in front of the car. 
The scoop, which is made of strips of spring steel, is hung under- 
neath the platform, and normally is held a few inches above the 
tracks. An elastic bumper of the same material as the scoop is 
supported on the dashboard, and if it strikes an object it automati- 
cally drops the scoop, which catches the object struck should it fall in 
front of the car. The scoop can also be tripped by the motorman. 
Besides being a life saver, another feature which will commend it is 
that it is not a disfigurement to a car. 

The Stanwood Manufacturing- Company, of Chicago, maker of 
the Stantvood patent non-slipping step, has lately furnished a com- 
plete equipment of these treads for the ladders of the large, new 
United States battle-ships Indiana and Massachusetts, the tread 
being practically ihe same as supplied by the Sianwood Company to 
the leading street railway companies of this country for car steps. 



This order came to the Stanwood Company unsolicited from the 
Superintendent of Construction U. S. Navy, J. H. Lennard. who had 
noticed the steps in use on the street cars in Philadelphia. The step 
strongly recommends itself for this work as well as for street cars, as 
dirt, snow or ice cannot accumulate on it; it is positively not-slipping 
and is light and strong. From f;oo to 600 treads are used to a vessel, 
and this equipment will probably lead to a very large business in 
this field. Recent orders for these patent steps have been filled for 
the American, Brownell Pullman, Jackson & Sharp and J. 
G. Brill Company car companies, the Twin City Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, Union Traction Company, Philadelphia, Scranton Traction 
Company, Patterson Central Electric Railway Company, Dry Dock 
and Fast Broadway and Battery, Southern Electric Railway. St. 
Louis, Nassau Electric Railway, Akron Street Railway, Baltimore 
City Passenger Railway Company, Zanesville Electric Street Rail- 
way, Youngstown street Railway Company, Herkimer, Mohawk, 
Ilion and Frankfort Electric Railway, the Canadian General Electric 
Company, and others. 

The Hoppes Manufacturing Company, of Springfield, Ohio, 
which makes a specialty of feed-water purifiers and exhaust steam 
heaters, reports some very nice orders for the past sixty days. 
Among these we may mention the Cambria Iron Company, of Johns- 
town, Pa , a repeat order for two heaters of 2,250 horse power each ; 
this makes a total of seven, aggregating 13,900 horse power, now in 
use at the Cambria Works. Among other shipments we note the 
following: St, Louis Dressed Beef Company, St. Louis, Mo., 850 
horsepower live steam feed-water purifier; also 800 horse power 
exhaust steam healer. Bousfield & Company, Bay City, Mich., 600 
horse power heater. Globe Furniture Company, St. Louis, Mo , 150 
horse power heater. Christy Fire Clay Company, St. Louis, Mo., 
400 horse power purifier; also 400 horse power heater. L. Hoster 
Brewing Company. Columbus, Ohio, repeat order for 625 horse 
power purifier. Columbus, (O.) Central Railway Company, repeat 
order for 1300 horse power heater. Columbus (O ) Bolt Works, 150 
horse power purifier. E. C. Atkins & Company, Indianapolis, Ind.. 
625 horse power purifier, and 800 horse power heater. Missouri Gas 
Company, Kansas City, Mo., 300 horse power heater. Fox River 
Paper Company, Appleton, Wis., 500 horse power purifier. Ameri- 
can Glucose Company, Peoria, 111., repeat order for 1300 horse power 
exhaust steam heater. Rochester (N. Y.) Railway Company, 2250 
horse power heater. Edison Electric Light & Power Company, Erie, 
Pa., 500 horse power heater. 

The Falk Manufacturing Company, of Milwaukee, manufact- 
urer of the Falk cast-welded rail joint, has every reason to be well 
pleased with the success it has attained during the past year. It is 
but twelve or thirteen months since the company put in its first work. 
With the opening of spring it practically began operations, and since 
that time it has had as much work as it was prepared to handle, and 
has conclusively demonstrated the success of a continuous rail for 
tramway service. The Falk Company during the season just closed 
has cast-welded 16, coo joints for the Chicago City Railway Company, 
and 10,000 joints for the West Chicago Street Railroad Company, 
besides doing a large amount of work on the tracks of the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company, St Paul and Minneapolis; the Consolidated 
Traction Company, Newark, N. J.; the National Railway Company, 
St. Louis, and the Union Railway Company, Providence, R. I. At 
Chicago, where the bulk of the work was performed during the 
hottest part of the summer, the breakage has been less than one-half 
per cent, up to the present time, although there has been a couple of 
weeks of cold winter weather during which the mercury registered 
zero. At St. Paul and Minneapolis, where the joints were put in 
during the fall, only about eight joints pulled loose. In these the 
iron did not break, but the weld was imperfect and the rails slipped 
in the joint. In fact, the record of breakage does not seem to be 
greater than would ordinarily be expected from casting under the 
most favorable circumstances. 

The Metropolitan Electric Company, Chicago, is receiving 
many compliments from every section of the country with reference 
to its mammoth catalogue of 755 pages lately issued. The company 
is deserving of special mention for the enterprise and grit that it has 
displayed since its inception. Although not two years old it ranks 
high among the best houses in the business. It was among the first 
to recognize the close relation of the street railway field to the other 
branches of the business, and prepared over a year ago a street rail- 
way catalogue of several hundred pages, showing street railway 
materials alone. Since the company has started three catalogues 
have been issued — the last and the greatest one ever issued by any 
electrical house, covers all branches of the trade and is a verilable 
compendium of electrical appliances, wiring tables, formulas, etc. 
Among the prominent agencies the Metropolitan represents in its 
book is the National India Rubber Company, N. I. R. wire, tapes 
and cables; the Standard Paint Company's P. & B. paint, compound 
and varnish; J. Grant High & Company, knite switches and switch 
board materials; the American Carbon Company, carbons, "Metro- 
politan " famous high quality incandescent car lamps, Mac wrapping 
tape, and others of standard quality and excellence. The business 
of the past year has been a steadily improving one and highly satis- 
factory to the officers of the Metropolitan. It seems safe to predict 
great things for this comp.iny for the future, starting as it did at the 
end of '93 and in the thick of the hard times. By perseverance, 
pluck and uniform courtesy, it has gained a splendid reputation, and 
as the times grow better will no doubt reap the full measure of 
prosperity so well deserved. The officers of the company are William 
H. McKinlock, president; Walter C. McKinlock, secretary — names 
that have been idedtified with electrical matters for a number of years 
and who are widely known as men of integrity and business honor. 



January, 1896.J STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 75 




Annual Report of the Maine Railroad Comniis= 

sioners. 



From the recently issued report of the Commissioners for 1895, 
the following report is obtained : 

The mileage in the State for the year ending June 30, 1895, was 
90.89 miles, as against 80.39 miles on June 30, 1894, a gain being 
made by the building of the Calais Street Railway 7 miles, the Skow- 
hegan & Norridgewock Street Railway 5.75 miles, and an extension 
of the Portland Street Railroad .75 mile. Three miles of the Calais 
Street Railway are in New Brunswick. 

The numberof passengers carried during the year was 9,143,377, 
as against 8,141,378 in 1894, a gain (.f 1,001,999. Of this gain 546,668 
passengers were due to the two new roads constructed. 

The gross earnings were $502,478, as against $440,027, an in- 
crease of $62,451, or of $32,838 of the old roads over the business of 
1894. 

Only one accident by street railroads is reported during the 
year. 

Annual Reports. 



LOWELL LAVVRENCH & HAVERHILL STREET RAU.VVAY COMPANY, 
LAWRENCE, MASS. 

Year ending September 30, 

;eipts from passengers 

" from other sources , 



Deductions from earnings. 



1894. 


1895. 


$267,042 




2,698 




269,740 


403,530 


205,816 


262,935 


- 63,924 


140,595 




84,081 


55,270 




17,153 




8,498 


56,514 


76.3 


65.2 



HOUSTON CITY STREET RAILWAY COMPANY, HOUSTON, TEX. 

Year ending October 30, 1895. 

Receipts from passengers $217,397 

" other sources 5,411 

" total 222,808 

Operating expenses 149,205 



Earnings from operation 73,603 

Deductions from earnings. 

Interest 8,370 

Taxes and insurance 18,132 

Rentals W 13,967 

Other deductions 29,735 



N,et income 

Per cent. op. exp. to total receipts. 



3,399 
70.0 



LOWELL & SUBURBAN STREET RAILWAY COMPANY, LOWELL, MASS. 

Year ending September 30, 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Receipts from passengers $270,800 $271,912 

" other sources 2,162 5, 117 

" total 272,862 277,029 $329,817 

Operating expenses 180, 86r 179,409 199,346 



Earnings from operation 92,101 97,620 130,471 

Deductions from earnings 66,575 

Interest on bonds 40,403 57,566 

" " floatingdebt 4, 618 

Taxes 4,522 6,133 

Rentals 2,925 



Net income 42,558 

Per cent, operating expenses to total 

receipts 66.3 



30,995 63,896 
64.7 60.4 



Milwaukee Street Railway Foreclosure. 

The mortgages on the Milwaukee Street Railway Company's 
franchises and property have been ordered sold under foreclosure, 
the sale to take place within a short time, the date being not yet 



fixed. The decree of foreclosure declared that $551,264 are due as 
interest and $9,425,294 as principal, the interest being reckoned to 
December 19, 1895. The first default of interest payments occurred 
on December i, 1893, on a portion of the bonds. The first default on 
all the bonds came on June i, 1895. The upset price at the sale on 
the foreclosure is fixed at $5,ooo,oo(j. 



Financial News and Notes, 



Akron, O. — The Akron Street Railway & Illuminating Com- 
pany has been incorporated. Capital stock, $1,500,000; par value, 
$100 per share. Incorporators: J. B. Clews, L. A. Long, F. A. Sei- 
berling, E. B. Gibson and Ira M. Miller. 

Albany, N. Y. — The Albany, Helderberg & Schoharie Electric 
Railway Company, recently incorporated, has completed surveys. 
President, John W. Van Valkenburg, 73 State Street, Albany ; chief 
engineer, George Yost, of same address. 

Amherst, Mass. — The Amherst Electric Street Railway Company 
has asked to be incorporated; capital stock not to exceed $50,000; 
bond issue not to exceed $50,000. 

Baltimore, Md. — The Columbia & Maryland Railway Company 
has filed a mortgage for $6,000,000, 5 per cent, gold bonds, dated 
June I, 1895, due in fifty years. Trustee of mortgage. Central Trust 
Company of New York. 

Charleston, W. Va. — The Charleston Electric Railway & Power 
Company has been incorporated to own and operate street railways, 
etc. Minimum capital stock, $500 ; maximum, $500,000 ; par value, 
$100 per share. Incorporators : Neil Robinson, E. L. Buttrick, D. 
W. Patterson and F. H. Markell, all of Charleston, W. Va. 

The Charleston Traction Light & Power Company has been in- 
corporated to purchase and own street railways, etc. Minimum cap- 
ital stock, $500 ; maximum,.. $500,000 ; par value, $1 per share. In- 
corporators : \V. A. MacCorkle, Malcolm Jackson, M. M. Williams, 
A. W. Watrous, of Charleston, W. Va. 

Cincinnati. O. — The Cincinnati Street Railway Company will 
extend its line to Fernbank if the citizens will raise a bonus of $50,- 
000. A. G. Starr is purchasing agent for the company. 

Columbus, O. — The Columbus Street Railway Company reports 
earnings as follows; 

November, 1894. 1895. 

Gross receipts $46,472 $49,729 

Operating expenses 22,904 28,087 

Earnings from operation $23,568 $21,642 

Eleven months ending November 30. 

Gross receipts $516,726 $574, 5&7 

Operating expenses 244,649 284,324 

Earnings from operation $272,077 $290,263 

Corry, Pa. — Another company has been incorporated to build an 
electric railway in Corry. Capital stock, $125,000. President, 
Manley Crosby, of Corry. Among those interested are J. P. Jeffer- 
son, G. W. Sill, R. F. Vandorn, Charles Ayers and S. J. Franklin, of 
Warren, Pa. 

Denver, Col. — The Denver Consolidated Tramway Company 
has asked for a franchise to extend its line. The franchise will prob- 
ably be granted. J. C. Curtis is purchasing agent. 

Forest Lawn, N. Y. — The Windsor Beach & Summerville Elec- 
tric Railroad Company has been formed to build an electric 
railway from Forest Lawn to Summerville. Directors are: E. O. 
McNair and H. G. McNair, of Warsaw; A. J. Johnson, J. C. Tone, F. 
W. Elwood, Edward Ellwanger, George Wilson, Daniel Piatt, WilJiam 
Bowman and Horace Pierce, of Rochester, N. Y. 

Jersey City, N. J. — The Sprague Electric Railroad Company 
has been incorporated. Capital stock, $1,000,000. Incorporators 
are Frank Sprague and Charles Sprague, of New York City, and 
Howard F. Guerney, of Jersey City. 

Lewiston, N. Y. — The Lewiston & Youngstown Frontier Rail- 
way Company has asked for a franchise. The officers of the com- 
pany are : President, L. D. Rumsey; vice president and treasurer, H. 
Q Howard; secretary, Carl Evans; attorney, F. R. March; chief en- 
gineer, Paul Voorhees. 

Louisville, Ky. — Rowland Cox, 436 West Jefferson Street, 
Louisville, is chief engineer of the electric railway to be built from 

{Continued on page /<?) 



76 



STREET RAlLWAV JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



STOCK XND bond quotations. 



Notice.— Tlieso quotations are carefully revised from month to month by local bankers and brokers, and closely represent the market value of the different securities as 
tested by individual sales. Few of these, however, are actually quoted on city exchauges. and accuracy In the range of prices cannot, therefore, be vouched for. 

.Seouriiles.— Active securities only are quoted In these tables, and tne bond Issuer described do not n"ces3arlly constitute the entire funded Indebtedness of the different 
properties. For a full and detailed description of all the securities, see American Strbbt Kailwat Invbstments. published annually on March I5th. 

Abbreviations.— The following abbreviations are used: M. mortgage; Oen. M. general mortgage; Cons. M. consolidated mortgage; deb. debentures; convert, convertible; 
In esc. In escrow; g. gold; guar, guaranteed; bds. bonds; int. Interest; 4- in addition; auth. authorized; tncl. Including; cert, indebt. certlhcales of indebtedness; In tr. in 
trust; n nominal. 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



iliBANV, N. Y.*— Local quotations to 
Dec. 20 

Albany Ry. Co., Stock 100, 

Cons. M. 5^ bds. (incl. $1 13,000 in esc. ). 

Deb. (convert.) bds 

Wat. T'p'ke & R.R. Co.'s 3d M. 6% bds. 
Wat. Tiirni>ike >fe U. K. Co., Stock. 100 

ist M. 6% bds. (Int. guar, by Alb'y Ry. 



BAiiTiaiORE, BID.*— Local quotations 
to Nov. 19. 

Baltimore Traction Co., Stock % 

1st M. sssbds 

No. Bait. Dlv. 1st M 5% bds 

Ext. and Imp. 6% bds 

City &: Suburban Ky. Co., Stock... 

Uen. M. b% g. bds 

Baltimore City Pass. Ky. Co., Stock 

:st. M. b% g. bds 

Central Phmh. Ky. Co., Stock 50 

Cons. M. 5% bds. (+ $1.51,000 In esc). . 
1st M.6* bds 



Issued. 



Due. 



BOSTON, BIASS.*— Local quotations to 
Dec. 31. 

West Enil St. Ry. Co., (common. ... 50 
Stock, \preferred S%. 60 

Deb. b% g bds 

Deb. g. bds 

North Shore Traction (common 100 

Co., Stock. I preferred 6?. lOu 
Lynn & Boston R.R. Co.'s 1st Cons. M. 
b% g. bds. (+ $1,863,000 in esc) 



BROOKLYN, N. Y.*— New York quo- 
tations to Dec. 34 
luong Island Traction Co., Stock... 100 

coll. Tr. 6% g. notes 

Brooklyn Ileig;hts K. K. Co. 

1st M. 5% bds 

Brooklyn City II. R. Co., Stock in 

1st Cons. M. 5% bds 

Brooklyn, U. Co. & Sub. R. R Co. 

1st M. 5^ g. bds. (+ $350,000 In esc.).. . 

1st Cons. M. 5% g. bds 

Brooklyn Traction Co. (common 100 



(preferred 6% 100 



Co. 



Stock. 
Atlantic Ave. R. R 

Gen. M. 5% bds 

cons. M. 5% bds. (+ $1 ,034,000 In esc . ) 

Imp. M. 5% g. bds 

B'kl'n. Bath >&. W. E. R. R. Co. 

Gen. M. 5^ bds. {+ $553,000 In esc). 
Conev Isl. & B'kPn R.R. Co., Stock 100 
istM. 5% bds... 
Cert. Indebt. 6% 
B'kl'n City & Newt'n R.R.C©. Stock 100 
1st Cons. b% bds 



BUFFALO, N. Y.*— New York quotations 
to Dec. 36. 

Bullalo Ry. Co., Stock 100 

1st Cons. M. 5% bds. (+ $1,457,000 In 

esc.) 

Crosstown St. Ry. Co.'s ist M. 5% bds. 



CHARLESTON, S. C.*— Local quota- 
tions to Dec. 21. 

Enterprise St. R. R. Co., Stock 2fi 

1st M. b% bds. 

Charleston City Ry. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. 6^ bds 



CHICAGO, 11,1..*— Local quotations to 
Dec 19 

Chlcafco So. SideR. T.R. R. Co. 

Stock 100 

1st M. 5^ bds 

Exten 5f bds... 

Chicni^o City K\. Co., Stock 100 

Ist M. iH% bds 

Lake St. Elev. R.R., Stock. 100 

IStM. bf bds 



1,3.50,000 
500,000 
200.000 
150,001 
240.000 
850.000 



5,T50,00I) 
1,. 500,000 
1,750,000 
1,250,000 
4,000,001 
3,000.000 
'2,,50n,000 
3,000,000 
300,000 
549,001 
151,000 



9,085,000 
6.400,000 
3.000,000 
3,000.000 
4,000,000 
2,000,010 

3,517,000 



30,000,000 
2 .500,000 

350,000 
12,000,000 
6,000,000 

3,150,000 
2,500,000 
6,000,000 
3,000,000 

759.000 
1,966,000 
1,500,000 

448,000 
1,000,000 
300,000 
300,000 
1,000,000 
1,900 000 



5,370,500 

3,543,000 
2,300,000 



350,000 
60,000 
100,000 
100,000 



7,S00,000 
7,500,000 
3,000,000 
9,000,000 
4,619,500 
10,000,000 
7,674,000 



1930 
1901 
1919 



Quotations. 



1895. 



140 
109 

113^^ 

114 



1939 
1912 
1901 



1932 

igii 



1933 
1912 



1902 
1914 



1924 



1895-7 
1941 

igii 

1941 
1941 



1909 
1931 
1934 

1933 



1904 
1910 



1939 



1931 
1933 



1906 
1916' 



1929 
19,33 



60 d. 
1928' 



31?. 
Ill 
1101.5 
108 

51 

nik 

76 "-^ 
117 

72H 
113 

no 



77>4 
95?.! 
107 
107 



101>i 



185 
115 

115 
105 

18?. 
681^ 

110 
110 
95 

93 



205 
111 



90 



10934 
1071/j 



78 



116 

105>4 



111 



Dec. 



135 



14k 
10o?4 
105 
102 

42)4 
I07H 

69 

113J4 
68 

109?4 
110 



57h 

85 

102^4 



ioi;<i 



151!^ 

Ill 

103 
80 

49 

107^ 
108 
85 

87 



101 

95?4 



17 
75 

52 

m 

102 

27 >i 
75 



40 

300 
lOO^si 

45 



18? 
Ill 
110!^ 

104 Ji 
49 

\uy2 

117 



73 

93 
105 V, 
105?4 

85 

101 



174 



102 

13^ 
60?«i 

no 

^5' 
85 



no 



74 



6H 8M 
60 63 



40 
31714 
lOOX 

25^ 



135 



17?^ 17i!, 
Ill HI 



135 



109)4 
104 

111 

75)^ 
114 



64 

90 
105 
1051^2 

83' 

101 



160 



100 



53 



108 



6814 

101 
100 



61 
40 

;oo 

100^ 

2a>i 



llOH 

1143; 

49 

111J4 

75>, 
lUi 



65b 

105 a 
lOo 



170 

100 

10 
56 

K8 

85' 

85 



195 b 
108 



70 



Its 
102 



6 
101 
70 
112 



6U4 

40 
310 
lOOJi 

23 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



CHICAGO, ILL, Continued. 

IHet. W. S. Elevated Ry., Stock 100 

IstM. 5« bds 

North Chicago St. R. R. Co., Stock. ICO 

1st M. 5% bds 

Cert. Indebt. 6% 

No. CM. Cy. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 6^ bds. .. 
" " " " " 2nd M. 4)i% bds 
North Cblcago City Ry. Co., Guar. 

Stock 100 

West Chicago St. R. R. Co., Stock 100 

1st M. 5% bds 

W.C S.R.R.TunnelCo.'slstM.5^bds. 

Deb. 6^bds 

Chi. W. Dlv. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 4>i% bds. 

Chi. Pass. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 6% bds 

" " " Cons. M. 6^ bds... 
Chicago W. Div. Ry. Co., Guar. 
Stock 100 



-Local quotations to 

Stock 50 



CINCINNATI, O.* 

Dec. 21. 
Cincinnati St. Ry. C 

1st M. 7^ bds 

1st M. 4% ext'n'd bds 

" " 5% " " 

Mt. Adams & Eden Park Inclined 

Ry., Stock 50 

1st M. 6^ bds 

" " 6% " 

Cons. M. 5% bds 

Cincinnati, Newport &. Covington 
St. Ry. Co., Stock 

Cons. M.5%g. bds.(lncl. $500,000 in esc.) 
So. Cov. St, Cln. St. Ry. Co 1st M. 6% bds. 

" " " " ' SndCons. M. 

6% g. bds. <lncl. $250,000 In esc.) 



100 



COLUMBUS. O.*— New York quota- 
tions to Dec. 26. 

Columbus St. Ry. Co., Stock 101 

Cons.M. 5^ g. bds.(lncl. $780,000 In esc) 
Crosstown St. Ry. Co.'s 1st. M. b% g. 
bds. ($90,000 In esc.) 



COVINGTON, KY.*— (See Cincinnati.) 



DETROIT, lyilCli.*— Local quotations to 
Dec. 18. 

Detroit Citi.een8' St. Ry. Co., Stock. 100 

1st M. 6i{ o J•^. (+$1,150,000 In esc) 

Fort Wayn, & Belle Isle Ry. Co., 

Stock 100 

1st M. 6% g. bds. ($60,000 m tr.) 

Wyandotte & Detroit River Ry. 

Co.. Stock 100 

Rapid Ry. Co., Stock 

1st M. 5%bds 

The Detroit Ry., Stock 

lstM.5^ bds 



HARTFORD, coNN.*-See New Haven 



HOBOKEN, N. J.*— See Newark . 



HOLYOKE, MASS.*— Local quotations to 
Dec 18. 

Holyo'ke St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Springfield St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Northampton St. Ry. Co., Stock.... 100 



INDIANAPOLIS, IND.*— New York 
quotations to Dec. 26. 

Citizens' St. R. R. Co., Stock 100 

Cons. M. 5f g. bds. (Incl. $1,000,000 In 
esc) 



JERSEY CITY, N. J *— See Newark. 



LOUISVILLE, KY.*— Local and New 
York quotations to Dec. 26. 

Louisville Ry. Co., (common 100 

Stock, \preferred 5% 100 
Cons. M. 5%g. bds. (Incl. $1,263,000 In 
esc.) 







Quotations. 


Issued. 


Due. 


1895. 




np.fi. 
























bo 








^' 




d 

bo 





fl 

tn 







5 




m 




Q 


11,500,000 




22 


14 


17 


14>4 


uy. 


4,000.000 


1943 


79 


66 


71 


71 


71 " 


5,499,500 






245 


3053,15 


298 


;W2 


2,413 000 


1906 


104?i 


103 




;o3>^ 


lOt 


500,000 


1911 












SoO.CKX) 


1900 


Wb}4 


105 








1.850,000 


1927 


101 


100?^ 








500,000 




600 


595 








13,189,000 




135 


110 


m 




lie 


4,100,000 


1938 


103><! 


101^4 


11 2% 


102>/ 




1,.500,000 


1909 


I01?« 


101 






3,000.000 






101 


mn 


liio' 


lOOX 


4,040,000 


1932 


101 


101 






400,000 


19"5 


109 


108 








600 OuO 


1939 












1,250,000 


600 


600 








1A linn nnn 








115 


111 


111 


50,(00 


1896 


l04 


lOl 








100,000 




1U0>4 


99 








150,000 






100 J/a 








2,500,000 






108 


112 


111 


111 




1900 


108 


06 








100.000 


1905 


114 


103 








5.31,000 


1906 


107>i 


106 








3,000,000 




48 


31 


36 


34 


35 


3,000.000 


193^ 


100 


91 


99 J4 


97% 


98 


2.W,000 


1912 


115 


114% 






400,000 


1933 


115 


\U% 








3,000,000 




60)4 




56 


,50 


,53 


3,000,000 


1933 


lOiiJ^ 


94!4 


102 


99 


100 


500,000 


193;$ 


103 


94 


100 


95 


93 b 


i,3-o,roo 




120 b 


90 


100 


100 


100 


1,100,00" 




100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


3,50,000 




250 


210 


i50 


■>50 


250 


340,000 




100 


100 






200.000 




110 


100 


110 


100 




250,000 














.300,000 














1,000,000 














1 ann Ann 


192.5 










9214b 


250,000 




225 


300 


2in 


200 




1,000,000 




315 


200 


210 


200 




335.000 




200 


160 


200 


190 




5,000,000 




58 


34 


53 


40 


43 


4,000,000 


1933 


96Ji 


82?^ 


91 


88 


89 


4,000,000 




54>^ 


,37 


5134 


50 


50 b 


2,000,(100 




10% 


93 


100. 


95 


98 


6,000,000 


1830 


ma 


104« 


109 


105 


1C6J4 



.M7 » ^^.^uSr'li^x '^!:?.Kn''l"'i' ^^f? and Other securltlea Issued, see AOIERICAN STREET RAILWAY INVESTMENTS, a supplement to the STREET RAIL. 
WAY JOURNAL, published annually on March istli. ' . , 



Januakv, i8y6.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



77 



company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



Issued. 



liVNN, MAS.s.*— See Boston. 



BIINNEAPOI.IS, MINN.*— New York 
quotations to Dec. a;. 
Twin City Kapid Transit Co. (com.. 100 
Stock. tpret.Tit 
Minn. St. Ry. Co.'s Cons. M. 5% g. bds. 

(+ $960,000 In esc.) 

St. Paul City Ry. Co.'s Cab. Cons. 5% g. 

bda. (Incl. $680,000 in esc.) 

St. Paul City Ry. Co.'s Deb. 6% g. bds. 



ItlONTilKAl-, CAN.*— Local quotations 
to Dec. 18. 

Itlontreal St. Ry. Co., Stock 5(1 

1st M. 5^ bds 

2ud M, 4>iX bds 



NKW Al.BANY, INU.*— See LoulsvUle. 



NEWARK. N. J.*— New York and Phlla- 
delpbla quotations to Dec. 26. 
ConHOlidaietl Traction Co., of N. J.. 

Stock 100 

1st M. g. bds 

North llndson Co. Ry. Co.. Stock... 35 
Cons. M. &% bds. (IncL $620,000 In esc.) 

2nd M. 6^ bds 

Deb. 6% bds 



NEW HAVEN, CONN.*— Local quota- 
tions to Dec. 18. 

Fairhaven Sc Weotvllle R. R. Co., 

Stock 25 

Winchester Ave. R. R. Co., Stock.. . 25 

ist M. 6% g. bds 

Deb. 6« bds 

New Haven St.Ry. Co., lStM.5?!bdS. 
Hartford St. Ry. Co.. Stock 100 

H'd & Wtb's'fl'd H. R. R. Co.'s deb. b% 
bds 



NEW ORLEANS. I.A.*— New York 
quotations to Dec. 26. 
New (trienns Traction (common.. 
Co., Stock, \pref. 6^ 

" ~' - - - — — -n'alar M 



N. O. City & Lake R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 5% 

g. bds. ($423,500 In esc.) 

Crescent City R. R. Co.'s Cons. M. b% 

g. bds 

New Orleans & Carrollton R. R. 

Co., Stock 100 

1st M. 6 % bds 



2d M. bds 

Canal & Cla'borne R. R. Co., Stock 
1st M. 6 % bds 

Orleans K. R. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. bda 

St. Charles St. R. R. Co., Stock 

1st M. 6% bds 



40 



50 



NEWPORT, R. 1.*— See Providence. 



NEW YORK, N. Y.*— Local quotations 
to Deo. 26. 

metropolitan Traction Co., Stock... 100 
Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

B'y. Surt R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 5* bds. . . . 
" " " " 2nd M. 5!{bd3.... 

So. Ferry R. K. Co., 1st. M. 5i bda. . . . 

Lex. Ave. & P. P. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 5% bds. 
Broadway &: Seventh Ave. R. R. 
Co., Guar Stock 100 

Cons. M. 5%g. bds. (+ $4,850,000 In esc.) 

Ist M. 5% bds 

2ndM. 5«bds 

Sixth Ave. R. R. Co., Guar. Stock ion 
Ninth Avenue R. R. Co., Guar. Stock 100 
Twenty-third St. Ry. Co.,Guar.Stock 100 

1st M. 6% Dda 

Deb. 5< bds 

B'y. Surt. R. R. Co.'s istM. 5% bds...- 
42nd St. & G'd. St. Ferry R. R. Co., 
Guar. Stock lOO 

Ist M. 6% bds 

Cent. Pk., No. <fc E. Riv. R. R. Co., 
Guar. Stock , 100 

cons. M. 7f bds 

Bl'cker St. & Fulton Ferry R. R. 
Co 100 

IstM. 7«bds 

Third Avenue R. R. Co.. Stock 100 

Ist M. b% g. bds 

Second Avenue R. R. Co., Stock.... 100 

Cons. M. 6* bds 

Deb. 5* bds 

Eighth Avenne R. R. Co., Stock 100 



15,000,000 
1,500,000 

4 040,000 

4,298.000 
1,000.000 



3,400,000 
300,0011 
700,000 



Due. 



Quotations. 



1895. 



Dec. 



3 1 



1919 



1937 
1900 



1908 
192V! 



15.000,000 
11,500,000 
1.000,000 
3 000.000 
350,000 
500,000 



600,(100 
400 000 
500,000 
100.0110 
600.0110 
200,000 

500,000 



5,000,000 
2,500,000 

3,000,000 

2,3.50,000 

1.200.000 
250,000 

350,000 

240,000 
150,0li0 
18,5.000 
18,000 
594,350 
150,000 



30,000,000 
13,500,000 
1,125,000 
1,000.000 
350.000 
5(JO,000 

2,100,000 
7,6.50,000 
1 500,000 
500,000 
2,000,000 

eoo.oco 

600,000 
250,000 
liO.OOO 
375.000 

748.0no 
236,000 

1,800,000 
1,200,000 

900,000 
700,000 
9 000,000 
5,000,000 
l.S62,000 
l.(i00,000 
300.000 
1,000,000 



1933 



1928 
1902 



1912 
1909 
1913 

190^ i 
1913f 



1943 
1943 



1-97) 
190hC 
11105) 



1912 



30 

100 
98^ 



31 
»7X 



1924 
1905 
1919 



1943 
1901 
1914 



1909 
1906 
1924 



1909 



1902 



1900 
1937 



1909 
1909 



5;^ 

163' 

102 
102 
250 



29 

105 
100 
126 

112J4 
40 

43^.1 b 
66" 



lii'i 

106 

IU6 

2'tO 

110 

ni^ 

223 
160 
310 
120 
105 
114 

330 
116)^ 

16S 
118 

30 
113 
196>i 

165 
110 
105 
365 



ll><i 

91 
85 



50 

loi' 
luo 
101 

208 
100 



11 

40 

961^ 
91 

112 
26 

32>4 

5,5 " 



27 !4 
88 



52 

lte>4 
102 
102 
21£> 

lOii 



20X 
6j>4 



103 
95^ 



25 



207)4 



52 

l62>i 

100 

102 

2i5 

lOlX 



101 





81 k 108 

110 iiio" 

103 1 ' 105 
103 106 
105.!a ... 

188 '198 
1119 |U7 
1061^1 106J 
108)^1110 
200 20i 
146 ilBO 
300 1 305 
115 116 
102 tl04 
110 110 



315 
115 

161 

29 
111 
150 
118 
140 
107 
100 
300 



323 
116 

165 
115 

30 
112 
185 
121 
178 
109 
1(3 
355 



95 



2-'4X 



103 
102 
102 
215 



101 



121 b 



39 b 
101 b 
43,yb 
11434 



195 
115 
106 
h'J 
2t0 

m" 

116 
U14 
ilO 

315 
116 

160 
115 

30 
111 

175 

1I6>^ 

l7ii 

10« 

lOil 

345 



197 

117 
106 

no 
200 

160 b 

306 

116 

104 

110 

320 
116 

163 
115 

30 
112 

i-'o 

170 
109 
102 
350 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

Cert. Ind'bt. 6% 

4?Md St., HI. Ac f't. N. Ave. Ry. Co., 
Stock 100 

1st. M. 6^ bds 

2nd M. Inc. 6^ bds 

Dry Dock, E. B'y. & Battery R. R. 
Co., Stock 100 

Gen. M. 5* g. bds 

Cert. Ind'bt 6^ lOO 

('entral Crosstown R. R. Co., Stock lOi 

1st M. 6% bds 

Christopher Sc lOth St. R. R. Co.. 

Guar. Stock loO 

Union Ry. Co., Stock.... KIO 

1st M. 5i{ bds 

Westchester Elec. R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 

5* bds 



NORTHAMPTON, MASS.*— See Holyoke 



PATERSON, N. .?.*— New York and Phila- 
delphia quotations to Dec. 26. 

Paterson Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Cons. M. 6% bds. (Inc. $250,000 In esc). 



P II II .A D E I>PII I A . PA .*— Local quota- 
tions to Nov. 18. 
Philadelphia Traction Co., Stock... . 50 

CoU. Tr. 4% g. bds 

Continental Pasx. Ry. Co., Guar. 

Stock 50 

ist M. 6f bds 

Empire Passenircr Ry. Co , Stock.. 50 

IstM. 7f bds 

Philn. City Pass. Ry. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. b% bds 

Pliila. & G'ys Ferry Pass. Ry. Co., 

Guar. Stock 50 

Ridge Ave. Pass. Ry. Co. Guar. Stock 5n 
13th loth Sts., Pass. Ry. Co., 

Guar. Stock 50 

ist M. 7% bds 

Union Pass. Ry. Co., Guar. Stock.. 50 

1st M bds 

9ndM.5^ bds 

W. Phila. Pass. Ry. Co., Guar. Stock 5' 

lit M. 6% g. bds 

3nd M. 5* bds 

Flectric Traction Co., Stock 50 

Frankford & S'thw'k P. C. Pass. 

R. R. Co., Guar. Stock eO; 

Lombard & So. St. P. R. R. co.'s 1st 

M.Sit bds 

West End P. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 7% bds„ 
Ci iy.ens' Pass. Ry. Co.. Guar. StOCK BO 
2n<l 3rd Sts. Ky. Co., Guar, btock 5fi 

L,ehi*h Ave. Ry. Co., Stock 50 

People's Traction Co.. Stock 50 

P. P. Ry. Co.'s stk. tr. cert. 4%g 

People's Pass. Ry. Co., (common 25 

Stock (preferred... 25 

1st M. 7^ bds 

Cons.M. 5* bds 

Uerniantown Pass. Ry. Co.. Guar. 

Stock 50 

Green & Coates Sts. P. P. Ry. Co., 

Guar, stock 50 

1st M.O^bds 

Hest'v'e, Mantua ic F'r'm't P. R. 
R. Co., Stock 50 



Issued. 



Due. 



Quoiailoua. 



1895. 


Dec. 


ti 
bo 

s 


Low. 


si 
bo 

ffl 


Low. 


Closing 



PITTSBURGH, PA.'— Local quotatlona 
to Dec. 21. 

Citizens' Traction Co., Stock 5') 

1st M. 6% bda 

Pittshurf{h Traction Co.. Stock 50 

1st M. b% bds 

Uuquesne Traction Co., Stock 50 

IstM. 5% bds 

P'h'«h, Allegheny &. Manch'r Tr. 
Co., Stock 50 

Gen. M. 5^ bda 

P'b'gh Union P. Ry. Co. 'a 1st. M. bds. 
Federal St. & P. V. R. R. Co., SlOCk 2B 

Gen. M. 5% bds.. (new) 

P'b'ich Birmingham Tr. Co., Stock 50 

Gen. M. 5*g. bds 

Central Traction Co., Stock 50 

1st M. 5% bds 

P'b'Kh& WestEndP. Ry. Co., Stock 50 

1st. M. 5* bds 



PROVI PENCE, R, I.*— Local quotations to 

Dec. 18. 

United Traction & Electric Co., 

Stock 100 

1st M. 5%g. bds 

Newport St. Ry. Co. 

lstM.5« bds 



l.OOO.OTO 

2,h"0,m 
1,2011,000 
1,500,000 

1,200,000 
bb5,00li 

1,100,000 
600,000 
250.000 

eso.o'io 

2,000,000 
2,000,000 

600,000 



1,2.50 000 
l.a50,000 



isnoo 000 

1,053,000 
1,000,000 

b.'^o.oto 

600.000 
200,000 
475,01 10 
200,000 

308,7S0 
420,000 



334, 
100. 
925, 
51 '0 
2.0, 
750, 
216. 
750, 
7,500 



1.50 
132, 
192, 
848, 
599, 
6.000, 
5,698, 
740 
277, 
2i9, 
246, 



529 
000 
000 
000 
,000 
000 
000 
000 
000 

i.OOO 

,noo 

100 

,500 
160 
,95" 
000 
210 
ouo 
402 



19:4 



1910 
1915 



19,32 
1914 



1942 
1943 



1917 



1909 



1900 
1910 



19. 3 



1911 
1910 



1906 
1926 



1901 
1906 



1943 
i9i''5 



000 190.) 
000 1912 



572,800 

500.000 
100,000 

2,500,000 



3,000,000 
1,250,000 
1,900,000 
750,000 
3,000,000 
1,500,000 

2,919.567 
1,455,000 

100,000 
1,4110,000 
1,2.50.000 
3,000,000 
l,500,0"ll 

898.368 

375,000 
1,500,000 

460,000 



ie98 



8,000,000 
8,000,0u0 

50.000 



1927 
1927 
1930 

1901 
1931 
1929 
1929 
i923 



110 

7fi 
117 

7.J 

179 
116 
105 
200 
120 

1.55 
130 
106 

102>4 



100 
100 



120 
175 
108 

251 

•£Sr> 
124 
206 
1O8 
100 
225 

no 

105 
87 

339 

90? 



t6 

.53 

69 ;» 

93!* 
67 



103 

50 
113 
5414 

150 
113 
102 
166 
116 

149 
100 

IOC 

96 



121 



165 



80 
224 



2t:0 



70% 
329 



90? 



272 

21 2 '4 
40 
4) 
9 h 



120 
61 

20 

131 
120 

66>4 



6n 

11014 


110 

105>4 

iOh 
107^4 



1933 
1910 



2214 
104 

98 ?8 
28;8 

50 
104 



58 
102^; 

102 



11'' 
lil 

11234 

127 
118 

«334 



I07>v 

58 
107 

26% 
100 



110 

76 
1 17 
73 

179 
113 
103 
200 
118 

1.55 
105 
102 



29 

liOX 



761^ 



134 



251 
232 
'206 



60 
116 
60 

108 
113 
101 
185 
116 

1.50 
97)<. 
100 



9«>4 



66.H 



l-.O 



1I"X 



35>^ 

103;^ 



3) 40;, 

10 m% 



19 

I'O 
12?4 
90 
18 

102>i 
29X ,50 
101 104 



17 

97>s 
28 

106,',, 



45 
97X 



95 



51 

102)<i 



100 



m]4 



llOk 



34 !„ 
105,'. 



39k 
106J,i 



20 
16 

9;k 

26 

105 '„ 
.■id 
104 



50 
97X 



no 

63 
116 
66 

170 
113 
1112 
195 
117 

155 
1(10 
102 

100 



25 1> 



110>.. 
11 



26k b 



fO a 
101 b 



100 



•Per detailed description or tbese and other Becantleg issued, see AMERICAN STREET RAILWAY INVESTMENTS, a sopplement to the STREET 

tiAibWAY JOURNAL. pabllBUed annually on Uaroh Utb 



7^ 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



itOCHESTKK, N. Y.*— New York quota 
tlons T,o nee. 26. 

Ronhe>tPr Ky. Co., Stock 100 

Cods. M 5%g. bds. (lacl. $1,000,000 In 

2iMl m'. 5% gilds' (iacL $750,66o In esc. ) 



ST. liOUlS, MO.*— Local quotations to 
St. Lioiiis it. R. Co., Stock 100 

istM. 5% bds 

Citizens' Ry. Co., Stock 100 

1st M. 6% bds 

Cubs Ave. & Fair Grounds Ry. Co., 
Stock 100 

istM. fi^bds 

ijnion Uepot R. R. Co., Stock 100 

Cons. M. 6% g. bds 

Benton. Bellef'ne Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 6% 
bds 

Mound City R. R. Co.'s ist M. 6% Ms. 
Jeflerson Ave. Ry. Co.. Stock 100 

1st M. 5^ bds 

»li«80uri R. R. Co., Stock 100 

ISt M. DdS 

I.iiidell Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Ist M. (>% bds 

St. I.,ouls& Suburban Ky. Co., Stock 100 

l8t M. 5^ bds. (incl. $600,000 in esc.).. 

Inc. 6^ bds 

People's R. R. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. 6% bds 

2ad M. 7% bds 

cons. M. 6% bds. (Incl. $300,000 In esc.) 
Fourth St. Sc Arsenal Ry. Co., Stock 50 

1st M.6^ bds 

Southern Flectric Ry. (common 100 

Co., Stock (prererred 6% lOo 

Cons. M. 6% bds (Incl. $200,0ii0 In esc.) 
St. I,. & K. St. L.. E. R. Co., Stock.. 100 

1st. M. 6% bds 

Baden & St. l.ouisR. R.. Stock 100 

isi M. G% bds 



Issued. 



Due. 



Quotailons. 



1895. 


Dec. 


High. 


Low. 


S3 

5 


o 


Closing 



SAN FRANCISCO.CAL..*— Local quota 
tlons to Dec. IV. 
Market Street Ry. Co., Stock 100 

M'ketSt. cable Co."8 1st M. 6^ bds.... 

Omnibus Caole Co.'s 1st M. b% bds — 

Park & ocean R. R. Co.'s IstM. af. bds 

Park & Cliff House R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 
6% bds 

Powell St. R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 6% bds... 

Ferries & Cliff House Ky. Co.'s ist M, 

6.* bds 

Geary St., P'k & O. R. R. Co., SlOC), 

1st M. 5< bds 

Cal. St. Cable R.R. Co., Stock 

1st M. b% g. bds 

Sutler Street Ky. Co., Stock 

1st M. 5* g. bds 

Presidio & Ferries R. R. Co. Stojk lOn 
Oakland, S. 4; llay wards Ry. Co. 
Stock li'O 



100 
ion 
100 



SPRINGFIELD, MASS.'*— (See Holjoke.) 



TORONTO, ONT.*— Local q'lOtatlons to 

Dec. 18. 

Toronto Ry. Co., Stock 100 



VV.\SHIN<JTON, I>. C* Local quota- 
tions to Deo. 18. 



Capitol Traction Co , 

Metropolitan R. R. Co .btock 50 

Coll. Tr 6% conv. bda 

Belt Ry. Co.. Stock 50 

Cons. M. bds. (Inc. $50,000 in esc.) . . 

Eckington &. Soldiers' Home Ry. 

Co.. Stock 50 

1st M. 6% bds 

G'aetown Sc Ten'town Ry. Co., Stock 50 
Columbia Ry. Co 5t> 

istM. 6* bds 



WORCESTER, MASS.*— New York 
quoiatlons to Dec. 26. 
Worcester Traction Co., (common.. 100 
Stock \prer. 100 



5,000,000 

3,000 000 
1,500,000 



3,000,001' 
3,000,000 
1,0110,000 
1,500,000 

2,000 oon 

1,911,000 
4,0o0.00() 
1.150,000 

300.000 

400,000 

112,000 
100,000 

2,y"0,ooo 

500 OOO 
3,5 000 
1,500 UOO 
2,500,000 
2,000,000 
300,0110 
SOO.OoO 

1 J5,000 
75 000 
1,000,000 

1.50,000 

50 000 

700,0110, 
800,000 
500,000 
250,0110 
7.5,000 
50,000 
350,000 



18,616,783 
3,000,000 
2,000,000 
250,000 

350,000 
70 >,00 

6.50 000 
1,11011,000 

671,000 
1,000000 

900 OUO 
2,000,00 

900,000 
1,000,000 

1,000.000 



1930 
1933 



1900) 
19l0f 

1907 



1912 

1918 
1896) 
19111 
19' 0} 
1910/ 



1907 
1911 
1931 



1892) 
19113/ 
1903 
1891)1 
1901) 

1898) 
H03i 



1909 
i905 
1913 



1913 
1918 
1914 

1913 
1912 

1914 

.'92! 

1915 

1918 



6,000,000 



3,000,000 

75 ',000 
5"0.000 
SOO.O-IO 
500,000 



657,000 

200,000 

200,000 
400,110(1 
500,000 



3.000,000 
3,000.0a) 



1901 
1931 



1896) 
19n( 



1914 



45ki 


30 


84 


£0 


33 


106>« 
86 


991^ 
83 


1031 
86 b 


10214 

85 r 


101 
85 b 


149 


125 


144 


140 


144 


107 


100 


101 


101 


101 


130 


65 

lUD 


70 
108 


70 
108 


70 
108 


100 

ilOO 


50 
98 

110 

105 


53 
100 
140 
110 


53 
9^ 

140 
110 


53 
100 
140 
110 


103 


100 


K'O 


100 


100 


105 


102 


105 


105 


105 


300 

103 

310 

102>4 

1 10 

l'l5><i 

lOl 
20 


135 
100 
300 
100 
105 
10114 

19% 

7B 

45 
9 


130 

103 

20.1 

102H 

140 

105>j 
33><, 
76^2 

101 
12 


128 
11 '3 
31 5 
102 
139 
105 

33K> 

76 
100 

10 


130 

215 

14m " 
105H 

33 

76X 
101 

11 


lOl 


85 


86 


85 


85 


102 


73 








88 










25 


4 


33 


33 


34 


101 


98 








45 
88 
lOs) 
200 
104 


40 

84 
'05 

99 
'02 








99/^j 


97><^ 


98 


99" 


100 


45Ki 
125 
120 
110 


36 V, 
117?.i' 
117 
1 10 


li5 
119 


43?4 

lig" 


45!a 
123?^ 
119 
1 1 


104 
U3 


96 
109 


104 
U3 


103 

113 


1'5 
113 b 

105 b 


103 
108 
105J4 
1 llUi 


99>i 
lOil 
10114 
1' 


103 


lUl 


03^^ 
113 b 


15 


1061^ 
l-j 


I10>4 


no 




100 


100 








885a 


605i 


80 '.1 










78 


74 V 


75 


103 

30 
90 


63 
96 
15 
77 


103 

my, 
31 

86 


9S 

115)4 

31 ) 
85 


98 
116 
30 
85 


35 


15 


35 


30 


3) 


106 


100 


103 


100 


101 


76" 
113 


4,5" 
107^ 


25 
46 
113 


45" 

n2>^ 


35 
46 
113 


20 

89 


10 
77X 


16 

85X 


80 


16 
80 



* See loot note on preceding pages. 

New York and Philadelphia quotations of Brooklyn. Buffalo, Columbus, Indian- 
apolis, Louisville. New Orleans, New York City, Paterson. Rochester and Worcester 
Seuritles furnished by Gustavus Maas, 26 Broad Street. New York. 



(C(>?!timied from page 75.) 
Louisville to Fairfield. He wants approximate estimates per mile 
for building the road. He will also want complete equipment, includ- 
ing bridges, rails, cars, etc. 

Montreal, Can. — The Montreal Street Railway Company reports 
earnings as follows: 

November, 1894. 1895. 

Gross receipts $78,891 $93,454 

New Orleans, La. — New Orleans Traction Company reports 
earnings as follows: 

Year ending November 30, 1894. 1895. 

Gross receipts $951,528 $1,327,756 

Operating expenses 620,508 752,158 

Earnings from operation $331,020 $575,598 

New York, N. Y. — The Boynton Bicycle Traction Company of 
France has been incorporated (in W. Va.) to construct electric rail- 
ways, etc., in France. Minimum capital stock, $10,000; maximum, 
$5,000,000; par value, $100 per share. Incorporators: Jose F. De 
Navarro, Thos. E. Sotolongo, Mariano de Cossio, and Geo. R. Cul- 
lingworth, all of New York City. 

The Boynton Bicycle Traction Company, of Spain, has been in- 
corporated with same capital stock and incorporators as the above to 
do business in Spain. 

Oswego, N. Y. — The Oswego Street Railway Company and the 
Fulton & Oswego Falls Street Railway Company have been consoli- 
dated under the name of the Ontario & Suburban Railway Com- 
pany. Several miles of new track will be built. Belden & Seely, 
121 Liberty Street, New York City, will probably secure the contract 
for building the line. 

Paterson, N. J. — The Paterson Railway Company reports earn- 
ings as follows : 

October, 1894. 1895. 

Gross receipts $21,109 $25,385 

Operating expenses I2,92(i 14,502 

Earnings from operation 8,183 10,883 

November, 

Gross receipts 19,859 24,854 

Operating expenses 12,413 T4,464 

Earnings from operation 7,446 10,390 

Eleven months ending November 30. 

Gross receipts 223,687 273,121 

Operating expenses 144,087 157,603 

Earnings from operation 79,600 115,518 

Pittsburgh, Pa. — The Pittsburgh Braddock & McKeesport Street 
Railway Company has been incorporated to build an electric rail- 
way in Pittsburgh. Capital stock, $66,000; par value, $60 per share. 
Incorporators: Chas. H. Johnston, and Wm. Robeson, of Pittsburgh; 
Walter Farmartiss, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pittston, Pa. — The Pittston People's Electric Company has been 
incorporated to build an electric railway about eight miles long. 
Capital stock, $50,000. President, Jos. H. Glennon; of West Pittston. 

Port Chester, N. Y. — The Port Chester Electric Railway Com- 
pany has been incorporated to build an electric railway about ten 
miles long in Port Chester. Capital stock, $500,000. Directors: T. 
S. Krutz, J. E. Bowles, T. L. Cuyler, Jr., No. l Broadway; C. P. 
Bruch, G. E. Boucheir, A. E. Beck, D. A. Pearsall, No. 60 Broad- 
way, and H. F. Hawkins, all of New York City. 

Port Jervis, N. Y. — The Port Jervis Electric Street Railway 
Company has been incorporated to build an electric railway in Port 
Jervis, about seven miles in length. Capital stock, $70,000. Incor- 
porators: Lafe Pence and George N. Mc(jibbon, of New York; S. D. 
Lake, G. Elston and J. S. Marsh, of Port Jervis. 

San Francisco, Cal. — The Electric Railway Hill Cable Com- 
pany has been incorporated to construct and repair cable and elec- 
tric railways, and purchase patent rights relating to railways. Cap- 
ital stock, $1,000,000; par value, $10 per share. Incorporators: W. 
W. Griswold, W. H. Birch, J. L. Boona, of San Francisco, Cal. 

Scranton, Pa. — The Scranton Traction Company reports earn- 
ings as follows: 

November, 1894. 1895. 

Gross receipts $21,989 $26,710 

Operating expenses 12,412 13,764 

Earnings from operation $9,577 $12,946 

Five months ending November 30. 

Gross receipts $115,252 $139,375 

Operating expenses 66,925 66,939 

Earnings from operation $48,327 $72,436 

South Sioux City, Neb. — The citizens of South Sioux City 
have voted to give a franchise to the South Sioux City Traction 
Company, which was recently incorporated. Among those inter- 
ested are T. L. Eaton, Henry L. Taylor, C. A. Benton, D. L. Plumer 
and E. H. Burgess, of South Sioux City, Neb. 

Toronto, Ont. — Clark, Bowes, Hilton & Swabey, of Toronto, 
are solicitors for the Toronto, Hamilton & Niagara Falls Electric 
Railway Company, a new enterprise which is seeking incorporation. 
{Continued on page 81.) 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



79 



TABLE OF OPERATING STATISTICS. 



Notlre.— These statistics are carefully rr'vlsed from montb to month, upon Information received from the companies direct, or from official sources. The 
table should be used in connection wti h our Financial Supplement, ' American Street Railway Investments," whicn contains tlie annual operatln<r reports to 
the ends of the various financial years. 

Ahhrcvlations.— The following abbreviations are used : * Including taxes, d. deficiency, m. months. 



Company. 



I'erlod. 



a <u 

C K 



bi o! 

d >- 

D 

c o. 



AliBANV, N. Y. 
TKe Albany Ky . 



AillMTRKDAM. N. Y, 
Amstrrilnin St. Ry. Co 

AllcrsrA, BIB. 
Aaguiila, Hallowell <^ 
Uardnvr R. R. Co 

I1AL.TIAIOKE:, MD. 
Baltimore Traction Co.. . 

City & Subiirbnn Ity. Co.. 
BATH, ME. 
Bath St, Ky. Co 



BINGIIAMTON, N. Y. 
BlnKhnmton R. K. Co. 



."( III.. St pt. '9-1 
9 '■ '<I4 

;j ra.. Sept. "J, 



1 yr, June 'C4 
I •' " '96 

1 m , Oct. '94 
1 •> " '9h 

I m,, Aug. '9.1 



1 m. 
1 " 
10' 

10" 



Oct. '94 

•• '91 

'• '95 



1 m., Sept. '94 
1 " •' 'vri 



BOSTON. MASS. 
I.iynn & Boston 1{. R. Co..\ 
North Shore Traction Co./ 



BRIDGEPORT. CONN. 
Bridgeport Traction Co. . . 



BROCKTON, MASS. 
Brockton St. Ry. Co 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Broolxlyn Traction Co. 



Coney Island Brooldyii 
R. R. Co 



a m., 



1 m. 
1 " 
9 " 

9 " 

1 m., 
1 " 
11" 
U" 

I m. 
1 " 

10 " 
10 " 

1 m. 
1 " 
9 •• 
9 '• 

3 m. 
i " 



Brooklyn City &. Newtown 
R. K. Co 



Brooklyn Elev. R. R. Co. . 



Broolilyn HclghlH R.U. Co. 



Brooklyn, Que<'ns Co. and 
Sub. R. R. Co 



BDFFAl.O. N. Y. 
Builalo Ry. System. 



3 m. 
3 



3 m 
3 '• 

6 " 



3 m., 
3 " 
9 

9 " 



CHESTER, PA. 
Chester Traction Co. 



CHICAGO, IL.Li. 
Chic. & So. Side R. T. Co 



CINCINNATI, O. 
Clnn.Newport& Cov.Ky 
Co 



CKEVEliAND. O. 
Cleveland Elec. By. Co. 



COLUMBUS, G*. 
Columbus K. R. Co. 



'94 
'95 

, Oct. '91 
•• '9.=) 

" '94 

" '95 

Nov. '94 
•• '95 
" '91 
" '95 

, Oct, '94 
•• '95 
" '94 
" '95 

, Sept. '94 
'95 
" '94 
'• 95 

, Sept. '94 
•• '95 
" '91 
" '95 

, Sept. '91 
'• '96 
" '94 
'■ '95 

, Sept '94 
>• -95 
" 94 

" '9.: 

.Sept. '94 

•• '95 

'94 
'95 
'94 
'95 
'91 
'95 



Sept, 



129.141 
1 43., 588 
339,.53H 
389,^70 

1!,171 



38. .307 
40,6i0 

89 870 
!)9 & 

102,.5.59 

1,764 
1 ,506 
17 06 
18,676 

12.597 
12 553 
90,741 
97.075 

H'2.7.' 
106,811 
1,086 4 
1,201,679 

17,69« 
24.427 
124,406 
278 839 

23,651 
25,76^ 
189,286 
231,975 

103,461 
102,907 
847,160 
762,257 

115 805 
l.«,7i:0 
252,546 
310,386 

148.187 
137,801 
441,490 
452,928 

3S0 990 
457.706 
1,297,10 
1,579.706 
1,304 717 
!.'i05,(l7o 
2,544 522 
2,351,01; 
18.5,072 
192,485 
441,756' 
4 '.5,581 



1 m., Sept '94 

1 " " '95 
9 " " '94 
9 " " '9 

1 m., Sept. '94 

1 •• '95 

3 " " '95 

1 m. July, '94 
1 " " '95 
7 " " '94 
7 " " '9.) 

1 m., Sept. '94 
1 " '95 
9 " " '94 
9 " " '95 



(-7,01 8 
78,953 
21.3,7.32 
2311,392 

f,384 



25,641 
2-1,427 



55,937 

1,679 
803 
13.116 
12,190 

6,005 
5.716 
51,203 
55,749 

66 00-; 

67,515 
634,967 
t5ti,0J2 

9,378 
14 332 

143,670 

12,262 
15,242 
123,665 
137,048 

60,898 
61.870 
519,763 
040,608 

62.260 
61.766 
162,528 
182,429 



82 296 
246,675 
284,634 

242 754 
274,214 
791,330 
868 280 
738,«6;3 
638,363 
1464 846 
1374,.565 
109.241 
108 348 
.32 4. 5.56 
295,566 



131,186 701144 

146.735 70,'358 

1,138,162 644,443 

1,252,575 640,975 



1 m. 
1 •' 
6 '■ 



COT.UniBIIS. O. 
Colnmbiis St. Ry. Cn. 



IIFNVI'R. COL. 
Denver Cons. Trnniwaj Co 



June '94 

" '95 
" '94 
" '9.'i 



1 m , June '95 
6 '• •• 95 



1 m , Nov. 
1 " " 
II" 

11 " " 



1 m., 
1 " 
4 " 

4 " 



Oct. 



21,897 
23.221 
74,197 

56,5S7 
54,131 
4i'7.070 
431,922 

50,461 
6l.09i 
364,fU4 
466.596 

148,812 
135,063 
607,57? 
691,197 

5 027 
19.795 

46.472 
49,729 
M6,72B 
571,587 

,58.913 
68.103 
2.55,8 '4 
"G-i 138 



7,777 
28,087 

45.636 
44,279 
351.643 
324,681 

32,382 
3i,376 
274,410 
308,188 

101,455 
76.870 
407,254 
457,424 



42,133 
61.615 
I25.,S(I4 
159,478 

3,787 



12,665 
15,193 



25,37^'* 
22,, 37* 
70,015* 
67,200* 

3,048 



9,894* 

9,318* 



46,62S 

85 
793 
3 949 
6 486 

6,502 
6.8:37 
39 53-< 
41,326 

36,7 9 

39,2M6 
451, 50' 
515,647 

8 .320 
10,095 

135,169 

11.389 
10, .521 
65,621 
94,927 

42,571 
41,037 
3i7,397 
121,649 

53 545 
72,994 
90.018 
127,957 

67,579 
55,505 
194,815 
168,294 

13S,2.3fi 
183,492 
.50>,778 
711 426 
.'^65.': .54 
56t>,712 
1,079,670 
976 416 
■, 5,831 
84,13: 
117,200 
160,014 

60.242 
7H,377 
493,709 
611,600 



15,444 
4 ,110 

10,901 
9,87: 
55,42' 
107,241 

18,079 
27,716 
90,431 
158,408 

47 357 
5'^,193 
200,323 
233.773 



16.760 
42.198 
.'i5,7K9 
92,278 

d260 



200,008 
215,422 
619,589 
782,-97 
495 -'55* 
516,72'.* 
991.941* 
10,57,590 
84, 21 12' 
84,499' 



Company. 



DERBY, CONN. 

Df-rby St. Uy. Co 

DETROIT, I>11CH. 
Pt. Wityne tSi Belle 

Isle St. Ry. Co 

Citizens* SI. Ry. Co.., 

DULUTH, MINV. 
Duluth St. Ky 



1 m.,Sfpt. '94 
1 •• ■• 95 



6 m., June '95 
6 •' " '95 



FLUSllINt;, N. Y., 
FliiHhinK Ac <'olle«;e 
IH. Ky 



GALVESTON. TEX. 
Gnlvcston City R. 
Co 



R. 



Cl70,772 

d3I,930 
d)13,rin 

071,471 
7O.5U0 
49 98^ 
87.735 

d81,144 
d8,3; 1 
Q 362 



22.904 


23 568 


28 0^7 


21,612 


244,619 


2720:7 


284.323 


29i).264 


35 297 


2!,616 


;ffl.716 


28 '87 


151 999 


103,825 


62.715 


19'> :^93 



I'erlod. 



1 m. Sept. 
1 •■ 



I m.. Sept. '9 1 



GIRAKDVILLE, I'A. 
Scliiiyllcill Triiction Co 



BAZLETON, PA. 
Lrlilgit Traction Co. 



INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 
Citizens' St. Ry. Co 



JAMESTOWN, N. Y. 
Jamestown St. Ky, Co, 



KANSAS CITY, MO. 
Metropolitan 8t.Ky.Co 

KINGSTON, [«. Y. 
Kingston City K. R. 
Co 



1 in. Oct., 



I m.. Sept. '91 
1 " ■• '95 



1 m. 
1 •' 
4 " 



1 m. 
3 " 



lyr 



LAWRENCE, MASS. 
Lowll, Lawrenie <fe 
Haverhill St. Ky. Co 



.ONG ISL. CITY, N. Y. 
Steiiiwny Ry. Co 



LORAIN. O. 
Lorain St. Ry. 



LOri>iVILLE, Ky. 
Louisville Ky. Co 



MAH \NOY CITY, PA. 
Lakeside Ky. Co 



3 m., 
3 " 



1 m,, 
It, '■ 



1 m , 
1 •' 
9 •' 



Oct. '91 
- '95 
" '95 

, Apr. '91 
•• '95 
" '94 
" '95 

, Sept.'M4i 
" '95[ 
" ■94[ 
" '95: 

. Aug. '95 
'■ '95 



June 'Oi 
'95 



Oct. '94 
'• '95 

" '91 
" '9 

S pt.'94 
•• '95 

" '91 
" '95 



3 795 

7,610 



116,915 
3Ht),575 



18 737 
18,797 
151,0.i3 
156,677 



7,5;i6 



16,643 
17,t34 
lb5,B.50 
184,639 

8,107 
9,536 



10,200 
9,4b7 
»9,499 

64 209 
74,202 
2:i5,90yl 
204,:i»2l 

34,461 
39.411 
68 412 
7 4, 092 1 

164,1.53! 
482,279 



net. 



b'ept. '91 
•■ '95 
" '91 
" -95 



6 m,, June '95 



MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
Twin City K. T. Co . . . 



MONTGOMERY, ALA 
Montgomery St. 14y.Co 



3IONTKKAL, CAN. 
J>lontreiil St. Ky. Co.... 



N VSHVILLE, TENN. 
IVushville St. Hy. Co. 



\KW BFlJPOKn.MASS 
I ition St. Ity. Co 



NE« ItlJKGIt. N. Y. 
NewbHrgii Elee.K.v. Co 



NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
New Havwii St. Ity. Co 



1 m , 
1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

1 m 
I '■ 
10" 
10" 

1 m, 
1 



1 m. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



Oct '94 

" '95 

■' '94 

" '95 



Oct. 



, Nov. '91 
'• '95 
" '9t 
" '95 

, May '94 
' ■ 's^5 
" '91 
" '95 



46,467 
50,230 



23,321 
30,832 
2;«,U13 
363 431 

f>8,932 
108,050 
1.55 556 
226,. 8i 

6,784 
68,436 

10 I, ('21; 

158 72 
8.5 lOI 
966,690 

10,50 



168,554 
107. 40S 
1,652,1/51 
1,633,086 

4,(>3l 
4,64ii 
28,018 
42,10s 

78,891 
93,454 
167.114 
195 610 

27 221 
27.807 
301. 4'; 
311,896 



im., June '94 17,167 

1 ' '95 19.8ffi{ 

.! " " '94 75,40-' 

6 " •■ '95 88 821 



6 m., Nov. '94 
6 " " '95 



1 rn.,Sept. '94 14 2.5' 

1 •• " '95 19, .592 

9 " " '94 92,4 6 

9 " •' '95 150 619 



3.0'.2 
3,261) 



7,983 
7,691 
85.514 
69,661 



6,220 



11,191* 
12,951* 
109.524* 
117,111* 

5,220 
4,201 



4,952 
6,688 
6.',0:j8 

31,813 
37.544 
145.6.56 
1.56,164 

16 023 
19,439 
47,621 
51,6,10 

89,362 
270,640 



29,038 
31,404 



18,5-6 
21,538 
174,406 
229,924 

38 488 
54 946 
84,707 
126,594 

3,446 
Ho 903 

5fi.l38 
6'),308 
471.747 
498,198 



69,9-3 
6K.845 
7)3 9i9 
704,824 

1,6-8 
2, 39 
1,346 
24,01 1 



15,061 
15,011 
197,513 
18b 369 




,39,831 
62,967 



19,190 
29,!'64 



743 

,:i5" 



10,754 
11,106 
65,519 
87,016 



1,316 



5,4.52 
4,683 
E6.126 
67,528 

2,887 
5,335 



5,248 
2 799 
37,461 

32,396 
36.658 
90,254 
108,228 

16,419 
19,972 
20,79: 
22,462 

74 791 
211,639 



17,430 
18,826 



4,' 
9 294 
63 ' 07 
133 50. 

30.444 
53,1C4 
70.849 
94,689 

3,33' 
8i,5j3 

48 5'8 
92,416 
403 857 
4 68, ,500 

3,743 



P8 .571 
98.557 
908,09 
928,802 

2,343 
2.501 
10,672 
18,097 



12.16 
12,836 
101,9,57 
125,527 



20..344 
33,003 



4 929* 
6,871* 
14 724^ 
15,989* 



9.;398* 
9,576* 



21.390* 
28,610- 
62,;i79* 
79 926* 



9.125 
15,7i0 



11 510 
13 101 
6.057 
6.473 



8.030 
9,252 



9,0.54 
24 494 

8.470 
19,763 



11,219 
17,^93 



8o 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL, 



[Vol. XII. No. i. 















a 














Sd 










tn ^ 
m a. 


a V 
^ S 


1-, o 


company. 


Period. 




g« 


a Q 
!- a> 












OS 


O.IK! 


O a) 












Oil) 
















a 


Weat Slini-c Ry. Co 


1 m. 


■ Jiiiy 




_ ____ 
2 *2S'2 








1 " 


" 


'95 


3!027 






NEW IjONI»ON, CONN., 














New liOiKloii St. Uy.C'O. 


1 III. 


Sept. 


'91 


R,777 


3,137 


2,040 




1 " 




'95 




3,512 


2,626 


NKW ORLEANS, IjA. 














New Orleans Traction 
















1 HQ. 


SPpt. 


'91 


81,573 


52 6.56 


28.917 




1 •' 




'95 


111,«48 


61.4.50 


.50.198 




" 




'91 


691 .537 


452.978 


238,.559 




9 " 




'9.5 


986,414 


575„204 


411,210 


NKW VOKK. N. Y., 














Third Ave. K. K. Co... . 


:i 111 


, Srpt 


'91 


622,028 


312,976 


309,058 




i •■ 




'96 


7:i7,82x 


3H6,958 


370,871 




1) " 




'94 


1. 576, (I.V.I 


825.906 


750,153 




•A '■ 




•9-, 


2,ii;!9,812 


1,U 9,499 


910,313 


lYf et ropolit all .S t.Ky .Co. 


:! rn. 


, Sept. 


'94 


1,413,,5:?S 


820,706 


592,832 




;i " 




'9'> 


1.. 58-3,011 


80 1,3.52 


781.6 '9 




!) " 




■fl 


:!,822,47ii 


2 22l!755 


1,600,715 




9 " 




'95 


4,475,001 


2 351,317 


2,123,684 


niaiiliiiltiin Ry. i'o 


i ni. 


, Sept, 


'91 


i,nK:i,:)io 


1,2.50.635 


8:52,675 




i " 




'95 


;,i48,.^,;!n 


1,319.1.29 


8^9,401 




it " 




'94 


i'.:ni,4(i8 


4,089 329 


(,282.079 




i) " 




'95 


7,167,493 


1,125,757 


3,011,736 


Seroiiil Avenue It.li. Co 


12 ni 


..June 


'94 


1,018, i;« 


794,765 


223,368 




12 " 




'95 


95'< ,463 


734,915 


222,548 


l>. !>., E. K. Si itnt'y 














K. li. Co 


12 m 


., June'94 


655,5.58 


464,068 


191,490 




12 • 


" 


'95 


730,033 


.5.32,245 


197,788 


New Yorli Sc Hiirleiii 














K. K. Co 


:i ni. 


Sept 


Jo 


197,628 


136,712 


60,916 


4<2il Ht , ninn. &. St. N. 














Ave. It. K. Co 


3 m 


. Sept. 


'94 


165,855 


132,388 


33.467 




.3 '• 




'9> 


161 121 


1 13,972 


27.149 




i> " 




•94 


317,7.5h 


261 020 


76.7S6 




n '• 




'95 


326,773 


265,914 


60,859 


Iliiioii liy. Co 


'S m. 


, Sept. 


'94 


136,588 


67.172 


69,416 




•! •' 




'95 


13 M25 


74.570 


61,555 




!( " 




•94 


364,974 


189,974 


175,001' 




'■• " 




'9.'i 


345, -^92 


198,2'25 


147,1167 


WestelieHler Eiee. R.K. 
















3 m. 


. Sept. 


'94 


28,655 


20,.5S8 


3,067 




a " 




'ii.-i 


38,512 


22,818 


;5 694 




6 " 




'95 


68,738 


42,331 


26,407 


MA(;VKA FAI.I^S, N. Y. 














Niaffnrn Falls ^ Sun- 














lieiitvioii Rriilge Ry. Co.. 


■i m. 


, Mar. 


'91 


10 ,595 


7.684 


2,01.< 




3 •• 




'95 


12,091 


10,387 


1,707 


NOKIHSTOWN, I'A.. 














Scbuylliill Val.Trac. Co 


1 m. 


, July 


'94 


4.814 








1 " 




'95 


5,543 






NOKTIIABIPT'N, MASS. 














Nortliaiiiptoii St. liy. Co 


1 111. 


, Aug. 


'94 


6. .324 


2,205 


4,059 




1 " 




'95 


10 315 


3,864 


6.451 




i " 




'95 


58,205 


29.651 


28,554 


NO. ATTLEBORO.MASS 














Interstate Consol. Hi. 
















1 m. 


, Sept. 


•95 


12,293 


6,1.57 


6,136 


O \KLANI>, CAL, , 














OaUland Consol. .St. ICy. 














Co 


6 111 


, JuEe 


'95 


62,312 


46,099 


lfi,243 


i'ATEUSON, N. .J., 
















1 m. 


, Oct. 


'91 


21,109 


r2,926 


8,183 




1 " 




'95 




14,5' 2 


10.883 




10" 




'94 


203,729 


131.'634 


72!o9"> 




lo" 




'95 


247.979 


143,139 


104|840 


PIllT.ADEIiPlirA, P*., 














People's Traction Co'.. 


1 m. 


Sept. 


'94 


137.331 








1 " 




'95 


194,103 








9 " 




'94 


885!847 








9 " 




'95 


1,533,588 






Ilestonville M. & F. P. 
















1 m 


, Oct. 


'91 


21,995 








1 " 




'9.i 


42,566 








10 " 




'94 


263 J 01 








10 •■ 




'95 


427,25i 




















Citizens' Traction Co.. 


1 m 


, July 


'91 


49,075 








1 >• 




'95 


53,391 






I'ORTSMOIITII, VA.. 














Portsinoiitli St. l{y Co. . 


8 m 


. Aug. 


'94 


19 33(1 








S " 




'9"> 


23,508 


n,2.;o 


12,S4H 



Company. 



87,47.5* 
82,044* 
255, .58(1* 
244,718* 

459.996 
513,131 
I,;{29.013 
l,5»i.377 



660,228 
766,790 
1.960.,56S 
2,141,776 



131.88.'- 
129,428* 



175,894 
136,093 



10 100 



30,71 
30.700' 
61,1(1.5* 
61,400* 



37,674 
32.427 
118,115 
95,323 



ti,957 
7,42S 
11,818 



7,000* 
7,105* 



321,.577 
288,827 
494,573 
695,595 

132,836 
268,528 
271,706 
600,307 



172,447 
62.611 
1,321.511 
899,960 



POIHJniiEEPSIE, N. Y. 
Pniiglikeepxie City &. 
WappinKer's Falls K. 
R. Co 



REA»IN<S, PA., 
Reading Traction Co. 



ROANOKE, VA., 
Roanoke St, Ry. Co. 

ROCHESTER. N. Y., 
Ilocliester Ry. Co 



ROME, OA., 
City Elec. Rt. Co 



RonE, N. Y. 
Rome <;ity St. Ry. Co. 



sA(ilNAW, .men., 
Union Ity. Co 



91,483 S \RATOOA, N. Y.. 
93,120 Union Eiec. Ry. Co. of 
Saratoga 



1 in. 
10 •' 

3 m., 
3 •' 
lyr. 
1 " 

I m 

10 " 



15„596 
61,695 



.50.816 



2,7.50 
(13.551 
1.5.331 
d 541 



31 ,742 
29,128 
.56. 8:35 
51 744 



<CR ANTON, PA., 
.scranton 'l^rac. Co. 



SIOUX CITY, lA., 
Sioux City Trac. Co. 



■SYRtOUSE, N. Y., 
Hvrac"se Cons. St. Ry. 
Co 



Syracuse St. R. R. Co. 



1.110 TAUNTON, niASS., 
8.266 Taunton St. Ry. Co.. . 

11,589 

TERRE HAUTE, INO., 
Terre Haute Elec. Ry. 
Co 



TORONTO. ONT., 
Toronto St. liy. Co. 



TROY, N. Y., 
Troy City Ry. Co 



WAKEFIEI.O. niASS., 
Wakelield & .Stone- 
ham .St. Ry. Co 



WATER BURY, CONN., 
Waterbury Trac. Co... 

WII-KES BARRH, PA., 
WilUes Bar re & Wy- 
oming Yiil. Trac. Co.. 



WIIiMINOTON, N. C, 
\% ilinington St. Ry. Co.. 

WORCESTER, MASS.. 
Worcester Cons. Hi. Ry. 
Co 



Period. 



1 m. 
9 " 



1 m 
1 " 
9 " 



1 m. 
1 " 

1 m., 
1 " 

10" 

10" 



, Sept. '95 
'• '95 

, Sept. '94 

" '95 
" '94 
" '95 

, .luly '94 
" '95 

, Oct. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 



, Oct. '35 
" '95 

June '94 
" '95 
•' '94 
" '95 

, Oct. '95 
" '95 



1 m. 
9 " 



1 m. 

I •' 

II " 
11 " 



1 m. 
1 •• 
5 •' 

5 " 



3 m. 
3 " 
6 " 
6 " 



3 m. 
6 ■• 



I m. 

6 " 



1 m. 
1 " 



, Sept. '95 
" '95 

, Nov, '94 
" '93 
" '94 
" '95 

, Oct. '91 

" '95 

•■ '91 

" '95 



June '94 
" '95 
•' '94 
" '95 

, June ,95 
•• '95 

, June '95 
•• '95 



, Sept. '94 

'95 



m., Sept. '94 

1 " " -95 
9 " " '94 
9 " " '95 



3 m., Sept. '94 

' " '95 
' '94 

" '95 



1 ra., July '94 
" -95 

" '94 

" '95 



1 m., Oct. 

10" " 



1 m., Oct. 
1 " 

10 " " 
10 " 



1 m., Sept. '94 
1 " " '95 



1 m. 
1 •' 

12 " 
13" 



, Sept. 



CO 

OS 

K 



12,002 
73,1.55 

16,641 
20,138 
124,343 
142,539 

3,658 
3,624 

68,800 
71,389 
618,122 
719,758 



1,693 
12,370 

1,461 
1 594 
5.695 
7,103 

9,100 
108,678 



11,5.54 
99,578 

21,989 
26,710 
231,0-^2 
270,142 

7,923 
6,675 
38,650 
33,616 



51 216 
40,961 
95,308 
85,3"3 

68,236 
105,430 

7,571 
34,388 



12,220 
16,305 



104,130 
108,299 
723,264 
716,089 



118,916 
138,980 
316,817 
361,807 



6,179 
7,7i'5 
19,209 
29,921 

22,436 
203,055 



35,275 
41,166 
324,039 
366,288 



2,900 
3,092 



35,639 
44,048 
351.584 
459,690 



bfoi 
3 m 



7.246 
44,42- 



3-!,105 
37,999 
.356,.598 
428,431 



1,162 
8,4.53 

1,.517 
1,708 
5,427 
6,941 

5,408 
58 111 



6 301 
:2 7u3 



4,756 
28,727 



33,69-i 
33,390 
261,524 
391 ,327 



.531 
3,918 

d 66 
d 114 

268 
16^ 

3,693 
50 567 



5.2.53 
46,8^5 



13.412 i 9,577 

13,764 i3,9i(i 

128.372 102,6.50 

143,3.50 126,792 



5,921 
5.718 
27,616 
27,858 



44,705 
41,597 
87,974 
92,295 

39,491 
67,260 



45,756 
38,636 
406.810 
.372,669 



57,207 
68,710 
155.2.58 
181,919 



13,974 
118 560 



16 015 
19,487 
157,033 
175,105 



2,027 
1,764 



23,337 
41,776 
283,043 
348 979 



2,002 
957 
11 0!J4 
5,758 



6.511 
d 3,636 

7.335 
d 6,992 

28,745 
38.170 



.58,374 
69,663 
316.454 
373,420 



61,709 
72.270 
161,559 
179,^88 



8,462 
84,495 



19 260 
21,679 
567,( 06 
191,183 



873 
1.338 



13..392 
2,272 
68,541 
110,711 



1.902 
25 
7.746 
4,861 



48' 

234" 



24,763* 
46,397 



d 1,958 

rt 139 

d 7,'478 

d 4,699 



6,463 
d 3.636 

7,287 
d 7,-226 

3,980 
d 8 327 



Financial Notes. 



Aberdeen, N. C. — J. W. Tufts, of Boston, is interested in an 
electric raihvay to be built from Aberdeen to Jackson Springs. 

Akron, O. — The Akron Street Railway & Illuminating Company 
will shortly be incorporated to take control of the Akron Street 
Railroad and the Akron General Electric Company. Capital stock, 
$1,500,000. The Akron Street Railroad is now in the hands of W. C. 
Lynch, of Canton, O., as trustee. 

Asbury Park, N. J.— William L. Dayton, of Trenton, N. J., has 
been appointed receiver of the Asbury Park & Belmar Street Rail- 
way Company. 



Ashland, Ky.— Samuel Bigstaff will buy the system of the Ash- 
land & Catlettsburg Street Railway Company if the City Council 
will allow the company to complete its lines in Catlettsburg. 

Atlanta, Ga. — The Atlanta Rai'lway Company has filed a mort- 
gage for $350,000 5 per cent, gold bonds, due September i, 1925; de- 
nomination, $500. Trustee of mortgage, Baltimore Guarantee & 
Trust Company. 

Auburn, N.Y. — The Auburn City Railway Company has filed a 
mortgage in favor of the West End Trust & Safe Deposit Company 
of Philadelphia. 

Baltimore, Md.— The Rapid Transit Construction Company 
has been incorporated to carry on a general electrical business. 



January, 



1896] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



81 



Capital stock, $25,000. Incorporators: Wm. F. Rogers, Chas. H. 
Hopkins, Wm. O. Nellson, H. C. Primrose and Geo. N. Holloway. 

David Nhwhold, JohnHubner and R. S. Carswell, of Baltimore, 
have been appointed a committee by the Baltimore & Catonsville 
Construction Company to receive bids for power house equipment 
for the Columbia & Maryland Electric Railway. 

Boston, Mass. — The Railroad Commissioners have approved 
the terms of the lease by the Lynn & Boston Railroad Company of 
the Boston & Revere Electric Street Railway Comf)any. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — It is announced that a contract has been prac- 
tically agreed upon, by which the property and franchises of the 
Brooklyn Traction Company will be leased in perpetuity to the 
Nassau Electric Railroad Company. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — The Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing Com- 
pany and the Lewis & Fowler Girder Rail Company have been con- 
solidated, and a new company incorporated under the name of the 
Brooklyn & New York Railway Supply Company. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — The sale of the Long Island Traction Com- 
has been conformed, and the purchase money will be paid at once 
and distributed. 

Buffalo, N. Y. — It is reported that the Buffalo Traction Com- 
pany has bought the Buffalo, Kenmore & Tonawanda Electric Rail- 
way. 

Charlottesville, Va. — The Charlottesville & University Street 
Railway Company, which is controlled by the Piedmont Construc- 
tion & Improvement Company, has been granted permission to 
change its name to The Charlottesville City & Suburban Railway 
Company. 

Chicago, 111. — The Chicago & Jefferson Urban Transit Company 
has filed a mortgage for $2,000,000, 6 per cent, bonds, interest paya- 
ble semi-annually. Trustee of mortgage, the Illinois Trust and Sav- 
ing Bank of Chicago. Le Grand W. Pierce is president,- and T. B. 
Se^rs is secretary of the railway company. 



EMERSON McailLMN. 



HENRY B, VVlL,SON. 



EMERSON McMILLIN & CO, 

BT^NKeRS, 
40 Wall Street, New York. 



INVESTHENT SECURITIES. 

GAS and STREET RAILWAYS a Specialty 



High Class Bonds and Dividend Paying Stocks Bought 
and Sold on Commission. 

Financial Agents for Corporations in Paying Coupons 
and Dividends. 

ACT AS TRANSFER AGENTS FOR CORPORATIONS. 



N. W. HARRIS & CO., 

MARQUETTE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 



15 WALL ST., 

NEW YORK. 



70 STATE ST., 

BOSTON. 



We Purchase Total Issues of 



STREET RAILWAY BONDS 

On Properties in the Larger Cities. 



PpiDtinj and Engraving. 

We are prepared to give estimates on all kinds 
of Printing and Engraving. 

The Street Railway Publishing Co, 

Havemeyer Building, New York. 



Chattanooga, Tenn. — The sale of the Chattanooga Electric 
Railway has been postponed to February 24, l8g6. 

Cleveland, O. — The Cleveland & Chagrin Falls Electric Railroad 
Company has been incorporated to build an electric railway from 
Cleveland to Chagrin Falls. Capital stock, $300,000; par value, $100 
per share. Incorporators: Vincent A. Taylor, F. W. Cehring, J. E. 
Latimer, Jos. Hlack, F. H. Eggers, C. C. Barkwill and A. V. Taylor. 

Columbia, S. C. — The Columbia Street Railway, Light & Power 
Company will probably be extended to Granby. A. Wallace is super- 
intendent. 

Corning, N. Y. — The Corning & Painted Post Electric Rail- 
way Company will probably build an electric railway from Bath to 
Hammondsport at once. C. W. Prince, of Corning, N. Y., is gen- 
eral manager of the road. 

Cumberland, Md. — Arrangements are being made between the 
Cumberland Electric Light Company and the Cumberland Electric 
Railway Company, whereby the street rail way system of Cumberland 
will be leased to the electric light company for a long term of years. 

Dallas. Tex. — The first mortgage bondholders of the Dallas 
Consolidated Street Railway Company have approved the plan for 
the reorganization of the property proposed by the reorganization 
committee. The plan prcjvides for an assessment of 20 per cent, on 
the $250,000 bonds, 10 per cent, payable January I, 1896, and 10 per 
cent. F"ebruary i, 1896. The proceeds from this assessment will be 
applied to retiring the present indebtedness. The plan also provides 
for the issue of $350,000 5 per cent, gold bonds running 50 years, 



REDMOND, KERR & CO., 

BANKERS, 

4 1 Wall Street, New York, 

42i Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 



3IEMBERS NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE. 

DEALERS IN 

Investment Secorities of the Highest Grade. 

STREET RAILWAY SECURITIES A SPECIALTY. 
Current lAst of Ofl'erings Furnishetl Upon Application. 

Stewart & Company, 

40 Wall Street, New York. 
INVEST MENT B ANKERS. 

Purchase and Reorganization of Street and 
Steam Railways a Specialty. 



LONDON. 



NEW YORK. 



JOHN B. BARBOUR, JR., 

J STOCK AND BOND BROKER, 

116 Fourth Avenue (Times Building), PITTSBURGH, PA. 
Special attention given to Street Railway Securities. Correspond, 
ence solicited. 

UAMBLETON & CO., 



BANKERS, 



9 South Street, - - BALTIMORE, MD. 

Dealers in Investment Securities. Local Street Railways a specialty. 

QEORGE A. HUHN & SONS., 

BANKERS, 

143 South Fourth Street, PHILADELPHIA, 



J 



AMES CAMPBELL, 

BOND AND STOCK INVESTMENTS, 

Rtalto Building, - - ST. LOUIS, MO. 



82 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. I. 



also $350,000 common stock. John Gill, president of the Mercantile 
Trust and Deposit Company, J. Wilcox Brown, president of the 
Maryland Trust Company; and Wm. H. Blackford, president of the 
Maryland Life Insurance Company, all of Baltimore, Md., compose 
the bondholders' committee. 

Dubuque, la. — It is stated that the Old Colony Trust Company, 
of Boston, will soon move to discharge the present receiver of the 
Dubuque Light & Traction Company and foreclose the mortgage. 

Frederick, Md. — Charles E. Fleming, of Frederick, has secured 
the contract for grading the remaining three sections of the Freder- 
ick & Middletown Electric Railroad and will commence work at once. 

Fulton, N. Y. — The Fulton & Oswego Falls Street Railway Com- 
pany have decided to increase their stock to $100,000. 

Greensburg, Pa. — The Greensburg & Hemptield Electric Street 
Railway Company has received permission to extend its line. R. 
C. Reamer is purchasing agent for the company. 

Halifax, N. S. — The Halifax Electric Tramway Company has 
filed a mortgage for $600,000 debenture bonds. 

Hull, Que. — The County of Labelle Electric Railway Company 
has asked to be incorporated. Mr. Poulin, of Montebello; Joseph 
Bourque, of Hull, and Father Rochon, of Papineauville, are in- 
terested. 

Kingston, N. Y. — The Colonial Electric Street Railway Com- 
pany, which has been in the hands of a receiver for some time, has 
been sold to C. S. Davison, of New York City, representing a com- 
mittee of the first mortgage bondholders, for $70,000. 

Lancaster, O. — S. J. Wright, John Wolfe and C. H. Towsonhave 
appraised the Lancaster Street Railway at $8,325. H. B. Peters, 
receiver of the road, says the property will be sold in the near future. 

Leonia, N. J. — An electric road has been proposed in this 
borough. Leon Abbett, of Jersey City, is interested. 

Lewiston, N. Y. — The Lewiston & Youngstovvn Frontier Rail- 
way Company, incorporated in September, 1895, has applied for a 
franchise. A. H. Dutton, of Youngstown, and F. M. Hayes, of Buf- 
falo, are among those interested. 

Lincoln, Can. — The Lincoln Street Railway Traction & Light 
Company has been incorporated to build an electric railway in St. 
Catherines. Capital stock, $go,ooo. Incorporators, R. H. Hill and 
H. A. King, of Toronto, and J. S. Campbell, L. S. Oille, and G. E. 
Patterson of St. Catharines. 

Almstedt Brothers, 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 

610 West Main Street, : : : LOUISVILLE, KY. 



Street Railway Securities a Specialty. 

r^RANE, PARRIS & CO., 

^ BANKERS, 

Ebbitt House Building, - WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Dealers in Investment Securities. 



CPENCER TRASK & CO., 

*^ BANKERS AND BROKERS, 

ALBANY, N. Y. 
Local Securities Bought and Sold on Commission. 

P'rilL BARTH, 

BROKER, 

440 California Street, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

PHACE & BUTTS, 

^ BANKERS, 

PROVIDENCE. R. I. 

Members of New York Stock Exchange. 
Transact a General Banking Business. 



T. A. Bradley 




BAIIK NOTE 




ENGRAVER AND PRINTER OF BONDS. 
CERTIFICATES, CHECKS, TICKETS 

AND ALL WORK REQUIRING SECURITY 

1232 Market St. Philadelphia 



Long Island City, N. Y. — It is again stated that Philadelphia 
capitalists have secured control of the Steinway Railway Company. 
It is reported that the New York & Queens County Railway Com- 
pany, with a capital stock of $2,500,000 and a funded debt of $2,500,- 
000, has been newly organized to operate this property. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — A suit will probably be brought against the 
Los Angeles Electric Railroad Company to set aside the recent sale 
of the company's property. 

Millbury, Mass. — The Blackstone Valley Street Railway Com- 
pany has let the contract for building its car house, to J. A. Court- 
emanche, of Worcester, Mass. 

Napierville, Que. — Work on the Napierville Junction Railway 
Company has been commenced. The road is to run from St. Remi 
to Stottsville. J. G. Laviolette is president and Eugene Lafontaine 
is secretary of the company. 

Newark, N. J. — An injunction has been granted restraining the 
Union Traction Company from collecting any debts or transferring 
any stock, and in a few days a receiver will be appointed. 

Newton, Mass. — The Newton Street Railway Company has de- 
clared its regular quarterly dividend of two per cent., payable Jan- 
uary I, i8g6. 

Newton, Mass.— The directors of the Newton Street Railway 
Comoany have decided to accept the Watertown franchise recently 
granted. F. G. L, Henderson, of West Newton, is superintendent of 
the company. 

T G. MACKINTOSH & CO., 

J . BANKERS, 

HOLYOKE, MASS. 

Conduct a general banking business. Purchase and sell Local Bank, Street 
1; iilway. Manufacturing Stocks and commercial paper of this vicinity. 

(.'01 re^^poDdPiice solicited. ^ 



G 



ORDON STRATHY & CO., 

STOCK BROKERS, 



No. g St. Sacrament Street, - MONTREAL 

Strictly commission business only. 
H. Gordon Strathy member Montreal Stock Exchange sin^e 1870 

(^AMERON CURRIE Sc CO., 

BANKERS AND BROKERS, 
DETROIT, MICH. 



C. WARREN Sc CO., 

BANKERS AND BROKERS, 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



^ N. CHANDLER & CO., 

BONDS, STOCKS AND OTHER 
INVESTMENTS. 

147 South Fourth Street, 



PHILADELPHIA. 



}^ L. DAY Sc CO., 

BANKERS AND BROKERS, 

40 Water Street, BOSTON, MASS. 



JS^ C. KAUFMAN, 



CHARLESTON, S. C. 



JRWIN, ELLIS Sc BALLMANN, 

BANKERS AND BROKERS, 



51 West Third Street, 



CINCINNATI. O. 



^ILLIS COUNSELMAN Sc CO., 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 

1)22 Chicago Stock Exchange Building, CHICAGO. ILL. 



January, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



83 



New Orleans, La. — The New Orleans City & Lake Railroad 
Company has applied for an injunction to prevent the city of New 
Orleans from selling the franchise of the Canal & Claiborne Railroad 
Company, now advertised to be sold on January 7, 1896. 

New Orleans, La. — D. A. Rose, Clerk of the Common Council, 
will receive bids until March 3 for the purchase of a fifty-year street 
railway franchise. John Fitzpatrick is Mayor. 

Niles, O. — Daniel Moyrahan, who purchased the Niles & Min- 
eral Ridge Electric Railway, has decided to e.xtend that road to 
Youngstown and work will be commenced soon. 

Oshkosh, Wis. — C. E. Loss and Philip J. Partenheim, of Chi- 
cago, have asked for a receiver for the Central Wisconsin Electric 
Street Railway Company. 

Ottawa, 111. — The Ottawa Electric Street Railway has been sold 
to the General Electric Company for $7,500. It is probable that the 
citizens of Ottawa will purchase, equip and operate the road. 

Palmer, Mass. — The Palmer & Monson Electric Railway Com- 
pany has been granted a franchise in Palmer. D. L. Bodfish is 
Chairman of the Hoard of Directors. 

Paterson, N. J. — The Kaltenbeck Car Fender Manufacturing 
Company has been incorporated to manufacture car fenders. Capital 
stock, $400,000. Incorporators: William H. Kaltenbeck, of Roxbury, 
N. Y. ; Charles C, Kaufman, of Margaretville, N. Y. ; Thomas Winter, 
of Margaretville, N. Y. ; Everet G. Kaufman, of Passaic; Frank Kauf- 
man, of Kingston, N. Y. 

Richmond, Va. — The Richmond Railway & Electric Company 
has received permission to extend its First Street line from Clay to 
Broad Street. [. P. Munn is president of the company. 

Rockford, 111. — The West Electric Railway has been sold to 
Bentley Masslick, of Chicago, representing the Guarantee Title and 
Trust Company for $18,861. The company will make several im- 
provements in the system. 

St. Louis, Mo. — The Central Railway Company has been incor- 
porated to build an electric railway in St. Louis. Capital sfeDck, 
$2,000; par value, $100 per share. Incorporators: Wm. S. Long, Al- 
bert Blair, and Eugene Sweeney, all of St. Louis. 



C. E. LOSS & CO., 

— GENERAL 

RAILWAY CONTRACTORS, 

r>2l Pullman Building:, Chicago. 



LEMUEL W. SERRELL, M. E., 

CONTRACTING ENGINEER. 



GENERAL SIREET RAILWAY CONTRACTOR. 

ROADS BUILT EEADY TO OPERATE. 
FIDELITY & CASUALTY BLDG.. 99 CEDAR ST., NEW YORK 



WHITE-CROSBY COMPANY, 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS, 

Equitable Building, Baltimore, Md. 

New York Office, 29 Broadway, 

Chica£:o Office, The Roolcery. 



R. W. HILDRETH. ALB'RKD LIEBMANN. 

R. W. Hildreth $c Co., 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS. 

ELECTRIC AND STEAM RAILWAYS, 

BRIDGES, BUILDINGS, ETC. 
5o IVEW ^'OKIC. 



Salem, O.— Stockholders of the Salem Electric Railway Com- 
pany and of the Salem Electric Light and Power Company have 
voted to consolidate the two properties. Some extensions of the two 
plants are contemplated. 

Salem, Ore. — The Salem Consolidated Street Railway Company 
has passed into the hands of a receiver, upon the application of E. 
P. McCormac, president of the First National Bank of San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. F. R. Anson, formerly superintendent, has been ap- 
pointed as receiver. 

San Antonio, Tex.— The Citizens' Electric and Street Railway 
Company has changed its name to the San Antonio Edison Company. 

Seattle, Wash.— H. L. Thomas, of this place, is interested in 
an electric railway to be built from Tacoma to Seattle. 

Southbridge, Mass.— The Southbridge & Sturbridge Electric 
Railroad Company has secured a franchise. The directors of the 
company are G. W. Wells, C. W. Hill, F. L. Chapin, C. D. Paige, 
A. M. Cheney and J. Booth, of Southbridge, and Thomas T. Robin- 
son, of Dedham, Mass. 

Springfield, O.— The Springfield Street Railway Company has 
secured a franchise to extend its line. O. S. Kelly is interested in 
the road. 

Superior, Wis.— A suit will probably be brought to forfeit the 
franchise of the Superior Rapid Transit Railway Company on the 
ground that its agreement with the city has been violated. 

Trenton, N. J.— The American-China Development Company 
has been incorporated to build and operate steam and electric rail- 
ways in China. Capital stock, $1,000,000. Incorporators: F. Fren- 
holm, of New York; De Witt H. Lyon, of Greenwich, Conn.; and 
Samuel S. Walters, of Jersey City. 

EDWARD E. flIGGINS, 

Expert in Street Railway Values and Economies. 

Havemeyer Building, Cortlandt Street. 
NEW YORF 



C. J. FIELD CO., 

Consulting; and Constructing Engineers. 

Electric Traction. 

Power Transmission. 

Ceneratins; Stations. 

Steam and Power Plants. 
Havemeyer Building;, New York. 



jfotb Si Bacon, 

jBnoineere, 



421 CHESTNUT ST. , 107 CAMP ST.. 203 BROADWAY 

PHILADELPHIA. NEW ORLEANS. NEW YORK. 



ORGANIZEO, 1888.— INCORPORATED, ISSl. 

WOODBRIDGE & TDRNER 

ENGINEERING CO. 
ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

Electric Railway Construction and fquipment. 

TIMES BUILDING, 41 PARK ROW, NEW YORK. 



REED & McKIBBIN, 

80 Broadway, New York, 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY 

Construction and Equipment. 



PROJECTED RAILWAYS FINANCED. 



84 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol.. XII. No. I. 



Valley, N. J. — Surveys are being made upon a route for the pro- 
posed electric railway to connect Valley, on the Lehigh Valley Rail- 
road, with Lalie Hopatcong. This road will be built by the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad Company. It will be about twenty-five miles long, 
and will run through Washington and Hackettstown. The right of 
way for nearly the whole course has been secured. 

Waddy, Ky. — A company of Eastern capitalists will build an 
electric railway from Waddy to Frankfort. Work will be commenced 
in a few weeks. 

Washington, D. C. — Senator McMillan has again introduced 
his bill of the last Congress to regulate fares and transfers upon 
street car lines in the District of Columbia. It provides that the 
lawful rate of fare upon all street car lines in the District of Colum- 
bia shall not exceed five cents for each passenger. 

Washington, D. C. — The franchises of the projected Washing- 
ton & Chesapeake Beach Railway Company have been sold to J. 
Kennedy Tod & Company, of 45 Wall Street, New York City, for$3i,- 
000. The purchasers will probably complete the road at once. 

Watertown, N. Y. — J. A. Lawyer, of Watertown, has been ap- 
pointed receiver of the Watertown & Brownville Street Railroad 
Company. The application was made on behalf of the Central Trust 
Company, of New York, as trustee for a $75,000 mortgage. 

Watertown, N. Y. — J. A. Lawyer, receiver of the Watertown & 
Brownville Street Railroad Company, will make application for per- 
mission to issue certificates to the amount of about §13,000, for the 
purpose of putting the road in a better condition to operate. 

Youngstown, O. — P. H. Burnett and Oscar Davis are talking 
about building an electric railway between Youngstown and Lowells- 
ville. 



What He Says. 

It is a good thing sometimes to know what other people think 
about you. The following is a letter from one of Chicago's most 
prominent business men. What makes it the more valuable is the 
fact that his expression of the service as provided to the traveling 
public by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway came en- 
tirely unsolicited — the plain statement of an experienced traveler, 
made in a letter touching on other business matters. 



The following is the extract from his letter: 

" For several years past I have made from two to four trips each 
month between Chicago and New York. I believe (as I am informed 
by your conductors) that I have made more trips between Chicago 
and New York than any other man during the past few years. 

" I have always traveled over your road in preference to any 
other, because by careful comparison with others I have found not 
only that the road itself is far superior to any other, but the table 
and the service are in every respect the best of any road I have ever 
traveled on. The conductors, stewards, waiters and porters I have 
found to be uniformly courteous and attentive, adding greatly to the 
comfort of those who are obliged to travel as much as I am." 

For any information in regard to the train service, books cover- 
ing the matter of Summer Resorts and Tours, address A. J. Smith, 
G. P. & T. A., Cleveland, O. * >^ * 



" The Crack Train of the World." 



A prominent New York merchant and importer of leather goods 
said in our hearing the other day: " I have traveled all over Europe 
and America, and I consider the train which leaves Chicago every 
day at 6.30 P. M. for St. Paul and Minneapolis, via the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, 'The Crack Train of the World.'" 

In which statement thousands of others heartily concur. * * * 



New Buffet Parlor Cars on the Wabash. 



The Wabash Railroad has placed in service a new line of Ele- 
gant Buffet Parlor Cars on trains 44 and 45, between St. Louis and 
Toledo, leaving St. Louis daily at 7.30 A. M. and Toledo at 5.15 
A. M. These cars are of the latest modern design, and are elegantly 
furnished, thus assuring patrons of every convenience and comfort. 
Polite and attentive porters will be in charge, giving every attention 
to passengers' wants. A slight charge will be made for seats in 
these cars. Wabash mileage will also be honored to pay for seats. 
Meals served are strictly first class, and the charge reasonable. 
Ticket Offices, S. E. Cor. Broadway and Oliver Street, and Union 
Station. * * * C. S. Crane, 

Gen'l Pass. & Tkt. Agt. 



Mirfinif The Standard Insulation. 

I T ft I ^L^ m. m m I I ft -ft^ v The commutators on more than a thousand motors in use on the 
^ ^ ^ Street Railway Systems of Brooklyn, N. Y, are insulated with MICANITE. 

MICA INSULATOR COMPANY' 

SOI^E MAISITFACTURERS, 
218 WATER. STREET, NEW YORK. 

SXOCK IN PRINCIPAI. CITIES. 

CHICAGO, 153 Lake Street, W. H. Sills. CINCINNATI, 41 East 4th St., Sinclair Randall. ST. LOUIS, Bank of Commerce BIdg., A. S. Partridge. 

CLEVELAND, 10 So. Water Street, The CuyahogaSupply Co. SAN FRANCISCO, 120 Sutter Street, J. W. Brooks & Co. 





UNION DRAWN STEEL CO. 

General Office and Works, Beaver Falls, Pa. 

COLD DRAWN STEEL and IRON 
PRODUCTS. 




Rounds, Flats, 
Squares and Shapes. 



SPECIAL 



High Test Cold Drawn Steel, 



For Axles, Sheave Shafts, Etc. Straight, Accurate, Polished, 
FOR ELECTRIC OR CABLE SERVICE. 

New York, 136 Liberty Street. Boston, 8 Oliver Street. 

PWladelplila, Qlrard Building. Cincinnati, 9-10 Wiggins Building. 

Southern Warehouse, Atlanta, Ga. 
Chicago Office and Warehouse, 10-24 W. Water Street. 



WANTED! 

A list of all that Railway material you wish 
to dispose of. Now is the time to get rid of 
it. Why not take the trouble to let me hear 
from you whether you wish to buy or sell ? 

CHARLES N. WOOD, 

ISO vS villi 111 oi' Street, 
BOSXOM, MASS. 



^ A. L. DRUMMOND, EX-CHIEF U. 8. SECRET SERTICE, GEN. MGR. V^^) 



RAILWAY WORK A SPECIALTY. 



PARK ROW AND ANN STREET, NEW YORK. 



Street (Railway Journal. 



Vol. XIL 



JVEW YORK AJVD CHICAGO, FEBRUARY, 1896. 



Mo. 2. 



RECENT INTERURBAN ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 



The possibilities of the profitable competition of 
electric systems with steam lines for interurban service 
promises to be given a thorough trial during the coming 
year in several sections of the country. It is interesting 
to note that practically all enterprises of this character 
which have been put into operation in this country have 
been built by purely electric railway companies, the 




rate of speed. It is the purpose of the following article 
to describe some of the most recent lines of this charac- 
ter, including an account of the method of caring for 
freight on one urban railway with a long interurban 
branch. 

A number of interurban lines have been recently 
completed in the northern part of Ohio, most of 
them having the city of Cleveland as a terminus. As 
the map of Cleveland and vicinity, published on the fol- 
lowing page, will show, these lines extend in nearly every 
direction from that city, and are operated in direct com- 
petition with steam railroads with which that district is 
well supplied. 

The entrance into Cleveland of those railways which 
have one terminus in that city is effected over the lines 
of the present urban system, so that passengers can take 
cars from any point within the city reached by the city 
lines with which these railways connect. The right of 
the city companies under their franchises to allow cars of 
outside companies to use their tracks has been questioned 
by the city authorities, but as the'cars change crews at 
the city line and within the city are operated by the em- 
ployes of the city company, and as all fares are collected 




FIG. 1.— POWER STATION AND TRUSS BRIDGE-AKRON, BEDFORD & CLEVELAND ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



steam railroad companies which had occupied the field 
showing no disposition to change from steam to electric 
power. So far as indications go, the electric railways 
have been successful in securing a fair amount of traffic, 
a considerable part of which has usually been taken from 
their steam railroad rivals. The general tendency is to 
an increase in the number of such lines, largely follow- 
ing steam railroad models in roadbed and car construc- 
tion, and toward their use to a considerable extent of 
high-ways, thus securing not a little local traffic. This, 
however, will prevent the maintenance of a very high 



by and for the latter, they become for operating purposes 
the property of the city company, and hence have as 
much right to use the streets as any other cars. At least 
this is the ground taken by the street railway companies. 

The running time from terminus to terminus of the 
interurban lines is, in most cases, somewhat greater than 
that required by the steam trains, but the ability to board 
and leave cars at more convenient points, coupled with 
the considerably lower fares charged by the electric lines, 
will, it is thought, bring to the latter a great deal of traffic 
now carried by their steam rivals, and in addition will 



86 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



create a great deal of travel. In fact, along the line of 
the railways built from Cleveland, the value of the real es- 
tate has increased rapidly, and in some cases has risen as 
much as 100 per cent above the price at which it was for- 




Scalp ons-^-'-fi 'nr^h ^r, a mil 



FIG 2.— MAP SHOWING INTERURBAN ELECTRIC RAILWAYS ABOUT CLEVELAND 

merly held. It has been found that, as a result, many 
of those who were most strongly opposed to the building 
of these lines are now among their best friends. 

THE AKRON, BEDFORD & CLEVELAND RAILWAY. 

This railway, known as the A. B. C, or alphabet 
line, has a length of thirty miles, mostly single track, and 
extends from Akron through Bed- 
ford to the city limits of Cleveland, 
where the cars enter the city over 
the tracks of the Clevelaud Elec- 
tric Railway Company. In Akron 
the tracks of the Akron Street 
Railway Company are used. The 
length of route from the business 
center of Akron to that of Cleve- 
land is thirty-four and one-half 
miles. The company is organized 
under the regular steam railroad 
law of Ohio. 

The fares charged are, single 
trip 60 cents, round trip $1.00. For 
this amount a person can go from 
any point on the street railway 
lines in Akron to any point on 

the lines of the Cleveland Electric Railway Com- 
pany, or z'lce versa. Excursion tickets for theatre 
parties are sold at a reduced rate. The steam railroad 
fare is now $1.05 one way, and |>i.90 for the round trip. 
The electric cars run every half hour and make the trip 
in one hour and fifty minutes. Between the city limits 
of Cleveland and Akron the running time exceeds twenty- 



five miles per hour, including stops. The road was put 
in operation about December lo, 1895. 

A serious accident occurred on January 9, on the line 
of the railway at Bedford where the railway crosses 
Tinker's Creek. The bridge here is 
164 ft. long with a center span of 
140 ft., the height at the middle of 
the bridge being 65 ft. The center 
span was a truss with a trestle 
approach. Owing to the fact that 
the summit of the south bank of 
the creek is considerably higher 
than that of the north bank, there 
was a grade of about six per cent, 
on the bridge. A view of the bridge 
is given in Figs, i and 8. 

The accident occurred as a coal 
train, consisting of a motor and 
platform coal car, passed over the 
bridge, the center span giving way, 
precipitating the train into the 
river with a loss of two lives. The 
cause of the disaster is now being 
investigated by the proper authori- 
ties. 

Regular steam railroad con- 
struction is used throughout. The 
rails are of fifty-six pound Tee 
section, and the track is ballasted 
with slag and gravel. The com- 
pany is using 0000 copper bonds, all 
of which are annealed, it having 
been found that the ordinary bond 
had a tendency to break. 

With the exception of a dis- 
tance of about ten miles, the road 
runs at the side of the highway 
connecting the cities of Akron and 
Cleveland. The width of the right 
of way for the distance over which 
the tracks of the company extend 
over its own property is on the 
average fifty feet, and the track is 
inclosed by wire fencing. The cross- 
ings are protected with ordinary 
cattle fences and guards. Side 
poles with iron pipe brackets are 
used throughout. The poles are of 
wood with seven-inch tops, and about thirty feet in 
length. They are spaced ninety feet apart. The feed 
wire is of 300000 c. m. capacity, and trolley wire is B. 
& S. 0000. The overhead material is of the Ohio Brass 
Company's make. 

There are two power houses, one at Bedford on Tinker's 
Creek, six miles from Cleveland, the second at Cuyahoga 



Street Rnilu'ay Journal 




FIG, 3— CAR— AKRON, BEDFORD & CLEVELAND ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



Falls, on the Cuyahoga River. The former supplies cur- 
rent for six miles to the north and nine miles to the south; 
the second, nine miles north and five and one-half miles 
south to Akron. The steam equipment is similar in each 
station. There are ttvo Stirling boilers of 250 h. p. each, 
with 350 h. p. Allis Corliss engines, which are belted to 
Westinghouse generators of 250 k. w. The pumps which 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



87 



supply the reservoir are operated by two seven and one 
half horse power motors. 

The generators at both stations are of novel con 
struction. The armatures are wound for both alternat 
ing and direct currents, and have 
both commutators and alternat- 
ing current collecting rings, the 
latter being outside the former. 
The voltage of the alternating 
side is 380 when that of the direct 
current side is 500, the alterna- 
tions being 3800 per minute. 
The output of the machines, if 
the alternating side should be 
used alone would about equal its 
direct current capacity when used 
alone. 

The object of the use of ma- 
chines of this character is two- . 
fold. The company intends to 
use the generators at present for 
supplying both direct current for 
its line and alternating current 
for lighting purposes. Later, 
should it be considered desirable 
to operate the Cuyahoga Falls 

station by water power, and transmit power to Bedford 
by the three-phase system for operating the station at that 
point, the machines can be used as rotary transformers. 



The power station, motor shop, car house and offices 
at Cuyahoga Falls are of brick with iron roof. 

The cars of the company resemble in general appear- 
ance 'those in use on steam railways, and are forty feet 




FIG. 4.— CAR HOUSE— AKRON, BEDFORD & CLEVELAND RAILWAY. 



in length. Eleven motor cars and two trail cars are in 
use at present. About one-half of the motor cars are 
built with baggage compartment, the passenger compart- 





FIG. 5.— BRIDGE ACROSS CUYAHOGA RIVER— AKRON, BEDFORD & CLEVELAND RAILWAY. 

The company controls the electric lighting system at ment seating thirty-two persons. The rest of the cars 
Bedford, and expects to also light two other towns from and the trail cars are full-seated with a capacity for 
the railway power station. The arc lighting will be done forty-two passengers. The cars have cross reversible 




FIG. 6.— POWER STATION AND ALTERNATING AND DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS— AKRON, BEDFORD & CLEVELAND RAILWAY. 



from the direct current railway circuit, and the incan- 
descent from the alternating current side of the same 
generators by the use of transformers. 



seats, upholstered in plush, with center aisle, are provided 
with toilet, and ice water tanks, and are lighted with 
twenty electric lights. There are electric push buttons 



88 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol XIL No. 2. 



in front of every seat. The bodies are very handsomely 
painted, the color being a dark maroon with cream trim- 
mings and gold lettering. The inside finish is natural 
cherry. The motor cars were supplied by the Jackson & 



FIG. 7.— BRIDGE ACROSS TINKER'S CREEK AFTER THE 
DISASTER. 

Sharp Company, and the trail cars, which will be 
equipped as regular motor cars, by the Barney & Smith 
Car Company. 

Electric heaters are used, one heater being carried 
in the motorman's compartment. The cars are equipped 
with two 50 h. p. motors, both on the rear truck. A Hunt 
air-brake pump and eccentric is fitted on the front trucks 
of part of the present equipment and a Standard geared 



The company now carries on its cars light express 
matter, and, as shown by the number of cars arranged 
with freight compartments, anticipates that quite a good 
deal of business can be secured in this direction, from the 
fact that the city and urban population at the Akron end 
of the line exceeds 50000, and that there are from 15000 
to 20000 inhabitants between this and the Cleveland ter- 
minal. The express privileges are leased to the Ameri- 
can Express Company. 

The operation of such an extensive line involves new 
problems of dispatching and operation. To accomplish 
the best results the company decided upon the establish- 
ment of a special telephone exchange at its Cuyahoga 
Falls office, and the operation of the cars by regular train 
dispatchers. All of the offices and residences of the op- 
erating officials are. connected with the exchange by di- 
rect wires and a portable trlephone outfit is carried on 
each car. This outfit can be put in connection with the 
dispatcher's line at any of the sidings and every half mile 
along the line. It will require no signal bell, as the act 
of cutting into the line will do the signaling. The tele- 
phone wires will be strung on the company's own poles, 
and to overcome the induction of the railway current, a 
metallic circuit will be used consisting of a three or four 
conductor cable with wires intertwisted to overcome the 
inductive influence. 

The pleasure traffic of the company promises to be 
considerable. The line passes Tinker's Creek Gorge at 
Bedford, sixmiles from Cleveland; Boston Ledges, fifteen 
miles from Cleveland; Turtle Lake, three miles from Cuy- 
ahoga Falls; Silver Lake, Gaylord's Grove, High Bridge 
Glens, Old Maid's Kitchen, and the Cuyahoga River 
Canon. Several of these properties are owned by the 
company, and all are locally well known resorts noted for 
their wild and picturesque scenery. 

The road was constructed under the direct super- 
vision of Will Christy and James Christy, Jr., of the 
Cleveland Construction Company, and its officers are : 
President, H. A. Everett ; vice-president, J. Christy, Jr.; 
Secretary, F. S. Borton ; treasurer, E. W. Moore ; gen- 
eral manager, W. Christy ; superintendent, F. J. Sloat. 

CLEVELAND & ELYRIA ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 

This line extends from the Cleveland city limits to 
Elyria, a distance of seventeen miles, connecting at 





FIG. 8,— BRIDGE ACROSS TINKER'S CREEK BEFORE THE DISASTER. 



air brake equipment will be installed on one of the new 
cars of the compan)^ 

For caring for snow the company uses snow scrapers 
on every car, and has in addition two heavy nose plows. 
A twenty-five ton steam locomotive which was used in 
construction, has also been equipped for snow work, and 
during the storms which have already occurred this sea- 
son no trouble has been experienced with snow blockades, 
although there are several cuts on grades. 



Cleveland with the Cleveland City Railway. The line 
passes through a comparatively level and beautiful coun- 
try, and the fare for the round trip is seventy-five cents. 
In general construction, the line is similar in many re- 
spects to the Akron, Bedford & Cleveland line, and it was 
built by the same contractors. About three and one-half 
miles from the Cleveland line the road passes over a mag- 
nificent steel cantilever highway bridge 1220 ft. in length 
and 138 ft. in height. 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



89 



There are two power stations, and their equipment is 
similar to that of the Akron, Bedford & Cleveland Rail- 
way, except that the generators are single direct current. 
One station is on the Rocky River close to the long 
bridge already mentioned, and one of 300 
h. p. is at Elyria. 

The rolling stock consists of motor cars, 
similar to those on the Akron, Bedford & 
Cleveland line, the outside color, however, 
being dark olive with gold lettering and 
ornamentation. 

The company is now furnishing power 
to the Cleveland & Berea Electric Railway 
Company for the operation of its line be- 
tween Cleveland and Berea, a distance of 
ten miles. The cars and track construction 
of the Cleveland & Berea Railway Com- 
pany are similar to those of the Cleveland 
& Elyria Electric Railway Company, and 
the management is the same. 

The oflficers of the Cleveland & Elyria 
Electric Railway Company are: president, 
A. H. Pomero}', Berea; vice-president, L. 
M. Coe, Berea; secretary, A. E. Akins, Cleve- 
land; treasurer and general manager, F. T. 
Pomeroy, Cleveland. 

CLEVELAND, PAINESVILLE AND EASTERN RAILR0A1> COM- 
PANY. 

This railway will extend east from Cleveland to 
Painesville, a distance of thirty miles, ten miles of which 
will be over the lines of the Cleveland Electric Railway 
Company. During the past season track has been laid 
to Wickliffe, and it will be extended to Painesville early 
in the spring. 

The track of this company extends through a clay 
district, and in order to take care of the drainage, great 
pains were used in its construction. The ties, which are 
of white oak, 5 in. X 8 in. X 7 ft. are laid 2 ft. centers, and 



overhead switches, which might prove troublesome in 
high speed work. The company is now taking power from 
the Cleveland Electric Railway, but a station will be built 
at Willoughby. The engine ec[uipment will consist of 





FIG. 10.— BRIDGE OVER ROCKY RIVER— CLEVELAN D & ELYRIA RAILWAY. 

rest on six inches of broken stone, and are ballasted with 
cinders. At the ditch side of the track a six-inch tile 
was laid the entire length of the track. The ditch above 
the tile was then filled in with cinders. The tile is de- 
signed to carry off the water that might fall on the track. 
The rail used is a sixty-eight pound Wharton girder with 
six-hole 26-in. fishplates. The joints are bonded by a 
copper horseshoe, which is applied to the joint under- 
neath the fishplate. 

Double wooden pole construction is used with 00 
trolley wire. For a considerable part of the distance two 
trolley wires will be employed, thus doing away with 



FIG. 9.— TRAIN— AKRON, BEDFORD & CLEVELAND RAILV^AY. 

compound condensing Cooper engines of 250 h. p., direct 
connected to General Electric generators. 

The cars are thirty-five feet in length, with double 
trucks, electric heaters, etc. The motors are of the 
G. E. 1200 type, two on each car. The general manager 
of the company is C. W. Wason, of Cleveland. 

OTHER ROADS. 

Some other electric roads which do not have a ter- 
minus in Cleveland, but which act as feeders to other lines 
which do, are the Lorain & Elyria Electric Railway and 
the line of the Cuyahoga Falls Rapid Transit Company. 
The former runs past the works of the Johnson Com- 
pany at Lorain, and is owned by Mr. 
Johnson. The cars are single truck and 
make sometimes as high a speed as 
thirty-seven miles per hour. The line 
extends for the greater part of its length 
through its own right of wa}^ 

The Akron & Cuyahoga Falls Rapid 
Transit Railway has a length of twenty- 
seven miles and twenty-eight motor cars 
in operation. The track is laid with fifty 
and eighty lb. Tee and girder rail. T. F. 
Walsh is president and general manager 
of the company. The extension of this 
line to Cleveland by way of Melrose and 
Richfield has been proposed. 

THE NEWBURGH (n. Y.) ELECTRIC RAIL- 
WAY COMPANY. 

The Newburgh Electric Railway 
Company is carrying on an interurban 
traffic of considerable importance es- 
pecially in the transportation of express 
and light freight, which it has found to 
be a profitable department of its busi- 
, ness. The city of Newburgh with a 
population of about 25000 inhabitants is 
connected with New York City by both 
the West Shore and Erie Railroads and 
by steamboat, and with the New York 
Central Railroad at Fishkill by ferry. Some ten miles 
back of the city over a ridge of hills lies the fertile 
Wallkill Valley famous for its fruit, especially grapes. 
It contains a number of manufactories, and is a great 
shipping point for milk to New York Cit)^ The trans- 
portation facilities for this valley have been furnished 
until recently by the Wallkill Valley Railroad, a 
steam line extending from Kingston on the West Shore 
Railroad on the north and connecting with the Ontario 
& Western and Erie Railroads on the south. 

During the spring of 1895, the Newburgh Electric 
Railway was built to connect that city with Walden, one 



9° 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



of the principal towns in the Wallkill Valley which has a 
population of about 2500. The distance from terminus 
to terminus is about fourteen miles. The company com- 
menced the transportation of freight and express about 
the first of June, 1895. The results from both this and 




FIG. 11.— VIEW IN WALLKILL VALLEY— N EWBU RGH 
ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 

passenger service have been m.ost satisfactory. At New- 
burgh the line runs alongside the steamboat dock and 
close to the freight houses and tracks of the railroads, 
and freight is billed through to or from New York or 
other pomts. At present the company is operating two 
electric freight cars a day each way between Newburgh 
and Walden, besides a 
special milk freight ser- 
vice of one car each morn- 
ing. In addition there is 
an express service by 
combination cars for the 
transportation of light 
freight, every hour. 

A good idea of the 
traffic which has been 
built up in this way is 
shown by the fact that in 
September the company 
transported 192 tons of 
grapes alone, and from 
500 to 600 tons of hay. 
These were delivered to 
the cars at Walden, and 
were then sent to New 
York by boat from New- 
burgh. The milk traffic 
has amounted, during 
the last seven months, to 
40,000 cans, equal to 
2,000,000 qts. The cans are 
delivered to the railway 
company at Walden from 
the creamery, and the car 
used is similar to that 
employed in freight service and illustrated in Fig. 14. It 
is capable of transporting from 235 to 250 cans. 

The merchandise mentioned so far has been only 
that carried in one direction, but an equal amount is 
carried the other way, including practically all the raw 
material for two large cutlery works, dry goods and 
other merchandise to the Walden merchants. 



The charge for transporting freight depends, as in 
steam railroad service, upon the material carried, there 
being a regular schedule and five different classes of 
freight; that for fruit, for example, is $2.60 a ton. To 
deliver freight in Walden the company employs a team. 

The express service is leased to the National Express 
Company, which furnishes an expressman on each car to 
care for the packages and delivery facilities at the fur- 
ther end. Regular daily returns are made by the express 
company to the railway company on the amount of 
express matter carried, and settlement is made monthly 
upon the basis of $4 per ton. 

' So far a description has been given only of the 
method of caring for the freight business, but the passen- 
ger traffic is an important part of the company's traffic, 
not only on the Walden line but also about New- 
burgh and to several parks including Glenwood park and 
Orange Lake. The latter is an all the year resort, being 
in winter the racing grounds of the ice yachts, and was 
last winter the place where the National skating races 
were held. The interurban fares are collected by selling 
regular tickets at ticket offices, of which there are three 
or four at Newburgh and one at Walden, and tickets are 
also sold by the conductors. The fares vary from five to 
twenty-five cents. The tickets are sold in coupons, that 
is, a twenty-five cent ticket from Walden to Newburgh 
would be five five-cent coupons. One coupon is then 
collected at the end of each section, of which there are 
five on that particular branch, and each coupon is regis- 
tered in the usual way, the register being turned back 
at the beginning of each section. 

The track is laid with 90 lb. girder rail in the city 
paved streets, and 60 lb. Tee in macadam and interurban 
sections. The rails are laid with broken joints and on 
ties 7 in. X 6 in. X 7 ft., laid two feet centers. On the 
interurban divisions where the track is laid, for the most 
part, over the company's own right of way, the roadbed is 
ston ballasted to a depth of six inches under the ties. 
The special work is of manganese steel and Johnston 
bonds with return feeders are employed. 

The feed wire is of 500000 c. m., and the poles are of 
iron in the city and chestnut with iron brackets in the 
suburban section. On Broadway, Newburgh, center 
poles are used, the tracks being twelve feet apart. There 




FIG. 12.— LONG TRESTLE NEAR ORANGE LAKE— NEWBURGH ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



are a number of steep grades, the maximum being twelve 
per cent, but no trouble has been experienced in holding 
cars on these grades, sand and salt being used liberally. 

The running and dispatching of cars is controlled 
from Newburgh by a special telephone wire, with tele- 
phone box at each turnout. The cars run on regular 
schedule, and if detained for any reason the conductor 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



91 



is obliofed to telephone at the first turnout to the dis- 
patcher's office at Newburgh and receive his directions as 
to proceeding, tlie dispatcher being able to signal any 
car at any turnout by a code of signals. 

The power station is at Newburgh, and is shown in 
Fig. 14. It occupies a building formerly employed by the 



The company has in addition passenger trail cars and 
four gondola cars, capable of carrying each from eight to 
nine tons of freight. The cars are mounted on Peckham 
trucks and are equipped with Westinghouse No. 12 and 
laA motors. All the cars are vestibuled. Nuttall trolleys. 
New Haven and Meaker registers and Consolidated Car 




FIG. 13.— CAR HOUSE AT ORANGE LAKE— NEWBURGH ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



horse railway company, predecessors to the present com- 
pany, and has a handsome stack, square in section and 
100 ft. in height. The engine room contains three Dick- 
son Corliss engines, of 300 h. p. each, belted each to a 
Westinghouse generator. The boilers are of the return 
tubular type. Buckwheat coal, costing $2.20 a ton, is 
burned, and about four tons are required daily. Five 
tons is the maximum ever used during any day, and 
22000 passengers have been carried with this amount of 



Company's heaters are used. The company has under 
construction at the Brill works a novel type of car, 
divided into three cross compartments with side 
doors like a European railroad coach, and designed 
for baggage, smokers and ladies' compartments re- 
spectively. 

The average number of car miles per day is 1 200, and 
per car day 135, for fifteen hours operation. 

The freight cars are so arranged that they can be 




FIG 14.— POWER STATION, EXPRESS AND FREIGHT CARS— NEWBURGH ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



fuel. The station is provided with feed water by a 148 
ft. well operated by a Blake pump. The car house is at 
West Newburgh, and measures 67 X 160 ft., and has a 
capacity for twenty-eight cars. The repair shop is in the 
power station and has pit room for four cars. No special 
devices are used for maintaining the voltage at the 
further end of the line. 

There are twenty-five motor cars, of which four are 
box freight cars, and two combination. The baggage 
compartment of the latter is eight feet in length. The 
cars are mostly of the Brill and Jackson & Sharp makes. 



equipped with snow plows and the track outside of the 
city is cleared of snow in this way. In the city a Fowler 
electric sweeper is used. The president and manager is 
Benjamin Norton, who owns or controls practically all 
the capital stock of the system. He originated the scheme 
and carried it through and built all the lines in the sys- 
tem. 

The company reports an excellent business. The 
gross receipts for the six months ending November 30, 
1895, were $62,967 with operating expenses less than 48 
per cent of receipts. 



92 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



INTERURBAN ROADS NEAR LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

The construction of long electric lines for interurban 
trafific is being carried on on the Pacific slope as well as 
in o,ther parts of the country. In Southern California 
the construction of such lines receives an especial stimu- 



The Pasadena & Los Angeles Electric Railway which 
comprises all the lines in Pasadena with the exception 
of the Pasadena & Mount Wilson Electric Railway was 
begun in 1894 and opened for traffic, May i, 1895. The 
construction was single track, but the first week's opera- 




FIG. 15.— POWER STATION AND CAR HOUSE— PASADENA & PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY, 



lus from the fact that the climate is mild during every 
month in the year, making a trip by electric cars particu- 
larly agreeable, and from the fact that the population 
comprises a large proportion of wealthy persons who 
have been attracted to the region on account of its cli- 
mate and who would be apt to liberally patronize any 
line catering to pleasure travel. Los Angeles, as is well 
known, is the largest city in Southern California and it 
has become an important center of electric railway de- 
velopment. To the northeast of the city, about twelve 
miles distant, lies Pasadena connected with Los Angeles 



tion of the road provedjts inadequateness in carrying ca- 
pacity, and the work of doubletracking the entire line 
has just been completed. There are three long bridges, 
one of 300 ft. over the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles; one 
900 ft. long and 45 ft. high over the Arroyo at the town 
of Garvanza; and one of 700 ft. across the Terminal 
Railway in South Pasadena. The roadbed is substan- 
tially laid on a heavy subgrade of gravel, and the track 
is of 40 lb. and 50 lb. Tee rails spiked to 6 X 8 in. redwood 
ties. The gauge is 3 ft. 6 ins. The power station con- 
sists of two brick structures 100 X 175 ft. and 60 X 




FIG. 16.— COMBINATION OPEN AND CLOSED CAR— PASADENA &. PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



by the Pasadena & Los Angeles Electric Railway through 
the charming valley of the Arroyo Seco. North of Pasa- 
dena is Echo Mountain and Mount Lowe reached by elec- 
tric railway and inclined plane. From Los Angeles to 
the west another line about twenty miles in length 
has been bviilt by the same capitalists that are inter- 
ested in the Pasadena lines through a beautiful region to 
Santa Monica on the Pacific Ocean and the seashore re- 
sort of Los Angeles. These two lines comprise an inter- 
urban system which is perhaps not equalled in extent by 
any electric line west of the Mississippi River, 



175 ft., with iron roof. There are installed three 250 h. p. 
Stirling boilers of the latest type, two Ball & Wood com- 
pound condensing engines, of 250 and 450 h. p. respect- 
ively, two 300 h. p. General Electric generators and one 
200 h. p. Westinghouse generator. The car house, 100 X 
175 ft., will accommodate thirty-two long cars, with room 
for paint and repair shops. All the buildings are of 
brick with thirty inch concrete foundations. A sufficient 
water supply is furnished by the company's well. A 
complete machine shop is fitted with all the latest and 
best machines necessary to a railway plant. 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



93 



A view of the cars employed is shown in Fig 16. 
They are of the combination type, partly open and partly 
closed, a style which has proved exceedingly popular in 
Californian service. The length is thirty-five feet and tlie 
cars are finely upholstered and finished in mahogany with 
plate glass windows. They were built by the American 
Car Company and the J. G. Brill Company and are 
equipped with Westinghouse forty horse power motors of 
latest design, making eighty horse power to the car. The 
cars are equipped with Standard air-brakes, a necessity, 
since the grades range from 3 to 7.6 per cent. 

The line of the Pasadena & Pacific Railway Com- 
pany to Santa Monica will be double track throughout 
and will be laid with forty to fifty pound Tee rail, with 
about the same construction as that of the Pasadena & 
Los Angeles Electric Railway. The steam equipment 
and cars will also be of the same type and make. The 
general manager is a believer in double truck cars es- 
pecially for this class of service, and a high speed 
will be reached on this line. The road will com- 
prise about forty-five miles of track. 

This line to the sea will come into competi- 
tion with the heavy excursion traffic of the two 
steam lines of the Southern Pacific Railroad and 
the Santa Fe Railroad. As the road to Pasadena 
is in competition with three steam lines, and 
has been successful in securing traffic, it is ex- 
pected the new seaside electric service will be- 
come equally popular and profitable. The elec- 
tric line to Pasadena has already proven what 
is now becoming a well known fact, that steam 
railways cannot in any measure successfully cater 
to the needs of suburban traffic. One steam I'oad 
alone has reduced its train service by half, and 
would reduce still further if its franchise per- 
mitted, and still its trains often carry more em- 
ployes than passengers. 



the following figures: The average daily number of pas- 
sengers carried is 8000. These at a fare of three cents 
equal daily receipts of $240. The power required is 
from 400 to 500 h. p. This is presumably water power. 

Our information is taken from the Railwayand Pub- 
lic Works Review, published at Florence. 



The Mt. Snaefel Railway, Isle of Man. 



In our November issue, some particulars were given 
of the Snaefel Mountain Electric Railway, recently put 
in operation in the Isle of Man. Through the courtesy of 
G. Noble Fell, the engineer of the railway, the accom- 
panying additional illustrations, which have never 
before been published, are presented on this and the 
following page. 

The line is about 4.^^ miles in length, rising 1820 ft. 



Electric Traction in Rome. 




A new 'electric road was put in operation in 
Rome, Italy, during the fetes of September 20, 
1895, and the results already secured are such as 
to prove that the road more than fulfils the expectations 
of the promoters. The line extends from the railroad 
station to the Place de San Silvestro, establishing thus 
communication between the new part of Rome and the 
center of the city. The maximum grade is about seven 
per cent for a distance of 1600 ft., the rest of the 
line being practically level. The minimum curves are 
of sixty foot radius. 

The rolling stock consists of ten cars, of which eight 
are in regular service and two in reserve. These cars 
operate on a headway of from four to five minutes. The 
maximum speed attained is about eleven miles per hour 
but the average speed is very much lowei^, not usually ex- 
ceeding six miles per hour. In spite of this fact the road 
seems to enjoy a fairly good traffic. The cars are all of 
the same type with longitudinal seats and room for forty 
passengers. The equipment of each car is two G. E. 800 
motors with type K 2 controller. Each car is equipped 
with an electric headlight. About the only novel feat- 
ure of the road is the method of furnishing the motive 
power. This is supplied by the historic falls at Tivoli, 
some fifteen miles distant from the city, the power being 
transmitted by alternating current, changed in the city 
to a direct current by Ganz rotary transformers. In or- 
der to equalize the fluctuations in load, there is located 
at the transformer station at Porta Pia, a battery of 
Tudor accumulators capable of furnishing a maximum 
current of 400 amperes. The entire transmission system 
is operated by the local electric illuminating company of 
Rome which sells the direct current to the railway com- 
pany. The line is operated by the Rome Tramways and 
Omnibus^Company and all the electrical apparatus was 
supplied by the General Electric Company. The cars 
are of Italian make. 

The results of operation of the railway are shown by 



SPECIAL THIRD RAIL GRIP BRAKE— MT. SNAEFEL RAILWAY. 

by an almost uniform grade of eight per cent. The 
gauge is 3 ft. 6 ins. The motor cars measure 35 ft. in 
length by 7 ft. 3 ins. in width, and can seat forty-eight 
passengers. They are mounted on two bogie trucks 
and are equipped with four 25 h. p. Mather & Piatt 
motors. The current is taken from the overhead wire 
by inverted U-shaped collectors, inaking sliding con- 
tact. 

An interesting feature of the line is the third rail, 
introduced for safety purposes, on account of the steep 
grades, and designed by Mr. Fell. The top of this rail, 
which is double headed and weighs sixtj^-five pounds to 
the yard, is somewhat higher than the level of the outer 
rails, and is carried on wrought steel chairs, to which it 
is bolted and which are fastened to the ties. Two pairs 
of flanged wheels bear against this rail, preventing any 
danger of derailment. 

For emergency brake purposes the device shown in 
Fig. I is employed. This is a pair of steel blocks which 
by the action of a screw can be made to grip the center 
rail as in a vise. 

The power station is, situated close to the line and 
about two and three-quarters miles from the Laxey ter- 
minus. Steam is raised by four Lancashire boilers, each 
26 ft. X 6 ft. 6 ins. diameter, working at 120 lbs. pressure, 
and capable of giving steam sufficient in all for about 
700 h. p. There are five compound horizontal engines of 
over 100 h. p. each, the cylinders being 12 and 20 X 
16 ins. stroke. Five Mather & Piatt dynamos, each of 
55 k. w. capacity, are driven from the engines by belting, 
the armature speed being put at 800 revolutions per 
minute. 

A special feature of the installation is a large accu- 
mulator station located at Laxey for equalizing the load 
on the generating stations. The Snaefel railway accu- 



94 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



mulator station contains 246 cells of a patent chloride 
type. The accumulators are charged by the spare cur- 
rent from the dvnamo when the load is light, and auto- 



London Underground Systems. 



In a just published article in Lightning the fol- 
lowing facts concerning London's traffic were 
brought out. The Central London Railway is to 
be completed by December 31, 1898; the City and 
Waterloo tunnels are nearly complete; and the City 
and South London Railway is making extensions 
at both of its present termini. The Central Lon- 




VIEWS ON THE LINE OF THE MT. SNAEFEL RAILWAY, ISLE OF MAN. 



matically distribute their energy to the line whenever 
the load rises above a certain point. 

The railway was open for public traffic in the end of 
August. 

The views on this page will give the reader an excel- 
lent idea of the picturesque scenery which can be enjoyed 
in a trip over this line. 



don Railway will have stations about half a mile apart, 
will give a 2^^ minute service, and will run (by electricity) 
at a schedule speed of about fourteen miles per hour over 
a route which is estimated to have a daily traffic between 
8 A. M. and 8 p. m. of over 225000 persons. The City and 
Waterloo Railway will carry according to present esti- 
mates about 40000 passengers per week day. 



Fehruary, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



95 




Street Railway Repair Shops. \^ y 



By Henry P. Merriam. 



Eighth Paper. — Repair Shops and Methods of Maiutenance 
of the West End Street Railway Company of Boston. 

The West End Street Railway Company, of Boston, 
presents an interesting study as regards the system of 




FIG. 1— EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL REPAIR SHOP— WEST 
END STREET RAILWAY. 



" Type K" controller is used in all cases where rheostats 
are not used. 

The above number of cars is divided among thirty- 
three car houses, of which twenty-two have pits for re- 
pair work. Five additional car houses are now in pro- 
cess of construction. These houses are located in and 
around Boston, the number of cars to each station vary- 
ing from 30 to 200. In the assignment of cars to the 
various stations it is sought to group similar equipments 
as far as possible, to the end that the workmen may be- 
come more expert in their maintenance, the necessity for 
multiplying spare parts maybe diminished and less cause 
may exist for motormen to object to the peculiarity of 
a car. The fire risk is also lessened and as the cars are 
generally housed somewhere along their particular route 
of travel, needless wear is avoided. 

After a car is equipped and sent to a particular car 
house, all repairs incident to the operation of that car 
must be done by the car house pit foreman and his work- 
men. Armatures that burn out are replaced with others 
repaired at the central shop and kept in reserve, flat or 
worn wheels are changed, and each month the motors 
are dropped from the truck and taken apart for inspec- 
tion and cleaning. 

Night work is avoided as far as possible and aside 
from the workmen required to fill grease cups and exam- 
ine brushes none is done. The system of operation is 
such that nights and mornings all cars are in service, 
while during the middle of the day a considerable part of 
the cars are in the house. In this way every third or 
fourth day each car is in the house to be carefully in- 
spected by the day man. 



operation and maintenance. The methods here 
used are the happy combination of the conserva- 
tism of successful horse car operation joined 
with the enterprise and enthusiasm characteristic 
of the present electric railway epoch. 

The West End road, as the pioneer in the 
present system of traction, has necessarily ob- 
tained much of its experience at great expense, 
but no company has been more liberal or con- 
tributed from its funds more ungrudgingly to 
the end of improving its own condition and in 
no small degree shaping the course of all railway 
engineei-ing. It is chiefly, however, with regard 
to maintenance of equipment that this article is 
concerned. 

The distinctive feature of the system of re- 
pairs and maintenance of this road is the segre- 
gation of its system among numerous depots as 
opposed to concentration, which is the charac- 
teristic method of most large railway systems. 
Cars are not housed in a few large depots but 
are kept in numerous small stations, and in these 
stations all-repairing and overhauling is attended 
to by workmen who are thus personally cog- 
nizant of the condition and peculiarities of every 
car under their charge. 

This road operates about 1750 cars, including 
both open and closed. The motor equipment consists of 
1758 General Electric motors, of which 1638 are of the 
" W. P. 50" type and 120 of the " G. E. 800" type, and 500 
Westinghouse motors, of which 420 are of the " No. 12" 
type and 80 of the " No. 1 2 A" type. The General Electric 




FIG. 2. 



-VIEW IN MACHINE AND BLACKSMITH SHOP— WEST 
END STREET RAILWAY. , 



-Workmen are apportioned to the various car houses 
in the ratio of one pit man to every four long double 
track cars or every six short cars. At each car house 
there is a forge and bench drill with the necessary tools 
for small repairs. The operation of the cars is in charge 



96 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. 2. 



of the several division superintendents, there being eight 
operating divisions in the entire system. 

The division superintendents are responsible for the 
condition of the cars jointly with the superintendent of 
repairs whose jurisdiction extends to all the car houses 
and who makes personal inspection at regular and fre- 
quent intervals. 

Any damage to a car resulting from carelessness on 
the part of motorman or conductor is chargeable to the 
party responsible, who reimburses the company for the 
expense of repair. 

The employment bureau, a special department of 
this road, is extremely critical in its inquiry about appli- 
cants for position of conductors or motormen and one of 
the results of thus securing good men is the greater care 
to avoid scratching and damage of cars along the narrow, 
crowded streets. 

When a car gets in such a condition that revarnish- 
ing, repainting or other extensive repairs are required it 
is sent to the maintenance s^iop at Bartlett Street, and 
afterwards returned to its own station. Cars are taken 
into the shop for revarnishing every twelve to fourteen 
months and are thus kept in good condition. In the 
matter of painting no uniform color prevails, but certain 
general routes are indicated by the general color of the 
car, the particular destination being shown by the lettered 
signs at the side and front. With so many different 
routes interlacing, this system has much to recommend it, 
and in spite of the obvious advantages to the company of 
uniform coloring it is probable that a number of colors 
are necessary in Boston. 

It is the practice with this road to divide its motor 
equipment during the summer months between open and 
closed cars. The long double truck cars are allowed to 
remain with two motors, but the short cars are relieved 
of one motor each, which is put under an open car. In 
this way all open and closed cars are in a condition to 
run. This is undoubtedly imposing severe work on the 
single motors, but it is the only way an equipment can be 
temporarily extended, and as a matter of fact, while the 
repairs per motor are increased, the repairs per car are 
less than when double motors are used as is the case in 
winter. When single motors are used with the " Type K " 
controller a slight change is made in the terminal con- 
nection at the resistance box, and the controller used on 
the " Series " notches. 




\ 



FIG 4— VIEW IN PAINT SHOP— WEST END STREET 
RAILWAY. 

The various items of repair expense including labor 
and material are grouped in several general divisions 
such as " Armatures and Fields," " Trolleys," " Gears and 
Pinions," "Wheels and Axles," etc., and accounts of these 
are kept for each car house. Mileage is not kept from the 
performance of each car. 

Each week supplies are distributed to each of the 
various car houses upon foreman's requisition covering 
the probable requirement for the coming week. The 
supply cars, of which there are three, are sixteen foot box 



cars fitted with motors, and fiat cars in tow are used when 
required. Spare armatures, wheels and axles, etc., are 
also sent out with the supply car and it is only in excep- 
tional cases that a second trip through the week is 
needed. All machine work of whatever character is done 
at the central repair shop, and sent to the car houses as 
such is needed. 

CENTRAL REPAIR SHOP. 

The centra] repair and equipment shop is on Albany 
Street adjoining the principal power station. The build- 



FIG. 3.— NEW MAIL CAR BUILT IN SHOPS OF WEST 
END STREET RAILWAY. 

ing was originally the locomotive shop of the Hinckley 
Locomotive Works, and the arrangement of pits, transfer 
and turntables is such as was used by that company, and 
many of the machine tools formed a part of the original 
plant. The accompanying cut (Fig. i) shows a part of 
the exterior and the arrangement of tracks, etc. 

The building is of brick, three stories in height. The 
first story has eight tracks, and the one story extension 
at the right in the picture is the brass foundry. These 
tracks extend across the building from side to side and 
accommodate two cars, each with room at center and 
ends for passageways. This arrangement is an admir- 
able one, as it permits an abundance of light from both 
sides, cars are conveniently located for the workmen and 
any car can be taken out by shifting at most one car. 
Light traveling cranes, with two hoists each, span each 
track and run on tracks suspended from the ceiling. The 
hoisting of cars is thus effected without the use of jacks 
and blocking. The remainder of the floor is taken up by 
machine tools for the heavier work, among the tools being 
two wheel borers, two hydraulic wheel presses and several 
axle lathes. Workmen are engaged on this floor in re- 
pairing and refilling rheostats, although the "Type K" 
controller is gradually supplanting these. The rheostat 
filling used is made here. 

The second floor is for the most part used as a store- 
room for all motor and electrical supplies, and it is from 
here that supplies are sent to numerous sub-stations. A 
well equipped pattern shop occupies a portion of this 
story, and the armature room is also on this floor. Here 
is done for the entire system all rewinding and repairing 
of armatures, renewing of commutators and pinions and 
rewinding of field coils. The mica collars, segments for 
refilling commutators and the armature slot insulation 
are also made in this department. 

The third floor is occupied as a machine and black- 
smith shop for the manufacture of repair parts, trucks, 
etc. A view in this room is shown (Fig. 2), taken from 
a position at one end only ; it does not, however, give a 
fair idea as to the full depth of the room. 

The work done at this shop embraces generally the 
equipment of cars, the manufacture of the various supply 
and repair parts of the electrical machinery, all armature 
work and all fitting of wheels and axles, and to some 
extent the manufacturing of trucks. Cars and trucks 




February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



97 



that are fitted out at this shop do not return here, except 
for rewiring or re-equipment or unusual work not in the 
line of maintenance. Such machine work as is required 
for power station repairs, and in some cases construc- 
tion work, is also done here. 



MAINTENANCE SHOP. 

When a car or truck is in need of repair, repainting 
Qr overhauling, beyond that which can be done at the 




FIG. 5.— SWINGING COVER FOR FUSE BOX. 



car house, it is sent to the shop at Washington and Bart- 
lett Streets. This shop was the repair shop of the Met- 
ropolitan Street Railway before the West End Company 
was formed. The building is 360 X 90 ft., three stories 
high, and 257 workmen are employed here. 

On the first floor, beside the portion used for the 
storage of lumber and supplies, there is a mill room 
where the various parts of the wood structure of a car 
are gotten out, and machines suited for this purpose are 
used. In the adjoining blacksmith shop there are twelve 
forges, one steam and one power hammer. A small ma- 
chine shop on this floor renders this shop independent of 
the central repair shop for such machine work as is 
here required. 

The second story of this building is where repairs are 
made to the car bodies, also where new cars are erected. 
Three railway mail cars of a new design have recently 
been finished here. The cut (Fig. 3) shows the external 
appearance of these cars. The interior fittings are ai - 
ranged in a convenient manner to meet the requirements 
of this service. 

The work carried on on the third floor comprises the 
cleaning and varnishing of doors, sashes and blinds, and 
the painting of signs. The amount of this latter work is 
considerable. 

The paint shop is in an adjoining building and com- 
prises two floors, each with track room for fifty-eight 




FIG. 6.— GUARD FOR TROLLEY ROPE. 



cars. On the first floor the cars requiring minor repairs 
are put in condition for the painters. Seventy-three 
painters are employed at present. 

The top floor where the painting is done is well 
adapted for this purpose, being high posted, with a mon- 
itor roof affording abundance of light and air. A view 
of this room is shown in Fig. 4. Cars are hoisted by an 
electrically operated elevator and transferred to any of 
the fourteen tracks by an electric transfer table. 



NOTES AND DETAILS OF PRACTICE. 

There are observable numerous ingenious devices 
and arrangements about the cars and shops, due to the 
co-operative efforts of the engineers and workmen of this 
company. In the matter of headlights this company is 
fitting all its cars with electric headlights in the dash. 
The reflector is about ten inches in diameter and the 
frame of the light projects forward through the dash 
about four inches. Lamps are wired to switches which 
light one end or the other as required. To provide light 
in case the current should go off tiie line, each car is fur- 
nished with a candle lantern carried under the seat. 

Fuse boxes on open cars are covered with an asbes- 
tos lined box similar to the accompanying sketch (Fig. 5). 
This device was rendered necessary by the frightening of 
passengers when a fuse was blown. The device is prac- 
tical enough to be used in other places, particularly 
where water is liable to wet the box. 

For holding the coupling link a box or pocket is 
made at one end of the car near the step, one side being 
formed by the outside platform timber. 

The trolley rope is prevented from being blown 
around to the side of the car by a guard and chafing 
piece shown in Fig. 6. 

It has been found by experiment that the life of the 
" W. P." motor brushes can be greatly increased by 
shifting the line of commutation and using a brush five- 
eighths of an inch thick. The change made consists in 
raising the brush yoke on the axle side five-eighths of an 
inch and lowering the opposite one a corresponding 
amount. 




FIG. 7.— VIEW IN EQUIPMENT ROOM— WEST END RAILWAY. 



Guards for excluding water and snow from the 
motors are made by suspending a canvas curtain from 
three-eighths of an inch iron frame made U-shaped, the 
ends being secured under the head of the case bolts. 

Gear cases are used on all motors. With " W. P. 
50" motors the gear case is held free from the axle and 
pinion supports by iron br^ackets wdiich attach to the gear 
case bolts and to the bolts uniting the two halves of the 
motor case. Cut cast steel gears are used exclusively. 
With the lubrication and protection from dust that the 
gear cases afford, their life is yet to be determined; manjr 
have now been in service three years. 

The main axle bearings are lubricated with a mixt- 
ure of grease, graphite and oil in boxes fitted with a felt 
wick. With this arrangement boxes v/ill run six to nine 
months with one filling. 

Many of the car houses are so arranged that it is im- 
possible to fill all tracks from curves leading into the 
building, and transfer tables are rendered necessary. In 
most cases, the transfer tables are equipped with electric 
motors and all shifting readily done by one man. The 
usual arrangement is that shown in the view of the paint 
shop (Fig. 4) where the motor is boxed in. 

It is a noticeable fact that the equipment of the 
West End road is universally in excellent condition and 



98 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



while later forms of motors have been put out, the " W. 
P. 50" motors are still kept in working order. The cost 
of repairs to motors has satisfactorily decreased during 
the past few years and this is the best evidence that an 
equipment is receiving proper attention. 



Conduit Electric Railways. 



By a. N. Connett. 



Notes on tJic Operation of the Nintli Street Line of t/ie Met- 
ropolitan Railroad Company, Washington, D. C. 

In the August number of the Journal the writer 
described at some length the construction of the Ninth 
Street line. A promise was then made to give data 
later on its operation. 

The first public trip was made on July 29. From 
that date the horse cars were gradually withdrawn until 
August 15, when they were all displaced by the electric 
trains. The equipment consists of an open motdr car, 
hauling in summer an open, and in winter a closed 
trailer. The weight of the summer train is 21250 lbs., 
and the winter train 20400 lbs. The number of trains in 
daily service has varied from twenty-two to twenty-six, 
the latter being the present number. The interruptions 
in service have been insignificant considering all of the 
conditions. Most of the delays have been from causes 
other than electrical, such as running into open switches, 
or derailment at the north terminus. The first serious 
delay was occasioned by a car of an intersecting cable 
road stopping too close to the crossing while an electric 
car was passing. The rope caught the plow, jamming 
the shank plates tightly into the crossing slot. This ac- 
cident has not since occurred. A short circuited plow 
stopped the line for some time one evening. The addi- 
tion of fuses in the plow leads, and of a rheostat in the 
station, has since reduced the danger of delays from this 
cause to a minimum. 

The most serious stoppage was from the burning out 
of a special insulator at a cable crossing. In designing 
the road it had been found impossible to place the regu- 
lar insulators in complicated pieces of special work with- 
out impairing the strength of the track construction 
somewhat. A special insulator bolted to the bottom 
llange of the slot rail was designed for such places. It 
had an opening between the head of the bolt which holds 
the conductor rail, and the bottom of the slot rail, and 
this opening was filled with insulating material. A joint 
opened in this insulation allowing water to reach the bolt 
head. The leak created enough heat to burn away the 
insulation and to melt the bolt. In consequence, the short 
piece of conductor rail at the crossing dropped at one 
end, allowing a plow to ride on top of the conductor rail, 
and bend the bolts of about six regular insulators. These 
had to be replaced at once. These special insulators 
will soon all be replaced by recently designed ones simi- 
lar in construction to the regular insulators, and from 
which no such trouble can possibly be anticipated. 

These ihree delays are the only ones of any moment 
which have occurred in the first five months of operation. 
But few new cable, and even trolley roads, can show a 
much better record. If the appreciation of the public is 
a reliable guide, the line is certainly giving a most ex- 
cellent service. All forms of weather have been success- 
fully encountered, except hard snow storms. Up to the 
date of this writing there has been only one light snow 
storm. It is idle to predict the effect of a hard snow on 
the operation of the line. It is no specially easy matter 
to contend with snow storms on either cable or trolley 
roads. It takes hard work and good appliances to keep 
any line open under the worst conditions of weather, and 
the management feels that the same will be true of the 
Ninth Street line. But that the line can be kept open it 
feels confident. The heaviest kind of rainfalls have 
entirely lost their terror. It has been demonstrated that 
operation does not have to be suspended by the complete 
flooding of the tubes in comparatively long stretches. 
The leak if large can be taken care of by adding another 
generator, or by reducing the voltage, by passing the cur- 
rent of the flooded circuit through a water rheostat at 



the station. With a properly designed switchboard, and 
a water rheostat, almost all of the troubles of the conduit 
can be remedied at once without affecting the operation 
of the road. 

Banks of lamps connected to each side of the circuit 
and to ground give a fair idea of the insulation of the 
line and equipment at all times. A fault in insulation on 
one side of a plow can be detected very readily with these 
lamps, by making an opening in the conductor rails and, 
reversing their polarity on each side of the opening. The 
bright lamps will become black and vice versa when the 
defective plow passes the opening. If the lamps are in 
the car barn and the opening in front of it, the faulty 
plow can be detected and changed at once. * 

On the Ninth Street line each side of each circuit is- 
tested to ground every night by the engineer. If any ab- 
normal leak is shown, it is almost invariably disposed of 
by putting a current on the circuit through the water 
rheostat. A positive short circuit while the line is in op- 
eration is handled in the same way. 

From both a structural and economic standpoint a 
conduit is limited in size. The clearances, therefore, be- 
tween the conductors and the walls of the tube must be 
small. This idea was prominent in the design of the 
Ninth Street line. Stiff conductor bars were used, and 
adjusted to a perfect line during construction; but when 
so adjusted they were fixed and capable of no movement, 
except the slight longitudinal amount necessary for ex- 
pansion and contraction. Large insulators were used for 
mechanical rather than electrical reasons. Experience has 
shown that if any error in these insulators was made it 
was on the side of excessive rather than deficient strength. 
The principle of a sliding contact on the vertical faces of 
the steel conductor rails has proven highly successful. 
There is no appreciable wear yet on the conductor rails 
from the soft cast iron shoes pressed against their faces 
by the very light springs. That the company is satisfied 
can be inferred from the fact that they are now building 
the thirteen and one-half miles of their more important 
East and West line with the same construction. 

The maintenance of sufficient insulation has always 
been regarded as the primary difficulty of an open slotted 
electric conduit; therefore, the writer feels that any 
facts bearing on this question will be of interest. It was 
soon found that the insulation of the positive side of the 
circuit was much higher than that of the negative side. 
Each of the four circuits showed the same fact. To 
demonstrate conclusively whether this result was due to 
local faults, a section of the line of about two thousand 
feet long from the station was disconnected at a cable 
crossing, and each insulator inspected. This section 
was then tested and showed the same result as before. 
Besides, this section showed an insulation resistance on 
each side of about twenty times that of the entire line of 
forty thousand feet. This seemed conclusively to prove 
that the loss was surface leakage, distributed uniformly 
over the line. It was feared that the insulation of the 
negative side would continue to depreciate. But this 
does not seem to be so. The relative difference of insu- 
lation resistance between the positive and nega- 
tive sides still continues, but their absolute values are 
fairly uniform for like conditions of the weather, and 
with no local faults. 

Some tables are given showing values of insulation 
at different times. Each of the four circuits has approxi- 
mately four miles of exposed conductors in the tubes, 
supported by fifteen hundred insulators. 



INSULATION RESISTANCE IN OHMS. 





October 17. 


November 15. 


December 6. 


Circuit 














Number. 


Posi- 


Nega- 


Posi- 


Nega- 


Posi- 


Nega- 




tive. 


tive. 

a 


tive. 


tive. 


tive. 


tive. 


I 


19,500 


770 


8,300 


400 


36,800 


1,250 


2 


16,500 


280 


5,200 


14 


25,800 


700 


3 


18,100 


670 


8,000 


480 


2g,ioo 


830 


4 


10, goo 


770 


5,200 


330 


27,600 


910 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



99 



Oct. 17 was a dry day; on Nov. 15 it rained hard all 
day; and Dec. 6 was dry and cold and there had been no 
rain for seven days. 

There was a local fault on circuit No. 2 on Nov. 15 
found in a rubber covered cable connecting the con- 
ductor bars at a cross-over. Its test is therefore of no 
comparative value. Immediately after making the tests 
of Dec. 6, the polarity of the leads on circuit No. 4 was 
reversed. The object of this was to see the effect on the 
insulation resistance. This circuit was changed back to 
its original condition on Dec. 24 after taking the test. 
The table will show the result of this experiment. 

TESTS ON CIRCUIT NO. 4. 



Date. 


Resistance. 

East 
Conductor. 


Po- 
larity. 


Resistance. 

West 
Conductor. 


Po- 
larity. 


Remarks. 


Dec. 6. . 


27,600 ohms. 


+ 


gio ohms. 




Reversed after test. 


Dec. 24. 


280 




2,500 


+ 




Ian. 9. . 


5,000 


+ 


780 " 







It should be stated that the low resistances were 
measured by readings on a special ammeter, and the high 
resistances by readings on a Weston voltmeter, up to, 
and including the tests of Dec. 6. After that, the volt- 
meter was injured, consequently the ammeter was used 
entirely. If the insulation resistance of both sides of the 
circuit should fall to 250 ohms, the daily leak would 
amount to twenty kilowatt hours, which would take ten 
cents worth of coal to produce. As a matter of fact, the 
writer does not believe that the line leak on the Ninth 
Street road averages in cost one cent per diem. 

The following table gives some idea of power and 
coal consumption. The figures for August and Septem- 
ber are omitted, because the records were not systematic- 
ally kept in the confusion of starting a new road : 



Month. 


Motor car miles. 


Trail car mi es. 


Total car miles. 


Average daily 
kilowatt hours. 


Average lbs. of 
coal used daily. 


Coal per kilo- 
watt hour. 


Coal per car 
mile. 


Watt hours per | 
car mile. | 


October .... 


9i>54i 


91,164 


182,705 


3,092 


13,343 


4-31 


2.26 


524 


November. . 


86,444 


83,638 


170,082 


3,028 


12,720 


4.20 


2. 24 


534 


December. . 


95,303 


95,303 


190,606 


3,377 


13,616 


4.03 


2.21 


549 


December i 


















to 18 








3,262 


12,477 


3-83 







The figures from Dec. i to 18 are given, because 
the station economy was affected by having to run a 
second engine and generator a part of the time after the 
latter date, on account of the heavy holiday travel. This 
affected the monthly average, as the figures show. 

The poor economy from an underloaded engine is 
well known. The following table shows it in a most 
striking way, and may be of interest : 



14 
15 
16 

17 

18 

19 
20 
21 
22 



Day of 
week. 



Saturday. . . 

Sunday 

Monday . . . . 
Tuesday. . . . 
Wednesday 
Thursday . , 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
Sunday . . . . 



20. 5 

19-75 

20.5 

20.5 

20.5 

20.5 

20. 5 

14.67 

19-75 



9- 

16.5 

14.17 

18.17 



^ o 
5 



3,605 
2,585 
3,405 

3,555 
3,590 
3,590 
3,340 
3,685 
2,700 



176 

131 
166 
173 
122 
97 
96 
112 
136 



U 



13,500 
11,400 
12,600 
13,200 
15,600 
16,800 
18,000 
17,100 
12,000 



u o 



CO cU 
O ^ 

U o 



The following table gives the operating expenses for 
November. This month is chosen because repairs of 
equipments had not reached any fair amount until then. 



The December figures would have been given also if 
they had been ready : 

Officials and clerical help % 705.16 

Car service, switchmen, car cleaners, etc 4,499.37 

Car, equipment and plow repairs, etc 1,198.12 



Motive power 
Maintenance of way, 

expense 

Light service 

Repairs to buildings. . 
Sundry expense 



luding all track and conduit 



919-53 

155-93 
74-53 
25.65 
89.17 



Total operating expenses $7,667.46 

Operating expense per car mile 4.5 cts. 

" " " " motor car mile 8.87 " 

The trail car mileage was not quite equal to the 
motor car mileage in November, therefore the expense 
per train mile cannot be given 'absolutely. The cost per 
motor car mile is sufficiently close to the train mile ex- 
pense for all practical purposes. It will be seen that the 
operating expenses are exclusive of taxes, accidents and 
insurance. Figures for these items are not available. 

The cost of motive power per motor car mile is 1.06 
cts. The cost of producing a kilowatt hour is i.oi cts. 

These figures demonstrate that so far the Ninth 
Street line is commercially successful. 



Power Dislribulion for Electric Railroads. 

By Louis Bell, Ph. D. , /' 

I. — Fundaiiiciital P rinciples. 

The distribution of electrical energy for use in pro- 
pelling railway cars is, by nature, a special problem. It 
deals with magnitudes and distances greater than are 
usual in other branches of electrical engineering, and, in 
addition, with the difficulties of a load that constantly 
shifts in amount and position. Consequently, the design 
of a distributing system is of singular difficulty. 

In computing the area of conductors, one ordinarily 
assumes the load to be the only independent variable, 
but in this case the distance of transmission must be so 
considered, and both quantities are of the most erratic 
character. 

The general equations can therefore only be solved 
within limits, except in special cases, and even then only 



FIG. l.—LINEAR SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION. 

by very judicious assumptions. It is therefore worth 
while to investigate these limits, their extent and the 
causes which impose them. 

The conducting system of an electric railway, large 
or small, consists of three somewhat distinct parts — the 
working conductor, the return circuit and the feeders. 
By the first is meant that part of the total circuit from 
which the moving contact, carried by the car, immedi- 
ately derives its current. Physically it is a wire or bar, 
uninsulated, as respects the moving contact, and sup- 
ported in any position — overhead, on the ground or under 
the ground — that circumstances may require. 

The return circuit is, in a large proportion of cases, 
that which receives current from the wheels of the car, 
and is composed, partly or wholly, of the rails. In cer- 
tain cases, conduit roads, double trolley roads and telpher 
systems, the working and return circuits are alike and 
of equal resistance. They may therefore be treated as 
part of the working circuit. The ordinary return circuit 
calls for special investigation, because it is a hetero- 
geneous conductor, unequal in resistance to the working 
conductor, and involving unusual complications. 

The feeding system in railway work serves the double 



lOO 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xir. No. 2. 



purpose of reinforcing the conductivity of tlie work- 
ing conductor and equalizing the voltage at various parts 
of the system. It therefore must be deferred as a prac- 
tical matter until the working system, which it supple- 
ments, has been considered. 

Three types of working system are common, making 
the classification according to the nature of the distribu- 
tion. 

The first class is illustrated by the linear system, 
shown in Fig. i. Ideally it is a straight line, A B, near 
some point at which the power station is generally situ- 
ated. It may be modified by bends or curves, as in A^ B^, 
A„ B^, A3 B,,, but whether it be a small tramway line along 
a single street, or a long interurban road, it retains as its 
main characteristic a single working line, not generally 
re-curved on itself, and subject throughout its length to 
fairly uniform conditions of traffic. 

The second class is illustrated by the branched type, 
represented in Fig. 2. As shown, it consists of a main 
line, A B, into which run two branches, C D and E F. The 
branched distribution is the one most commonly met 
with in electric street railways of moderate size, and may 
assume an infinite variety of forms. It is the legitimate 
result of growth from the linear type, and through all 
its modifications is noteworthy in consisting of several 
lines which are neither interlinked, although often over- 
lapping, nor subject to the same traffic conditions. Its 
conducting system is therefore essentially complex. 

Finally, we have the meshed system. Fig. 3. Ideally, 
it is, as shown, a simple network composed of parallel 
lines crossing each other at right angles and at nearly 
equal intervals, and with fairly uniform conditions. 



J" 



FIG. 2.— BRANCHED SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION. 

Practically, the various lines composing the network 
cross at all sorts of angles and intervals, and are subject 
to all sorts of conditions of traffic. All networks, how- 
ever, have this property, that they are composed of inter- 
connected lines, so that the conducting system of any 
line can reinforce, and can be reinforced by other 
systems. Fig. 4 shows that portion of the Boston network 
which lies within a mile radius from the Post Office as a 
center. It conveys an idea, better than any words, 
of the sort of network that occurs in practice. It differs 
totally from networks usually met in electric lighting, in 
that it is without any pretense of symmetry, either in 
configuration or load. 

In all large installations one is likely to find all three 
types of distribution, usually a network in the center, and 
branched and linear distribution in the outlying districts. 
In laying out the system as a whole, each type must con- 
form, as far as practicable, to its own conditions of econ- 
omy, while the general feeding system must consider 
them all. 

The starting point in any discussion of a conducting 
system for any purpose is Ohm's law in its simplest form 

C 



E 

IT 



In problems of distribution such as we are consider- 
ing, the term involving R is usually the quantity sought, 
since the current and loss of potential are generally 
known or assumed. It is therefore desirable to trans- 
form this simple equation into some form which allows 
the ready substitution of the known quantities to deter- 
mine the unknown. The resistance of any conductor 

may be written R = K -i^. In which A is the cross sec. 

A 

tion, L the length and K'a constant depending on the 



material considered and the units in which L and A are 
measured. If L is in feet and A in square inches the con- 
stant is obviously different from what it would be if L 
were taken in miles. The constant is, in practice, so 
taken that R will be in ohms when L and A are in con- 
venient units. In English-speaking countries it is usual 
to take L in feet and A in circular mils, /. e., circles y^o-g- of 
an inch in diameter. The constant connecting L in feet 



FIG. 3.— MESHED SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION 

and A in circular mils with the resistance in ohms, for 
copper wire of ordinary quality at ordinary tempera- 
tures, is II. This is approximately the resistance in ohms 
of a commercial copper wire one foot long and yJ^nr of 
an inch in diameter. The exact figure is a trifle less, but 
the ordinary contingencies of temperature, joints, etc., 
make it desirable to take 11. 

Substituting now this value of R in Ohm's Iqw it 
becomes, designating the area in circular mils, 

E 



C =- 



or, ti'ansposing. 



(0 



C. III. = 



C. III. 

1 1 



C L 



This is 
distribution. 



the fundamental equation of electrical 
It is like the original form of Ohm's law, 
strictly a linear equation, so that all the quantities are 
connected by simple proportions. Doubling E, for ex- 
ample, halves c. iii., while doubling L doubles c. in. A con- 
venient transposed form is 

/ , ^ c. m. E 

2 C = — 

II L 

which determines the current which a particular line will 
carry without exceeding a given loss, and another, 

(3) E=-^ 

C. III. 

is convenient in figuring the actual fall pf voltage. 
Throughout these equations E represents the fall in volts 
through the conductor under consideration, and L is al- 
ways the total length of the wire, /. e., double the length 
of the circuit, with a uniform return wire. For grounded 
circuits the equations give 
correct results for so much 
of the circuit as is exclu- 
sively copper — the ground- 
ed portion involves a dif- 
ferent constant and must 
be taken up as a separate 
problem. 

It is often convenient 
to have some simple ex- 
pression connecting the 
area of a wire with its 
weight, so that the latter 
may be readily taken into 
account. By a fortunate 
chance, a copper wire 1,000 
c. III. in section weighs 

almost exactly three pounds per 1,000 ft. So if, in 
equation (i), we multiply the constant by three, and 
reckon L in thousands of feet, we obtain directly the 
weight of conductor per 1,000 ft. Putting Lm for the 
length, to distinguish it from the former L reckoned in 
feet, we have 

33 C Lm 

(4) Wr.='-^^- 




4._NETW0RK OF LINES 
IN BOSTON. 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



lOI 



Thus, if we wish to transmit 100 amperes through 7,000 
ft. of conductor at a loss of 50 volts, the conductor must 



weigh 



3300X7 
50 



= 462 lbs. per 1,000 ft. The total weight 



of conductor is evidently Wm Lm.and since a simple way 
of getting the total weight, without reference to wire 
tables, is often desirable, we may re-write (4), as follows: 

which gives the total weight directly. These weight 
formulae are very easy to remember and apply, and are 
accurate to about i per cent. 

The diagrams of Plate I. put equations (i), (3), (4) 
in graphic form for ready reference. Four different 




10 15 
Distance in units of 1000 feet. 

values of E are assumed, and the unit of power is taken 
as loo amperes. The chart is therefore independent of 
the initial pressure, and serves for transmission at any 
ordinary voltage. Distances on the horizontal axis repre- 
sent length of circuit, /. e.^ half the total length of con- 
ductor. To find area or weight per t,ooo ft. of conductor 
required for a certain distance, take an ordinate at the 
required point on the distance scale and follow it up 
until it intersects the oblique line representing the as- 
sumed loss of voltage. The area of the necessary wire 
can then be read off on the left hand scale, and the weight 
per i,ooo ft. on the right. The corresponding sizes of 
the B. &. S. gauge wires are annexed to the former scale. 
In a similar way the distance for which a given wire will 
carry loo amperes at a given loss can be' found, while the 
loss for a given wire and distance can be rapidly approx- 
imated by estimating the position of the intersection of 



the area and the distance co-ordinates with reference to 
the oblique lines. By noting that the area of conductor 
varies inversely with E, one can extend the working 
range of the chart. Halving the area shown for E = 75 
gives, for instance, the area for E = 150, and so on. 

Taking up now the case of linear distribution, it has 
already been shown that the fall in voltage in any con- 
ductor is directly proportional to the load and the resist- 
ance. If, now, a uniform line, A B, Fig. 5, be loaded at 
B, the voltage evidently decreases uniformly throughout 
its length. To make the example more concrete, the 
length A B is taken as 20,000 ft., and the voltage kept 
constant at A, e. g., 500. Now, if the drop at B under the 
given load be 100 volts, a straight line drawn from C to 
D shows the state of the voltage at every point of the 
line. An ordinate erected at any point of 
A B and extended to C D shows the voltage 
of the line at the point selected, and tha 
part of the extended ordinate cut off be- 
tween C D and C F shows the loss in volts. 
If the load be transferred from B to some 
intermediate point of the line, an ordinate 
there erected will show the drop and the 
residual voltage at the new point. C E simi- 
larly shows the conditions for a terminal 
drop of 200 volts. 

The average drop is evidently half the 
maximum in each case, since the minimum 
drop is o, and the voltage varies uniformly. 

Now suppose one has to deal with a load 
moving uniformly back and forth along A B. 
If the maximum drop be 100 volts, the volt- 

1 age evidently moves uniformly along C D, 
and the average voltage is 450, since half the 

£ time the voltage is above this, and the other 
ghalf an exactly equal amount below. 
1300^ This case corresponds to a line trav- 
n ersed on a uniform schedule by a single car. 

2 Such, however, is not the usual condition of 
S things. The normal condition of an electric 
§ road of any kind is a plurality of cars. This 
^ means that current is taken from the work- 
^ ing conductor at a certain limited number 
g of points. In general, these points repre- 
£ sent approximately equal loads and, so long 

as the time table is maintained, are ap- 
proximately equidistant. In Fig. 6, the 
uniform straight conductor A B is loaded, 
not, as in Fig. 5, at one point, but at ten 
equidistant points, the loads b&ing as- 
sumed equal, as they would be quite nearly 
if each load were a car on a level track. 

Here the conditions of fall in voltage 
are radically different from the conditions 
of Fig. 5. At the power station. A, the 
full current for the entire load is supposed 
to be delivered at a uniform pressure of 
500 volts. Assume the total current to be 
200 amperes, and the resistance of each of 
. the uniform sections to be 0.05 ohm. The 
first section carries the whole 200 amperes, 
and the drop, C R, is 10 volts. The second 
section carries but 180 amperes, and the 
loss is 9 volts, and so on, until the tenth section carries 
20 amperes, and the loss has diminished to i volt. 

Mapping these successive falls of potential on Fig. 6, 
the curved line, C D, is formed, showing the consecutive 
values of the potential on A B. C E, a prolongation of 
the drop in the first section, shows the result of concen- 
trating the whole load at B. 

In such a uniformly loaded line the drop is found as 
follows; If C is the total current and there are ;/ sections 
C 

in the line, then - is the current taken off at each sec- 

tion, and is the drop due to that current, where r 

;/ 

is the resistance of each section. The drop in the first 

C C 

section from A is 10 r, in the second section 9 r 

n n 



I02 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



and so on, /. e., for the whole // sections the total drop 
must be 

(6) E=~-^;-(i + 2 + 3 n.) 

But the sum of this series of integers is well known, being 

— ^ ^ ' . Hence, substituting and reducing, we have 
2 

(7) E=^(« + i). 

This gives the total drop produced by // uniform loads 
uniformly spaced and aggregating C amperes. 

It is generally convenient to have working formulae 
give the cross section of conductor directly, since that is 
most frequently the quantity to be determined. Equa- 
tion (7) can readily be transformed for this purpose as 
follows: 

(8) R = " ^ ■ 
c. »i. 

But since the R here concerned is the total resistance, 
and not the I'esistance per section ;-, as in (7), we may 
write, 

II L 




•£ 300 



(i; 200- 



100 



Distances 



- 1000 ft. units. 



20 



B 



FIG. 5.— DIAGRAM OF LOSSES IN CONDUCTOR WITH 
LOAD AT ONE END. 



Then substituting this value of 
have 

(9) c. m. 



in (7) and reducing, we 



C L 



2 E 



This equation gives the area of conductor required for C 
amperes suppljdng a line of known length equally loaded 
at n points at any required terminal drop. 

For a larg-e number of sections approach- 

l " J 

es unity, so that, for a given current in amperes and a 
given terminal drop, the copper necessary for a uni- 
formly distributed load is one-half that required for the 
same load concentrated at the end of the line. As the 
number of sections increases, too, the likelihood of ob- 
taining a disarrangement of load sufficient to disturb the 
terminal voltage much, decreases. The effect of a uni- 
form motion of all the loads on the terminal voltage is 
small. Sq long as the schedule is uniform and is ad- 
hered to, the worst that can happen is a transformation 
of the system into half the original number of sections. 
Suppose in Fig. 6 all the load points of odd number to 
be moving to the right, and all those of even number to 
the left, at uniform speed. Then after each point had 
moved half a section, there would be five sections each 
loaded with a pair of coincident loads. Applying (7) to 
the data of Fig. 6, E = 60, assuming the sections uniform. 



As, however, the first section would be but three-fourths 
the length of the others, the real loss would be 55 as 
before. Another equal movement and the ten sections 
appear in their original relation. Another and we have 
the five sections, but with an initial section one-fourth 
the length of the others and total loss of 45 volts. Next 
would come a ten-section arrangement, but with the first 
load at A, and E = 45, and so on. The upshot is that 
while the terminal voltage oscillates through a range 
equal to the drop in the first section, the final effect on 
the average drop of uniformly moving the loads is the 
same as loading each section at the middle point or in- 
creasing n indefinitely. Hence, in a line with uniformly 
spaced and uniformly moving loads, we may assume 

Jul 1 = I in (9) and write 
n J 

, ^ 1 1 C L 

(10) c. m. — 

2 E 

or, transposing, 

L II C 
C. 111. = . 

2 E 

That is, the area of the line can be calculated for average 
terminal drop just as if the load were concentrated at its 
middle point. Hence, for all practical purposes, by 
c 




4 5 
Points on line 



8 9 10 
Street Ry. Joui iinl 



FIG. 6.. 



-DIAGRAM OF LOSSES IN CONDUCTOR WITH 
LOADS UNIFORMLY SPACED. 



making this assumption, equations (i), (4), (5) can be 
used in calculating the line. 

To keep the voltage approximately uniform over a 
linear system of distribution is comparatively easy. In 
the most favorable case, a number of uniform loads mov- 
ing uniformly, the drop is half that met in the most un- 
favorable distortion of the load, /. f., bunching at the 
end of the line. This latter condition brings the worst 
possible load upon the station, barring short circuits. 
Although long stretches of uniform conductor often 
occur in railway practice it is usual to reinforce the 
working conductor by feeders variously arranged, as will 
be shown later. Such feeders were very necessary in the 
early days when trolley wire as small as No. 4 was used, 
but now, when No. 00 is very commonly employed, elab- 
orate feeding systems are less necessary for linear work- 
ing. The most important linear distributions are likely 
to come in long interurban roads, which often demand 
special methods of feeding. Whatever these may be, the 
uniform working conductor is of sufficient importance 
in every system to warrant this discussion of its general 
properties. 

As a corollary to this general investigation, it is evi- 
dent that in dealing with any linear system such as A B, 
Fig. 6, the best point for the power station is at the mid- 
dle point of the line, since under the conditions of 
uniforrn load supposed, this point would give the small- 



Fkhruaky, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



est average drop. Since L in such case is one-half its 
value when the whole line is fed from A, the total copper 
per equation (5) is reduced to one-fourth the amount 
for the same loss. 

Considering, now, the branched type of distribution, 
shown in Fig. 2, it is best to take it up in the simplest 
available form. This, Fig. 7, shows a main line, A B D, 
with a branch, B C, which is straightened and made paral- 
lel to the main in order to more clearly show their rela- 
tions. Unless the branch is of such magnitude and posi- 
tion as to require special feeders, it is supplied with 
current from the main linear system. In a few cases the 
service on a branch is from B to C and back. More gen- 



FIG. 7. 



erally it is from C to A and back, a part of the cars being 
devoted to a through branch route. On the section A B, 
the load is the sum of those due to each line of cars. Be- 
yond B there are two independent linear systems. 

If there are ))i cars on the route A D, and // cars on 
the route A C, then the load on A B, due to both lines, 
will be 

AB AI3 
AD^ AC 

and the loads on B C and B D respectively will be 

„ BC BD 

" ==and III • 

AC AD 

Consequently, if the section A B is computed for this 
load according to (10) we shall get the proper conduc- 
tor for the assumed loss E. The lines B C and B D 
can then be computed for losses and E,. The 
values of E, E^, Eg are usually taken with the condition im- 
posed that E -f- Ej, E +Eo shall be less than a certain speci- 
fied maximum. A more general method is that of Fig. 8. 
Here there is a line, A B, with branches running to C, D, E, 
F. Theloadsare/, amperes respectively. A B, A C, 

A D, A E, A F, are now considered as separate, each subject 
to its own conditions. Taking now a drop for each line, 
according to the dictates of economy or convenience, and 
figuring the conductors from (10) with the respective 
currents, an area is found for that belonging to each line. 
Then the cross section of copper required from A to the 

first branch is \c iii\\ -f- \c w]tii + That from the 

first to the second branch is \c ///]m + [<' w]n + 

and so on. In practice the conductors would be installed 
of the nearest convenient size, neglecting small varia- 
tions of E from the calculated amount at the termini of 
the various lines. 

The same procedure applies to all sorts of independ- 
ent lines radiating and fed from a common center, whether 
or not these lines have any sections in common. 

We have thus far assumed all lines to be uniformly 
loaded all along their lengths. It often happens, how- 
ever, that for some cause a line is loaded unequally. In 




the long run, grades partially compensate themselves, 
since as many cars run down by gravity as go up by the 
expenditure of extra power, so that their effect shows 
more in the variations of power required than in the total 
amount. Not infrequently, however, from the effect of 
grades, curves or local cars in an extended system, there 
is a regular demand for extra power at some point of the 
line. This is shown in Fig. 9. Here the line A B is 
divided into ten sections, each equally loaded, except 
that at 8 the load is three times the normal. Now it has 
just been shown that a uniform distributed load is the 
same in effect as if it were concentrated at the middle 



point of tne loaded line ^that is, the electrical loads, like 
mechanical ones, act as if concentrated at their center of 
gravity. Hence we may represent the above case by 
A' B\ Fig. 9. If c be the normal load of each section, 
then a load of 10 c will be concentrated at C while a load 
of 2 r is at D. Hence, following out the principle of 
center of gravity, the system requires for a fixed value of 
terminal drop the same extra area of copper as if the 
whole load, 12 r, were concentrated at E, a point chosen 
so that 2r/'= \ ocl. The same result is reached in many 
cases more simply by figuring the normal uniform load 
as if concentrated at C, and then treating the load 2 c at 



i 



i-.^ — 



FIG. 9. 

D as if it were on a separate line, as in computing branches. 
This is the best procedure when grades and other extra 
loads are superimposed on normal and regular traffic. 

But the principle of center of gravity has another 
and a broader application. 

In any case of scattered load'the center of gravity of 
the system is the proper point from which to distribute 
the power, at least in so far as this point gives the mini- 
mum weight of copper for a given loss. For instance, 
in the line of Fig. 9, E is the point from which the power 
should be supplied, whether direct from a generator or 
from a feeder, if A^ B ^ is but a single part of a large 
system. The center of gravity of two points in a line is 
found by the ordinary balancing principle, as in Fig. 9. 
The center of gravity of any number of points in a plane 
is found by an extension of exactly the same method, as 
shown in Fig. 10. Let there be, for example, five load 
points in value respectively i, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; requii ed the cen- 
ter of gravity of the system. 

Take any two points, as 2 and 3, and find their mutual 
center of gravity, just as in Fig. 9. This will be approxi- 
mately at a point at which the whole value, (5), of the 
2-3 system may be assumed to be concentrated. Now 
find the center of gravity of this point and 5 ; this will 
be at a point at which the weight will be (10). Then 
taking I and 4, the resultant weight will be (5). Finally, 
balance these resultants and the center of gravity of the 
entire system is found at (15). The order in which the com- 
binations are made is of no consequence, since a given 
system can have but one center of gravity. Now, suppose 
the points i, 2,3,4,5, are supplied from a common source 
O through lines /j, /o, /j, Z^, /g. Referring to equation (5) 
the total weight of copper in any line as /j may be written 
W = K c /-, where K depends on the uniform drop assumed. 
For any number of load points thus connected to a centei 
O ^W = K^'(-/-. But this is directly proportional to 

r- 



^1 



>iO|(io) 

(5) \0 I 



FIG. 10. 



5\ 



/u 



FIG. 11. 



the moment of inertia, ^2 in 7^, of the loads considered as 
weights, about O as an axis. Now the moment of inertia 
of any body about any axis is composed of the sum of 
two terms, viz., first, the moment of inertia of the parts 
of the body around its center of inertia, and, second, the 
moment of inertia of the whole mass concentrated at 
its center of inertia, about the axis chosen. Therefore, 
the minimum moment of inertia for a given set of loads 
is obtained when the axis coincides with the center of 
inertia, thereby causing the second term to disappear. 
Hence the total weight of copper required for supplying, 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



at a given loss, any system of loads is a minimum when 
the system is fed from its center of gravity. And the 
penalty for disregarding this law is severe, as will pres- 
ently be shown. 



Truck and Motor Repairs. 



In the following tables will be found the various 
items in truck repairs as made at one of the leading shops 
of a large street railway corporation in the vicinity of 
New York. The individual items are separated as much 
as it was possible to do in the vouchers open to inspection. 
It would have been desirable to carry this separation to 
a greater extent, but the want of detailed itemizing has 
not yet been felt, and consequently many general man- 
agers are allowing items to be grouped which no doubt 
will be ultimately separated. 

The first table given shows the total number of re- 
pairs made upon the motor trucks from March 17 to June 
18, 1895. The total number is 568. The second column 
shows the distribution by percentages. 

The first item to attract notice by its size is that of 
wheels, seventy-five pairs having been put on, or 13 
per cent of the total. The number is the more surpris- 
ing because the road is comparatively level. There are 
no long or steep hills on the line, the service being no 
harder than that of ordinarily busy roads on an undulat- 
ing profile. 

During the time covered by the table there were 
some seventy-five pairs of wheels replaced. The cost as 
shown by the table includes some wheels and pinions, but 
even with these additions the total amounts to only 25 per 
cent of the whole cost of truck repairs. 

The repairs upon motors, armatures, commutators, 
and other portions of the electric apparatus of the car 
were much smaller than might have been anticipated. 
They are shown as a whole to be less than 8 per cent ; 
the largest single item being 5.7 for armature repairs. 
To have the smallest items take their proper places it 
would be necessary to extend the investigations over a 
whole year. Some of them are represented by much 
larger fractions than is fair, while others have no place at 
all. 







total. 




Number 


'0 


Item. 


of 


age 




Repairs. 


Percent 




21 
16 
75 
164 
156 
3 
16 






3-7 
2.8 
13.2 
28.9 
27.4 

• 5 

2.8 




Gears furnished, old and new 




General repair 


Trucks painted and cleaned 






Armature repairs, ' ' burn outs " etc 


4 

46 

5 
15 
I 


■ 7 
8.1 


Commutator and bearings 




Elliptic springs 


• -9 
2.6 
.2 


Motor bolt 


Fenders applied 


33 
4 
I 


5.8 


Axles, sprung, etc 


■ 7 
.2 


Bent channel bars 


Armature, bent shaft, etc 


3 


• 5 

■9 


Motor frame repairs 


5 






568 


100.0 



The actual cost of brake repairs shows very well and 
the cost percentage is practically the same as that ob- 
tained by_ comparing the number of repairs of each kind. 

The items of gears and pinions are so large as to at 
once attract attention. These two items form more than 
55 per cent of all the repairs made. Some of the gears 
placed in service were partly worn, but all were counted 
alike. The great number of repairs in the given time is 
accounted for by the fact that an entire new equipment 



was put on the road at one time, when the change was 
made from horses to electricity. The table covers the 
period at which a large number of repairs became neces- 
sary, owing to the fact that the whole of the new rolling 
stock went into service at nearly the same date. It, of 
course, would need renewal and attention at about the 
same time. Later on the repairs will distribute them- 
selves more equally. The proportions which the differ- 
ent repairs bear to each other, and to the total, will be 
the same, however, whether they extend over a long period 
or are compressed into a short one. 



Item. 



Brakes, including some general repairing 

Pairs of wheels, including some gears and pinions. 

Trucks " touched up "'. . ^ 

New gears, pinions, including some old gears and 

pinions replaced 

General repairs 

Trucks painted and cleaned 

Trucks shifted, charged at 40 cents each 

Armatures burnt out and other armature repairs. 
Commutators, bearings and other electrical repairs 

Motor bolt 

Bent channel bar 

Fenders, new ones put in place 

Broken motor frame and frame repairs 

Total cost of repairs of these items, March 18, 
1895, to June 17, 1895, inclusive . . . . . 





"0 


Total 


i> 




bo 




B 


Cost. 


c 




i> 




u 




<u 




CL, 


$ 90. 


1-5 


1490. 


24-5 


51- 


.8 


3601. 


59.2 


56. 


•9 


38. 


.6 


3- 


.1 


346. 


5-7 


81. 


1-3 


3- 


.1 


I. 


.0 


274. 


4-5 


52. 


•9 


$6086. 


100.0 



Fenders, as shown in the table, do not properly 
come under the head of repairs, because, at the period 
named, all cars were being equipped with new fenders, 
and these were applied whenever a car came into the 
shop. 

The second table gives the cost of making the differ- 
ent repairs. The figures include both labor and material. 
The sum total on the items named was a trifle over $6000, 
and the startling feature of the table is that 60 per cent 
of this amount is charged to gears and pinions. These 
items alone are more than double that of the wheels. 
While not separated from other repairs as carefully as 
could be wished, its great importance as compared with 
all other repairs of rolling stock is not to be doubted. 



Novel Method of Emptying a Car House in 
Case of Fire. 



The need of some method of quickly running the 
cars stored in a car house from the house in case of fire, 
is important, and has led to the adoption of various 
expedients, of which perhaps the best known is that of 
having the tracks pitched at a slight grade, so that the 
cars in case of need can be quickly run out. This in- 
volves keeping the brakes continually set, and in certain 
respects is somewhat inconvenient to . construct and use. 
A new method has recently been patented by one of the 
employes of the Detroit Railway, of Detroit, Mich., and 
is certainly ingenious in conception. The tracks are 
level, but the trolley wire running over each track, is 
furnished with a cut-out switch, located near the ex- 
terior of the building. When the cars are left for the 
night this switch is opened, leaving the trolley line dead, 
and each controller is put on the first point. In case of 
fire an employe has simply to turn the switch operat- 
ing the trolley line over the track, and the cars imme- 
diately file out at a slow rate of speed. In case the 
motors on one car are disabled, it is pushed by the one 
immediately in the rear. When these cars are safely out, 
the switch controlling the trolley line over another 
track is thrown in, and the cars on that track are 
safely removed from danger. 



FlUiKUA RV, 1 896. I 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



Street Railway Rolling Stock. 



By W. E. Partridge. 



F. — Ca/- Corners. y 

One of the weakest portions of the ordinary ch)sed 
or box street car is to be found in the corners. Where 
wood meets wood at right angles there is always a great 
difficulty in making a secure and strong joint. The 
wood is liable to split, and if the work is exposed to the 
weather there are additional influences tending to de- 
stroy the solidity. 

The peculiar curved forms necessary for the sides of 
a closed car make the strengthening of the corner a very 
difficult matter. The engravings 
which we present herewith illus- 
trate the corner fini«sh used by 
tlie Brill Company upon its stand- 
ard cars. It also shows the 
method of strengthening the cor- 
ner so that it becomes practically 
as firm and durable as any otlier 
portion of the structure. 

Fig. I shows the corner and 
end of the car " in the white," as 
it is termed. All the portions of 
wood are here in place, but the 
corner is unfinished, none of the 
defending iron work being in 
place. The principal member of 
the corner is, of course, the large 
solid piece of timber called the 
corner post, cut to fit all the re- 
quired curves. Upon this the two 
curved panels are fastened by 
screws, and on it the window 
panel, the window^ rail and the 
guard rail, with the other outside 
panels, all find a secure fastening. 
From the sill to the guard rail 
the curved panel has by reason of 
its form a joint upon the corner 
post which is peculiarly difficult 
to secure, and as this corner from 
the window down is liable to 
blows of all kinds from the ve- 
hicles in the street, it is neces- 
sary to make the construction as 
perfect as possible. 

The convex panel does not 
reach the extreme corner of the 
car. A quarter round moulding 
IG 1 —SIDE AND CORNER worked on the post itself butts 
OF CAR " IN THE WHITE." against the two panels. The point 

where workmanship of a solid 
character is most needed is at the end of the guard rail. 
In the photograph the three pieces of wood which con- 
stitute the corner at this point are shown in position be- 
fore they are finished. A tenon is made upon the end of 
the guard rail and what may be called its prolongation 
around the end of the car is fitted over it and screwed 
fast, the joints being carefully made with thick white 
lead paste. The guard rail is at an angle and the corner 
of the post is left projecting and square, so that the 
three pieces of wood have a firm bearing upon each 
other. At this point with ordinary methods of construc- 
tion great difficulty is always experienced from the 
shrinkage of the wood, the burring up of the ends of the 
wood, the entrance of water and a general disintegration 
of the joint. 

By reference to Fig. 2, it will be seen that the wood 
is finished by rounding the end of the guard rail and 
carrying its upper surface around the corner upon a 
curve, at the same time cutting away the square corner 
of the corner post, so as to make a smooth finish. To 
defend this corner, which presents the end wood of two 
different sticks to the weather, a flaring curved corner 
plate is used which comes down and meets the guard rail 
strap. This strap is made by the Brill Company in a 




single piece from door post to door post, no joints being 
tolerated. 

The concave corner, instead of being covered by two 
distinct strips of metal, as is a common practice, has a pe- 
culiarly formed angle iron piece fitted into place, and this 
is screwed fast in the post, so as to hold both the end 
and concave panel perfectly secure. Considerable work 
is necessary in this fitting, but when it is well done a 
strong and durable joint is obtained and there is no 
danger of the fastenings splitting or pulling from 
the ends. From the belt or guard rail to the window 
rail two iron mouldings are used, one covering the 
joint of the end panel and the other covering the end 
of the joint of the convex panel with the post. 
These are also set in white lead. At tlie window a belt 
cap is put on to the corner having a recess to take the 
window rail strap. This, like the belt rail strap, runs 
continuously from door to door without splice or joint. 
The advantages of this piece are, first, the protection 
which it gives to the joints between the three pieces of 
wood, and, second, the very neat and strong finish which 
it makes. The entrance of water on the corner is par- 
ticularly disastrous because with the constant working 
of the car and the tendency 
of the wood to spring and 
open, water finds its way 
into these joints with ex- 
treme facility and when it 
once gains entrance its 
work is very rapid. It 
softens the wood and al- 
lows the bolts and screws 
to lose their hold and at 
the same time it promotes 
decay, and, when the latter 
sets in, extensive repairs 
are imperative if the de- 
struction has not gone so 
far as to make them use- 
less. 

In Fig. I, at the upper 
corner of the car, it will 
be noticed that the window 
panel or letter board, the 
end panel and the water 
table are all joined to the 
head of the post. Within 
(not shown in the engrav- 
ing), the plate of the car 
has to take a bearing upon 
the post. As this post is 

the most important one in the car, and the whole 
momentum of the roof is practically resisted by it, the 
necessity for great strength and stiffness is apparent. 

In cars where the posts are too light, and, conse- 
quently, the motion of the roof is great under the sway- 
ing of the car in service, the joints between the posts and 
the letter board usually open, and when the screws are 
not sheared off they are pulled loose or split out of the 
panels. To make this corner perfectly secure, and at the 
same time to obtain a neat finish, the corner plate shown 
in Fig. 3 was designed by the Brill Company and made 
in wrought iron. It was a very difficult form to produce, 
and is turned out at the present time by what is known 
as a drawing press. The dies for this piece of work, 
although apparently quite simple in form, required a 
great deal of skill in their formation and adjustment be- 
fore they could produce a pieCe of metal of this shape 
from the flat without wrinkles or puckers. The two 
slotted holes seen in Fig. 3 are intended to take the 
brackets holding the inner ends of the hoods. This iron, 
like the others, is laid in white lead and is screwed to the 
posts, rails and plates by some fifteen large screws. In 
case of accident this iron, like that in the lower parts of 
the car corner, performs the very important function of 
preventing the wood from being battered or bruised, 
distributing the blow in such a way as to prevent local 
injury. Thus secured, the joint has little opportunity 
to work, and is perfectly protected against moisture 
and hard usage. 




FIG. 2.— CORNER PLATES FOR 
DEFENDING JOINTS. 



io6 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xir. No. 2. 



Upon the corner of the raised deck, as will be seen in 
Fig. 3, a piece of wrought iron is used to secure this 
somewhat weak joint against the entrance of moisture 
and from opening under stress. As usually built the 
raised roof is much exposed to the weather and to rack- 
ing strains, and the joints frequently open and decay 
begins in the framing. Tlie projection of the raised roof 
some distance beyond the end window is an important 
advantage. In the ordinary construction, where the roof 
stops at the end of the monitor or raised deck, much an- 
noyance is often experienced by rain beating in at the 
end window and dropping down on the seats. Indeed, so 
great a nuisance has this become that it has been pro- 
posed to make the two end sashes in the raised roof sta- 
tionary, so that when running into head winds the rain 
driving around the corner should find no opening. 

The defence of the car corner by these straps and 
corner irons is exceedingly complete and can hardly be 
improved with the present form of structure. Both wood 
and iron are used so as to take advantage of tlieir best 
qualities respectively. 

Theory is, however, of small intereot unless accom- 
panied by an object lesson. One new car is just as fine 
in appearance as another and promises to wear just as 
long. The worn out car tells a tale which compels con- 
viction, and in Fig. 4 we have an illustration which em- 
phasizes all that has been said in regai^d to the car corner. 




FIG. 3.- 



■ CORNER PLATE DEFENDING JOINT BETWEEN 
POSTS AND LETTER BOARD. 



The car represented in this engraving was built for a 
horse car and probably ran as such for some years. The 
road changed its motive power to electricity and placed 
motor trucks under the car and a trolley stand upon the 
roof. 

From bad construction, as well as hard service, the 
car soon went to pieces. Water entered at the roof cor- 
ner and kept the corner post wet. The upper corner 
went to pieces and a piece of heavy tin was nailed in 
place to protect the vv'ood and hold the parts together. 
This, however, kept out no moisture. The post decayed, 
not only at the top but at the window rail as well, and 
finally from decay gave way at that point. The heavy 
iron strap going down the post was for the purpose of 
giving strength to the corner. It extends from a point 
ten or twelve inches above the window rail to the bottom 
of the sill. 

The window rail has rotted off from the corner post 
and the lower curved panel is free from the wood of the 
frame. It should be mentioned that the panels only ex- 
tend from one window post to another. While loose in 
most cases many of them are mere decayed posts and 
rails. Probably the tenon on the corner post has rotted 
off, but this could not be known without destroying the 
car. 

In this car it was easy to trace the decay along the 
lines where the water entered and was held in contact 



with the wood. Even the sinking of the roof seemed to 
be the result of decay induced by bad workmanship rather 
than by bad design. 

It is safe to conclude that where vital points are neg- 
lected and workmanship slighted neither good material 
nor perfect design is sufficient for the production of a 
durable car for street railway service. ^ 

.^J^' ^ 

Notes on Car Construction and Repairs. ^ 

With the ordinary style of platform, shortening 
the inboard end of the platform timbers one-half in- 
creases the strain on the end sill of the car by fifty per cent. 
This does not seem possible but it is a simple question 
of leverage. The long timbers pay in the end. 

Care should be taken to have the wood at the ends 
of the guard rail on a car body always protected by paint 
and varnish. The car corner is a weak portion of a car 
body and the junction with 
the guard rail the weakest 
part of the corner. A few 
minutes work now and then 
inkeeping this part in good 
order is well spent. 

It does not pay to spoil 
a $1200 car body to save a 
$200 truck. This is a self- 
evident proposition yet it 
is disregarded by men who 
appear in other things to 
be perfectly clear-headed. 
When a truck begins to go 
to pieces and shows by its 
weakness that it is depend- 
ing on the car body instead 
of giving it support, it is 
time to choose between the 
least of two evils and sac- 
rifice the truck rather than 
the car. 

A cable road of some 
importance contributes the 
following figures in regard 
to the cost of keeping up its 
cars and grips. There are 
no trail cars in use. The 
total cost of repairing cars 
and grips for one year was 
$19600. The cost of repair- 
ing the grips was $7300. 
As this road reported a 
short time since that it had 
160 cars it will be seen that 
the repairs to each must be 
very light. It should be 
added that the road reports 
its grip repairs as twenty- 
eight per cent, of its total 
car repairs and the body 
repairs as seventy-two per 
cent. 

The following memo- 
randum of costs is taken 

from the note book of a Western street railway manager: 

Labor. Material. Total. 

Cost of repainting a 16 ft. closed car $40.70 $16.23 $56.93 

Cost of repainting a 26 ft. open car 37-40 14.61 52.01 

Cost of repainting a grip car 25.52 13.51 39-03 

Cost of .touching up and varnishing a 

16 ft. closed car 10.12 3.12 13-24 

Cost of touching up and varnishing a 

26 ft. open car 11.00 7.38 18.38 

Cost of touching up and varnishing a grip 

car 11.00 6.68 17.68 

Cost of recanvasing and painting car 

roofs 16 ft. closed cars 3.35 11. 51 14.86 

Cost of recanvasing and painting car 

roofs 26 ft. cars 3.95 12.36 16.31 

Cost of recanvasing and painting car 

roofs grip cars 3.25 Q.7o 12.95 




FIG. 4.— "READY FORSPLITTING UP. 



107 



LETTERS AND HINTS FROM PRACTICAL MEN. 



Distance Between Tracks. 



Editors Strket Railway Journal : 

We start the new year by asking you some questions 
which you will confer a great favor by answering. 

In double track work what is the least distance be- 
tween tracks — center to center — that you know of, or in 
other words, what is the least clearance between cars ? 

What is the customary distance of clearance ? 

Is this distance increased or shouldn't it be increased 
when center poles are used ? 

What is the narrowest roadway between jurves that 
you know of, when center poles are used ? 

What would you advise, side poles or center poles 
lor narrow streets with lines of shade trees on each side ? 

J. F. F. 

[It is always advisable to leave as much clearance as 
possible in order to avoid danger to persons who may be 
caught between cars. The width of cars varies so much 
between belt rails that there is nothing which may be 
called " standard practice." A good average distance be- 
tween gauge lines of inside rails is ft. where no 
center pole is used, and 6 ft. should be allowed with 
center poles. This is the distance used on Niagara Street 
in Buffalo, which has center poles. On the Broadway 
line in New York (cable system) the distance has been re- 
duced to 5 ft. An attempt was made in Newark to 
use center poles with inside rails only ^j'i ft. apart, but 
there was danger of passengers hitting heads and elbows 
against the poles and they were abolished. In Pitts- 
burgh particularly narrow cars are used and we believe 
that the distance between inside rails is, in a few in- 
stances, as low as 3 ft., but this is, of course, a de- 
cidedly unwise extreme. It is, of course, true that much 
more distance should be provided on curves than on a 
straight track. 

The general practice is toward the use of span wire 
construction wherever possible. Where there are many 
shade trees in a street, span wire construction is sometimes 
undesirable both to the public and to the company, the 
latter sometimes having difficulty in preventing leakages 
of feeders through trees to ground in wet weather. — Eds.] 



Hartford & West Hartford Railroad Company. 



Hartford, Conn., January i, 1896. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

I do not think that the question of providing strips 
for water conductors on the roofs of open cars has had 
due consideration, and that the same provisions that are 
made on steam cars are not carried out on electrical equip- 
ment. It would require but a small strip on the edge of the 
roof under the canvas to turn the water off at the ends, 
thus avoiding having the water blown into the car to the 
great annoyance of the passengers. To a tidy, neatly 
dressed conductor it is simply torture to collect fares 
with the dirty water from a car roof running down his 
back. I think the idea entirely practical and hope that 
the car builders will provide something suitable for the 
open cars which are built for use next season. 

R. L. Rand, Superintendent. 



The Effect of Improper Wheel Flanges on Hails. 



New York, January 15, 1896. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

A day of reckoning is coming to many street railway 
companies which will be a surprise and a sorrow. Street 
car wheels have for many years been bought in a more 
reckless manner than any one article purchased. It is 
not the purpose of this letter to consider the question of 
whether these wheels will last in a way to justify the 
money expended. It is not always the wheel which suf- 
fers the most. Poor wheels inflict their own retribution 



upon the purchaser. Until recently there may have been 
some excuse for the purchase of the cheapest possible 
wheel, because it was difficult to know whether the wheel 
was good or poor. Mileage records were imperfect and 
few managers were aware of the extreme differences in 
value between the poorest and the best wheels. But it 
is beyond any understanding how a rational man with 
sound mechanical ideas can buy wheels whose sections 
are entirely unfit to run upon the rails used upon his road. 
The enormities committed in this line by those who, in 
much of their mechanical work, are above unfavorable 
criticism is something past belief. There are numerous 
instances where roads having rails with grooves scarcely 
an inch in width have purchased wheels with flanges 
which entirely filled the grooves. It is a matter of com- 
mon knowledge among wheel makers everywhere, that 
managers are constantly buying wheels which, by reason 
of their shape, cannot run upon the rails of the roads 
without binding. Perhaps the first cause for complaint 
against street railway companies is to be found in the 
track itself. This is, for the most part, put down as 
though it were never intended for a wheel with a flange 
to pass over it. For reasons which in sixty years of rail- 
roading have been proved valid, all wheels are made 
with a small amount of cone for the tread. The flanges, 
on account of the necessities of manufacture, must have 
a certain thickness to obtain strength and wearing 
qualities. 

In laying track none of these things are considered. 
The rail head is placed dead level instead of being set at 
an angle to conform wdth the cone of the wheel; conse- 
quently, new wheels and new rails have a bearing sur- 
face consisting of little more than a point, possibly a line 
barely a quarter of an inch long. Under such conditions 
it is about a year, under ordinary traffic, before the 
wheel and the rail have worn themselves to conform suffi- 
ciently to obtain a rational amount of bearing surface. 
While this wearing process is destroying the compara- 
tively cheap wheel, it is also cutting away the head of 
the rail in a very rapid manner. Before the wheel and 
rail reach- a full bearing the rail has lost an appreciable 
fraction of all the metal which it can lose before it goes 
into the scrap heap. This is not useful wear because it 
must take place so rapidly, and because it is destroying 
wheels by reason of local uneven wear wdiich might be 
spread over the whole tread. 

Another injurious feature of the rail is the sharp 
corner of the head. WheeU flanges are also made of 
such shape that they sharpen this rail head until it forms 
an angle like the knife edges of a pair of scales. When 
this form is reached, the rail in turn quickly gives the 
wheel a sharp flange and then the mutual grinding 
reaches its maximum severity. 

Special work is put down without regard to the 
fact that cars with long or short wheel bases must run 
over it. Wheels are run over this special work through 
the grooves, and are constantly grinding the rails in 
the most vicious manner. The whole roadbed is suffer- 
ing because of the unsuitable form of the wheels, and in 
many cases no form of wheel could be adapted to the rail. 

Sharp flanges are a constant terror to the special 
work, and yet with the rail sections'which seem to be 
favorites, it is impossible to run wheels without making 
sharp flanges. In passing around curves, there is a use- 
less grinding of the wheels in almost every road of the 
country. That it is permitted seems unaccountable. 
That it is entirely unnecessary is a matter of easy demon- 
stration. That it should have taken place when electric 
roads first began to be laid is no vvfonder, but that it is 
allowed to continue and to destroy one of the most ex- 
pensive parts of a street railway system is unaccountable. 

A day of reckoning is coming. This replacement of 
the track at short intervals will not be tolerated by busi- 
ness men, because it will mean vastly larger repairs than 
the investment will stand. How fast this cutting of rails 
is going on can be determined with ease. Comparing 



io8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



some of the present sections of rails with the standards 
received from the rolling mills, it will be seen that there 
are many new roads on which the rail is already half 
worn out, or perhaps, to be more exact, half the wear- 
able metal in the head of the rail is already gone. The 
cost of destroying this good steel is considerable, because 
it has to be done by good cast iron wheels propelled by 
powerful and costly engines which are burning good 
coal. It is bad enough to wear out wheels uselessly. 
Perhaps there is an economy in buying poor wheels 
which will wear faster than the track. But it is difficult 
to see where there can be any excuse for such an un- 
thinking and w^asteful destruction of property as may be 
seen at almost any piece of special work in the country. 

W. E. P. 



Repair Shop Equipment. 



The following is an actual estimate made by a prom- 
inent Western street railway manager of the cost of equip- 
ping anew repair shop for his road, which operates about 



fifty horse cars, twenty-live electric motor cars, seventy- 
five cable grip cars and 150 trail cars: 

I 15 H. p. engine $200 

I 12 in. X 5 ft. engine lathe 185 

I 18 in. X 8 ft. engine lathe 340 

I 26 in. X lo ft. engine lathe 605 

I 14 in. X 8 ft. speed lathe 250 

I 50 in. upright pulley borer 1,100 

I 24 in. drill press 225 

I 32 in. drill press 375 

I 20 in. swing lever feed drill press 65 

I bolt threader to cut from ^ to ij4 ins 276 

I keysetter to cut }4 to l in. with patent keymaking 

attachment 375 

I 32 in. X 32 in. X 8 in. planer 1,200 

I 24 in. shaper 480 

I power-shear and punch combined to cut i in. X 6 ins. . 440 

I wet emery grinder with plunger pump 13 in. X 2j^. 110 

I dry emery grinder No. 7 Diamond 75 

I 150 ton hydrostatic press 756 

1 100 ton hydraulic ram 225 

I forge and blower, No. 2 Sturtevant 50 

I I ton Weston chain hoist 16 

I 2 ton Weston chain hoist 24 

I 8 ton Weston chain hoist 208 

I No. 30 Forbes pipe cutter to cut 2, '4' in. to 6 in 175 



Total $7,755 

WOOD SHOP. 

I No. mortiser and borer $370 

I No. 3 tenoner 207 

I 16 in. No. 2 buzz planer 130 

I 26 in. No. 3 shaper, 2 spindles 150 

I 24 in. surface planer 370 

I band saw 125 

I rip saw 55 



Total $1,407 



Wheel Notes. 



• It is hard to believe that there is a better material 
for street railway w^heels than chilled cast iron of the 
best qualities. From 50000 to 75000 miles have been 
made with such wheels, a record which is certainly satis- 
factory, and hardly excelled. The best brands of chilled 
iron are hardly distinguishable from fine tool steel. 

The use of a wheel gauge which shows the relative 
positions of the journals, the root of the flange on each 
wheel, as well as the gauge, measured at the back of the 
flange, shows that a surprising number of wheels are 
badly fitted upon the axles. The adoption of such a 
gauge has been known to almost put an end to broken 
flanges on a road. 

In the Milwaukee Street Railway Bulletin appear 
the following instructions to motormen: "Sand should 
never be used unless it is impossible to decrease the 
speed of the car without it, and then the operator must 
be sure that his wheels are turning. It may perhaps be 
added that it is not improper to use sand before a wheel 
when about to start if the rail be slippery, since it will 
give friction for a grip upon the rail when its revolution 



begins, but of all things do not use sand unless the 
wheels are revolving." 

The replacement of wheels is largely a business ques- 
tion. The direct expense is from $1.50 to $5.00, the actual 
figures depending largely upon the facilities and the 
number of spare cars. If it takes three or four wheels to 
make 40000 miles, the cost of replacement becomes 
greater than that of a new wheel — often very much 
greater. Moreover, the road loses not a little because of 
the rolling stock being out of service. The interest on 
the cost of the car alone is a shilling a day, and the loss 
of net income is far greater. The replacement clause in 
a wheel contract needs to be most carefully considered. 

There should always be some means for identifying 
every wheel purchased. Usually this may be done by 
calling for consecutive numbers on every wheel pur- 
chased, and stipulating that there shall be no duplicate 
numbers. Makers' names and dates are sometimes used 
for this purpose, but the method is defective. Prick 
punching dates or numbers is at times resorted to, but 
the numbers cast on the Avheel is easiest and most cor- 
rect, and has the adv^iage of being a trade practice 
long in use and well understood. Some of the best 
founders in the country have always cast consecutive 
numbers upon all the wheels they have made. 

Mr. p. H. Griffin says in a personal letter, "We 
have in the past five or six years directed our work spe- 
cially towards the production of two distinct features in 
our metal — one, the turning of the chilled surface into 
the highest possible condition of combined carbon and 
iron, which is really nothing more nor less than the ques- 
tion of an exceedingly high grade of steel — and the other 
the production of a condition in the center or unchilled 
portion of the wheel that would make it especially remark- 
able on account of its strength. As a result we have in- 
creased the hardness and resistance to wear of the chilled 
surface of our special wheels from six to eight times be- 
yond the best ordinary practice, and the strength of the 
material in the center we have been able to increase over 
one hundred per cent." 

A wheel manufacturer says, "The competition of 
wheel makers continually pressing the price per pound 
lower and lower by fractions makes it absolutely impos- 
sible for most manufacturers to supply anything but the 
most Ordinary, if not entirely improper, material in their 
wheels. There is one fact that stands above everything 
in the wheel business, not only for electric, but for steam 
railways, and that is that at. the average price paid it is 
absolutely impossible to procure anything but the most 
indifferent quality. The result is that railways may in 
the first instance buy their wheels cheap, but the 
quantity they have to purchase and the expense of main- 
taining the service make a total many times greater than 
they would have if they treated the whole question in a 
businesslike manner. They do not buy any other 
material with the expectation of getting a good quality 
for the lowest possible price, and this theory should not 
be applied to one of the most important things they have 
to purchase." 

Street railway managers who have not kept wheel 
mileage records until recently will nevertheless find it 
highly profitable to make a study of their past experi- 
ence in wheels in some such ways as indicated in the ac- 
companying table. A great many deductions can be 
made from the results shown in this table as to general 
tendencies resulting from the purchase of wheels from 
year to year from different manufacturers, although it is 
true, of course, that no accurate results can thus be ob- 
tained. 

1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Miles operated 

Cars operated 

Car mileage 

Passengers carried 

Wheels purchased 

Cost of wheels 

Shop expenses — replacing 

of wheels 

Total expense — purchase 

and repair items 



February, 1896."! STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 109 

LEGAL NOTES AND COMMENTS.* 

Edited by J. Aspinwai.i, Hojioe, Jr., and George L. Shearer, 

OK THE NEW YORK BAR. 



Insurance of Common Carriers of Passengers 
Against Liability, Arising from Their 
Negligence.* 



The insurance of persons and corporations using ma- 
chinery of all kinds, which is likely to do damage through 
the carelessness of servants or agents to life and limb, 
against the liability of such persons and corporations to 
the insured or to the relatives of the dead, is a new form 
of contract. It arose, in this country, out of the provis- 
ions in steam boiler insurance policies which, like fire in- 
surance policies, at first provided only for payment to the 
insured of indemnity for the loss of property but which 
afterwards, through the rivalry of companies to insert 
more liberal provisions, contained covenants to indem- 
nify also against liability incurred to third persons — em- 
ployes and others — by reason of personal injury and 
death caused by boiler explosion. The next step was a 
natural one. Companies were incorporated, and existing 
companies had their powers enlarged and issued policies 
indemnifying the insured against loss caused in any way 
to life and limb by the use of machinery or by the negli- 
gence of servants or agents, irrespective of the use of ma- 
chinery or boilers. 

To-day, in England and in this country, large sums 
are paid annually in premiums for this sort of insurance, 
and the legality of such policies, so far as is known, has 
not been called in question. The general rule deduced 
from all the authorities would seem to be that such con- 
tracts are valid, although some question might be raised 
where the act of negligence amounted to a crime, for 
which the insured himself might be indicted. 

To such of our readers, however, as are common 
carriers of passengers, is presented another question 
which may be an exception to the general rule asserting 
the legality of such policies. At the outset it may be 
noted that, whether such an agreement made with a com- 
mon carrier of passengers is, or is not, invalid, is a ques- 
tion not likely to arise in the ordinary course of business. 
Who would raise it ? Surely not the railroad company, 
which is seeking to recover for losses, and certainly not 
the insurance company, for if it should contest a 
policy on the ground that it had no right to issue it, 
the practical result w^ould be that it would be unable to 
write any more policie^of that class. Hence we are not 
surprised that the question has never been mooted in the 
courts until recently, although such insurance has been 
written in the United States for nearly six years. Nor 
do we find the question treated in any of the text books. 

The question has now arisen in the courts, however, 
by reason of the failure of a large insurance company, 
among whose creditors are a number of street and steam 
railroad companies; their claim for a part of the assets 
being contested by other policy holders who are not 
common carriers of passengers. 

With no precedents in the courts, the only basis of 
an argument upon this question is an examination of the 
general principles of the common law and of the adjudi- 
cated cases which are analagous although not identical. 

The Supreme Court of the United States has held 
that "the fundamental principle on which the law of 
common carriers is founded, and the great object of 
that law, is to secure the utmost care and vigilance in the 
performance of their important duties — an object essen- 
tial to the welfare of every civilized community. * * * 
In regard to passengers, the highest degree of care and 

•Communications relating to this department may be addressed to the 
editors, No. 32 jsassau Street, New York. 



diligence is expressly enacted. * * * j^^ obvious, 
therefore, that if a carrier stipulates not to be bound to 
the exercise of care and diligence, but to be at liberty to 
indulge in the contrary, he seeks to put off the essential 
duties of his employment, and to assert that he may do 
so, seems, almost, a contradiction in terms." Railroad 
Co. vs. LockinooJ, 77 JVaNace, j^y, jy'/. 

Reasoning from these fundamental principles, the 
United States Supreme Court has held, and most of the 
states have followed its reasoning, that, where a passenger 
contracts with the common carrier that he will hold the 
common carrier harmless because of any liability which it 
may incur by reason of his death or injury caused by its 
negligence, such an agreement is null and void as against 
public policy; atid, notwithstanding such agreement, the 
injured passenger may sue and recover precisely as if it 
had never existed. Any other rule, say the courts, would 
cause a relaxation of that care and diligence which is to 
be enacted on behalf of the public by the great corpora- 
tions who have received franchises from the state and 
municipality. 

The question now arises whether the same reasoning 
will apply to a case where the common carrier does not 
contract with the passenger for such immunity, but 
where it contracts with a third party — an insurance com- 
pany, for example — and an arrangem.ent is made with it 
by which the company is saved harmless in case of its 
negligence. The common carrier remains primarily 
liabl8.to the passenger, but is indemnified by the insur- 
ance company. The question is the one which, as I 
have already stated, has never been passed upon in this 
country, either by a court of original jurisdiction or last 
resort. It would seem, at first sight, that the effect of 
such a contract in causing any relaxation of diligence 
would be the same as in the case passed upon in the case 
of the Railroad Company vs. Lockuwod. 

There is a reply which might be made, to the effect 
that it is the interest of the common carrier to pay as low 
a premium in future years for such insurance as possible, 
and hence it is reasonable to expect the common carrier 
to reduce, so far as possible, the number of its accidents 
for the purpose of reducing the premium. 

But it would seem very doubtful as to whether the 
courts would consider it a foregone conclusion that the 
insurance was to be renewed in the following year, and 
even if they did they might hesitate to hold that that was 
a sufficient incentive in comparison with the incentive 
which the company would have if no such contract of in- 
surance existed. 

Another line of argument, which may be made in de- 
fense of the validity of such contracts, is based upon the 
case of the Phcnix Insurance Company vs. Erie Company, 
iiy U. S.,ji2. The Supreme Court had previously held 
that an agreement made between a common carrier of 
goods and the consignor thereof, which by it relieved it- 
self of liability for its own negligence, was void as against 
public policy, and in the Phenix case it held that, notwith- 
standing that rule and without impinging upon it, a 
common carrier of goods co\\\<^ insure against its own negli- 
gence. 

Manifestly, if the same reasons, and only the same 
reasons, which support the decisions holding that a 
common carrier of goods cannot contract against its own 
negligence, to support the proposition that common car- 
riers of passengers cannot so contract, then the same 
rule would apply to the validity of contracts of insur- 
ance in both classes of common carriers. 

But the suggestion comes, at once, to the mind of 
every reader, that there are other and additional reasons 



1 TO 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Voi,. XII. No. 2. 



against such contracts on the part of common carriers of 
passengers. The reason why a common carrier of goods 
cannot stipulate against its own negligence with the con- 
signor is clearly stated by the courts. They hold that 
a different rule would tend to increase such stipulations 
and their stringency and that these stipulations would 
be forced by the railroad company upon the consignor 
by the necessity he is under to use the railroad, and 
thus there would be in the hands of the company an 
oppressive ability to raise rates and to free itself from 
all responsibility for its negligence. But in the case of 
a common carrier of passengers there are other reasons 
why the railroad company must be held to the 
strictest accountability. Human life and limb are at 
stake, public policy demands the most stringent care, 
and, until the railroad company can indemnify the 
dead for loss of life or by money restore a lijnb, 
it is doubtful whether any court of last resort will 
hold that a company can insure against its own negli- 
gence, where life and limb are involved. The state has 
an interest in the lives of its citizens, and that inter- 
est is one of the reasons why the common carrier of pas- 
sengers is held to the exercise of the most diligent care. 
Bryan vs. Missouri R. R., J2 Missouri Appeals, 22S, 2jy. 

Where the common carrier of goods finds that the 
railroad con- pany has insured itself against loss, he has 
but little to complain of, even if such insurance has 
caused the company to be careless, for he will receive 
from the railroad company full indemnity for the loss of 
his goods, and no one can be said to be injured. But 
Avith the passenger, it may be that the courts will think 
that a different rule applies, for the injured man is not, 
even in the eye of the law, fully compensated, for he re- 
ceives a pecuniary compensation which covers only a 
part of what he has lost, and in the case of his own death 
he is not compensated at all, although certain of those 
dependent upon him will receive a portion of the damage 
sulfered by them, and that portion is generally limited 
to an arbitrary and specific amount by statute. * 

Space forbids more than the mention of a number of 
other considerations which apply to this very interesting 
question, such as, for example, the fact that in Massa- 
chusetts and one or two other states, the negligence of 
which the railroad is guilty when death results, is criminal 
and damages are recovered by a criminal procedure begin- 
ning with an indictment. Thus, if such insurance contracts 
are valid in that state, we have the startling proposition 
that a corporation can insure itself against the penalty 
which the state imposes as a punishment for crime. Per- 
haps this is stating the proposition too baldly, especially 
as the result of the action in Massachusetts is, as every- 
where else, payment to relatives of the deceased of the 
fine imposed. {Public Statutes' of Mass., Chap. 112, See. 
212.) 

Aside from the legality of such contracts, there are 
some interesting questions which arise concerning the un- 
derwriting principles applicable to them. For, under most 
policies (e. g., fire, marine, steam boiler and life insur- 
ance) a loss during the period covered by the annual pre- 
mium is an exception, and therefore the principles of 
average are applicable ; while in the case of policies in- 
suring corporations owning large consolidated interests 
in street railways, where accidents occur daily, the prac- 
tical principles of average, if applicable at all, are to be 
considered in reference to the single policy by itself with- 
out reference to others; especially, when the accidents 
are so numerous, over an extended system, as to be 
practically a fixed quantity year by year. In such 
a case it is not, as in the case of fire insurance, the 
putting apart each year of a small sum in combiriation 
with a large number of others to meet some great and 
unexpected loss, but it is a guess between the insurance 
company and the railroad company as to whether the 
future operation of the road will result in more or fewer 
accidents than in the past; and the business question is also 
involved as to whether the insurance company or the 
railroad company is best equipped to settle losses at ad- 
vantageous figures. It is upon a consideration of such 
questions and not by the ordinary rules applied by actu- 
aries in other lines of insurance that the premium to be 
paid by a common carrier of passengers is determined. 



But we are now, perhaps, outside of the domain of the 
legal department of a street railway journal, and we 
will therefore close with the citations of a few additional 
leading cases which discuss some of the fundamental 
principles, upon which the arguments for, and against, the 
legal proposition I have discussed may heiound iii extenso. 
{Liverpool Steam Co. vs. Pheuix Ins. Co., i2g U. S., 3Q7 ; 
Hartford F. Ins. Co. vs. CJii., M. 6- St. P. R.R., 70 Fed., 201; 
Maslin vs. R. R., 14 West Va., 1 80; Kinney vs. Central R. R., 
5 Vroom, ^ij ; Roan vs. Midland R. R., 46 L. R. Ir., 15?; 
Penn. R. R. vs. Henderson, §1 P'enn., ji^J Cleveland R. R. 
vs. Cur ran, ig Ohio State, i; B. 6-' O. R. R. vs. Brady, 32 
Md., 33; Buell V. N. V. C. R. R., 23 N. V., 442; Stinson vs. 
N. Y. C. R. R., 32 JV. v., 333, 337.) H. 

LIABILITY FOR NEGLIGENCE. 

Nf.w York. — In an action for injuries sustained by being knocked 
down by a cable car at a street crossing, it is error to charge that the 
failure of the gripman to warn crossing pedestrians was of itself 
sufficient to render the company liable. — (Schulman v. Houston &c. 
R. R., 15 Misc. 30.) 

Calu-orn'ia. — Where plaintiff was standing between street rail- 
way tracks, awaiting an approaching car, and, without looking, 
stepped backward upon the other track,' within ten or fifteen feet of a 
car going in the opposite direction, she was guilty of contributory 
negligence, as a matter of law. — (Bailey v. Market St. Ry., 42 Pac. 
Rep. 914.) 

Montana. — In an action for injuries by a collision between 
street cars, a charge that, if plaintiff was not guilty of contributor)' 
negligence, the collision cast on defendant the burden of showing 
absence of negligence, held proper. — (Hamilton v. Great Falls St. 
Ry. Co., 42 Pac. Rep. 860.) 

EXCESSIVE DAMAGES. 

California. — Code Civ. Proc, § 377, provides that, in an action 
for the death of an adult by wrongful act, " such damages may be 
given as under all the circumstances may be just." Held, that in an 
action by a husband, personally and as guardian of his two minor 
children, about twelve years old, against a street car company, for 
death of his wife, a verdict of $14,000 will not be set aside as exces- 
sive where it appears that the expectation of life of the deceased was 
31.8, and of the husband 29.62 years, and that the wife was highly 
educated and competent to instruct the children, and was a devoted 
mother and wife, and an excellent housekeeper. — (Redfield v. Oak- 
land St. Ry., 42 Pac. Rep. 822.) 

Montana. — In an action for injuries to a passenger, there was 
evidence that she was injured in her back and side, and suffered 
from nervous prostration, but that such injuries were curable; that 
she suffered a slight displacement of the womb, but that such in- 
jury was much less painful than at first, and was also curable; and 
that other internal injuries would be relieved after it had been cured. 
Held, that a verdict of $20,000 was excessive. — (Hamilton v. Great 
Falls St. Ry., 42 Pac. Rep. 860.) 

North Carolina. — In a case where the plaintiff sued to recover 
damages caused by his team taking fright at a trolley car, 
the Court say : " The plaintiff voluntarily exposed himself, his 
buggy, and his mule to the risk of any accident which might be 
caused by the animal's taking fright at the usual noise incident to 
running a street car by electricity, there being no testimony tending 
to show that the motorman wantonly or maliciously made unneces- 
sary noise for the purpose of scaring the animal. Where a horse is 
being driven or is running uncontrolled ^long a highway parallel to a 
railway of any kind, though it give unmistakable evidence by its 
movements that it is alarmed at an approaching train or car, the en- 
gineer or motorman in charge is not negligent in failing to diminish 
the speed, unless the animal is actually on the track, in his front, or 
he has reasonable ground to believe that in its excited state it is 
about to go or may go upon it, so as to cause a collision. People 
who pay their money in the reasonable expectation of being carried 
expeditiously are not to be delayed by every person who ventures to 
test the nerve of a horse or a mule by driving it along the same street 
on which a company runs its street cars by electricity." — (Doster v. 
Charlotte St. Ry., 23 S. E. Rep. 449.) 

New York. — A verdict for. $1500 is not excessive where it ap- 
pears that plaintiff was under medical treatment for several months,' 
that he suffered from headaches and stomach and liver troubles and 
that he may permanently feel the effects of his injury. — (Ferguson v. 
Ehret, 35 N. Y. Supp. 1020.) 

New York.' — Where tlie plaintiff had a rib broken, causing a 
bloody tumor, and pleurisy, incapacitating him for work for a year, 
with probable permanent ill effects therefrom, and his time is proved 
to be worth $4 or §5 a day, a verdict for $3200 will not be held ex- 
cessive. — (Wynne v. Atlantic Ave. Ry., 35 N. Y. Supp. 1034.) 

New York. — A verdict for $4000 for injuries sustained, consist- 
ing of permanent paralysis of the shoulder muscle, impairing the 
lifting power of the arm, and permanent spinal curvature, is not ex- 
cessive. — (Degnan v. Brooklyn City R. R., 35 N. Y. Supp. 1047.) 

New York. — Plaintiff's intestate, while standing on the front 
platform of one of defendant's cars, was hurled over the dashboard by a 
violent jerk of the car. A passenger testified that he had experienced 
a jerk as if the driver had put on the brake and let it off, or as if 
there was a rock on the track. There were unoccupied seats inside 
the car, the tracks were icy and it was snowing steadily. Held — 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



I I r 



that there was no evidence of defendant's negligence and that the 
decedent was guilty of contributory negligence. — (Bradley v. 2nd 
Ave. R. R., 35 N. Y. Supp. 918.) 

STATUTORY POWERS— CHARTERS— ORDINANCES. 

Pennsylvania. — Where the charter of a street car company re- 
quires it to keep the street occupied by it in good repair at its ex- 
pense, the fact that at the time the charter was granted a part of a 
certain street afterwards occupied by the company was required to 
be kept in repair by other parties who had privileges thereon does 
not prevent the duty of keeping in repair becoming incumbent on the 
company. 

The charter of a company provided that it should be " compelled 
to keep in constant repair that portion of the street which it uses and 
occupies and be subject to such ordinances of council as relate there- 
to ;" and the city ordinance provided that all street car companies 
should be at the entire cost and expense of maintaining, paving, and 
repaving that may be necessary on any street occupied by them. 
Held, that such company was bound to keep in repair not only the 
portion of the street occupied by it, but the whole street, from curb 
to curb. 

Where the charter and city ordinances required it to repair and 
repave streets occupied by it, such duty extends to the replacement 
of an old pavement by a new one of a different and improved kind, 
ordered by the city. — (City of Phila. v. 13th & 15th Sts. Ry., 33 At. 
Rep. i26.) 

New York. — The procurement of a certificate of necessity from 
the railroad commissioners, as prescribed by §59 of the I^ailroad 
Law, is not a prerequisite to an application by a street railway com- 
pany for municipal consent to use the streets and to the publication 
of notice of a public hearing in relation to such application. — (Mc- 
Williams v. Jewett, 14 Misc. 491.) 

MANDAMUS. 

New York. — Where a street car company, because of its ina- 
bility to get employes to accept its terms, has stopped part of its 
cars, to ihe detriment of the public, mandamus lies to compel it to 
resume full operation of its liaes. An application for mandamus to 
compel a street car company to run its cars may be made' by any 
citizen of the city in which the road is located. The number of cars 
to be run by a street car company is a matter within the discretion 
of the directors, subject to the power of the courts to compel them 
by mandamus to increase the number whenever public convenience 
may require it. — ^Loader v. Brooklyn Heights Ry., 35 N. Y. Supp. 
996.) 

VALIDITY OF CONTRACT EXEMPTING FROM NEGLIGENCE. 

United States Circuit Court. A condition in a lease, by a 
railway company, of a portion of its right of way, that it 
shall not be liable to the lessee for any damage to any buildings or 
personal property thereon, caused by fire set by its locomotives, or 
by the negligence of its officers or servants is not in violation of pub- 
lic policy and is valid. (Hartford Fire Ins. Co. v. C, M. & St. P. Ry . , 
70 Fed. Rep. 201.) 



Book Reviews. 



Electrical Law of the State of New York (with notes), by Wendell 
V. R. Barnard. Banks & Bros., New York and Albany, 
1895. 

This monograph is a timely one, and is possessed of consider- 
able, though transitory value, both to the busy practitioner in New 
York and to the officers of electric street railways. Some three hun- 
dred cases are cited by the author, and no less than sixty statutes of 
New York. 

The writer is something more than a compiler, and seems to 
have a keen appreciation of the difference between leading cases and 
others of less importance. The cases which he reviews are well se- 
lected from the mass of decisions which he cites. The pages of the 
volume which relate to the electric street railway are comparatively 
few in number but they contain the main principles of law which 
have been enunciated thus far by the New York courts, and which 
form the germ and core of what is to be the law of the electric street 
railway in this state, and so are of value. 

The subject of negligence is touched upon by the author, but so 
inadequately that the treatment is necessarily uneven. For example, 
under section ninety-four, there is:a discussion of " culpable negli- 
gence." Why the negligence there referred to is more " culpable " 
than other negligence, the author does not state and I cannot 
guess. Under this section he states a number of exceptions to the 
general law of contributory negligence. . They do not seem to have 
any connection with the subject he -is discussing and they contain 
some very doubtful propositions, and are given without the citation 
of any authority to support th^r very nice distinctions. The ab- 
sence of any comprehensive discussion oi the law of contributory 
negligence makes this page of the work the more inappropriate 
and foreign to its principal aim. 

The book is to be commended for its conciseness and for the 
condensation into a few words of great leading principles, but these 
excellencies have been carried to such an extent as to become al- 
most defects. It may be said to be more luminous than voluminous, 
and perhaps it would be better for all of us if more of the law treat- 
ises recently published merited a similar description. 

The typographical excellence of its 172 pages is what can always 
be expected from the well-l;nown publishers of the work. 



Some Decisions in Railway AccountinjL*; Methods. 



Mr. Henry C. Adams, statistician of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, has recently issued a series of 
" Questions and Answers," which have been passed upon 
by a committee selected by the National Association of 
Railway Accountants. These decisions have been ap- 
proved by the Interstate Commerce Commission. Such 
of them as have a bearing upon street railway accounting 
are given herewith. 

Q. To what account should be charged wages, board, and 
expenses of non-employes, witnesses in " l^oss and damage " and 
" Injuries to persons " cases? 

A. Wages, board, and expenses of non-employes engaged as 
witnesses in the settlement of "Loss and damage " and " Injuries 
to persons " suits are properly chargeable to Conducting Transporta- 
tion, account No. 35, " Loss and damage," or to account No. 36, 
" Injuries to persons," as the case may be. 

Q. To what account should be charged expenses of litigation 
growing out of land damage and suits involving title to real estate ? 

A. All expenses of this nature should be charged to General 
Expenses, account No. 51, " Law expenses," except where properly 
chargeable to construction. 

Q. Should the salary of Assistant General Counsel, whose time 
is given exclusively to the business of the company, be charged to 
account No. 47, " Salaries of general officers " ? 

A. The salary of Assistant General Counsel or Assistant Gen- 
eral Solicitor (whatever the title of the assistant to the head of the 
legal department maybe) is chargeable to General Expenses, account 
No. 47, "Salaries of general officers." 

Q. The A and B railway uses jointly with the C and D railway 
thirteen miles of track, the former paying for the privilege on basis 
of valuation. The agents, operators, etc., are joint employes of 
the two roads, and are paid by the C and D railway, which road 
renders bill to the A and B railway for its proportion of their sal- 
aries. To what accounts should these expenses be charged, and how 
should the C and D railway credit the amount received from the A 
and B railway? 

A. The payments made by the A and B railway to the C and D 
railway for use of the thirteen miles of track should be charged to 
Conducting Transportation, account No. 43, " Rents for tracks, 
yards and terminals," and the salaries of the joint employes as fol- 
lows: Agents, to Conducting Transportation, account No. 30, 
" Station service;" operators, to Conducting Transportation, account 
No. 29, " Telegraph expenses," and so on according to the character 
of the service performed. 

The C and D railway should credit the whole amount received 
for the use of the track in question to Miscellaneous Earnings, and 
report it, as "Rents received from lease of tracks and terminals." 

The several accounts charged with the amounts paid by the C 
and D railway to the agents, operators, etc., who are joint employes 
of the two companies, should be credited with the proportions pay- 
able by the A and B railway. 

O. To what account should be charged repairs to bridges over 
railroads or to carry them over us? 

A. Any repairs or renewals to a bridge built by a railroad com- 
pany to carry its tracks over any stream, road, street, or other rail- 
road, should be charged to Maintenance of Way and Structures, ac- 
count No. 4, " Repairs and renewals of bridges and culverts." 

A bridge built to carry any highway or track of another railroad 
over its own roadbed, should be considered as an overhead bridge, 
and any repairs or renewals to such bridge should be charged to 
Maintenance of Way and Structures, account No. 5, "Repairs and 
renewals of fences, road crossings, signs, and cattle guards." 

Q. To what account should the wages of passenger car cleaners 
be cfiarged ? 

A. The wages of all passenger and freight car cleaners are 
chargeable to Conducting Transportation, account No. 27, " Train 
supplies and expenses." 

Q. To what account should the wages of employes engaged in 
oiling cars be charged ? 

A. Wages of car oilers are properly chargeable to Conducting 
Transportation, account No. 27, " Train supplies and expenses." 

Q. To what account should the rent of general offices be 
charged ? 

A. Rent of general offices should be charged to Conducting Trans- 
portation, account No. 44, " Rents of buildings and other property," 
which provides for " payments for rent of buildings and other 
property" (including offices) when such property is used in connec- 
tion with the operations of the road. 

Q. To what account should the wages of a traveling engineer, 
whose duties are to instruct engineers in the handling of locomotives, 
be charged ? 

A. The wages of a traveling engineer, whose duties are to in- 
struct engineers in the handling of locomotives, should be charged to 
Conducting Transportation, account No. 21, " Engine and round- 
house men." 

Q. Should'account No. 34, " Hire of equipment," be construed 
as requiring all payments made for use of equipment (other than 
" Car mileage — balance ") to be charged to this account, or only the 
net balance paid ? 

A. Account No. 34 should represent only the net balance paid 
for use of equipment, other than that accounted for under Conducting 
Transportation, account No. 33, the same as if the title of the account 
read " Hire of equipment — balance." 



112 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Voi,. XII. No. 2. 




I^lSBRTJ Alt Y, 1896. 



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EDITORIAL NOTICE. 

Papers and coyrcspondcnce on all subjects of practical 
interest to our readers are cor dial I v ini'ited. Our columns are 
always open for 1 lie discussion of problems of operation , 
construction, engineerin s^' f nance and indention. 

Special effort 7vill be made to ansiver promptly, and 
without c/iarge. any reasonable request for information w/iic/i 
may be received from our readers and advertisers, answers 
being given through the columns of the JouR^AL whe/i of 
getter al interest, ot/icrwise bv letter. 

Street railway news and all information regarding 
changes of officers, new equipment , extensions, fi nancial changes, 
etc., will be greatly appreciated for use in our Directory, our 
Financial Supplement, or our news columns. 

.Ill matters intended for publication in the current issues 
must be received at our office not later than the twenty-fifth of 
eac/i month. 

Address all communications to 

The Street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt St., New York. 

IT is time that some one, thoroughly competent to 
undertake the task, should enter upon a series of cal- 
culations and experiments to determine the best chemical 
composition for street railway rails. The conditions are, 
of course, entirely different -from those of railroad traffic. 
In the one case we have comparatively light loads travel- 
ing at moderate speeds, with great frequency and with 
many stops within short distances. In the other case, we 
have heavy loads traveling at much longer intervals, at 
high and low speeds, with infrequent stops. Examination 
of some of our street railway track shows in some places 
not a little "squashing," or "anvil action" at the joints. 
Does not this mean that a larger percentage of carbon 
should have been put into these rails to increase their 
hardness? Or, are the sections of girder rails in most 
common use such as to make it impossible to use as much 
carbon as is specified for the thicker and " stockier" rail- 
road tees? What is most certainly true, is, first, that 
railway managers ought to know from careful tests what 



should be the composition of the iron which they buy in 
such enormous quantities, and second, that street railway 
rail consignments should be tested as carefully as is al- 
ways done with railroad rails. 



WHAT are we coming to in this craze for new fran- 
chises at any price and under any conditions ? 
There seems to be no limit to the concessions made by 
street railway promoters and syndicates in contracting 
with city corporations. This month comes the announce- 
ment of the granting of a franchise in one of our large 
cities, which goes to greater lengths in the direction of 
C(mcessions to the city than any we have so far seen. 
The new company is to come into competition with one 
operating a widely ramified system which is giving an 
excellent service. Its system is to be about sixty-five 
miles in extent. What practically amounts to a four 
cent cash fare is granted, and tickets are to be sold at 
the rate of three for ten cents with universal transfer 
rights over the entire new system. It is also provided 
that the company must be willing to enter into arrange- 
ments at any time with the old company, operating about 
145 miles of track, for a general transfer arrangement by 
which these low fares may be divided equally between 
the two companies, thus making it possible that the 
future may bring to a resident of this highly favored 
city the right to ride at the rate of two and a half mills 
per mile ! Cheap transportation, indeed! Marvelous 
are the accomplishments of electricity ! Another of the 
terms of this remarkable franchise is that only citizens 
of the United States and actual residents of the particu- 
lar city in question shall be employed by the company 
or its contractors in any department of construction, op- 
eration and maintenance. What would happen in this 
city if the company's employes should strike ? Is not 
such a condition in the franchise an actual incentive to 
strikes on the part of men who know that they have their 
employers at their mercy ? Again, an older street railway 
franchise in another city contained a provision that after 
the initial electrical construction period was over, all 
further supplies and material needed in the construction 
and operation of the road must be manufactured within 
the city itself and by residents of the city. Such clauses 
as these are unreasonable and are sure to make trouble 
in one way or another, and permanent investors should 
be very careful about placing their money in channels 
where contingent losses are so easily possible. 



CHICAGO has a "Three Cent Fare Association," which 
has a so-called " Educational Department " whose 
function is presumably to furnish statistics and arguments 
based thereon to the public press. This "Educational 
Department " has a curious and original way of forming 
its conclusions and presenting its arguments, as will be 
seen from its public remarks on the just published oper- 
ating figures of the three great Chicago companies. These 
remarks read as follows : 

" Taking the accounts as furnished by the combine 
officers it shows the net earnings are thirty per cent of the 
gross receipts, or otherwise stated, thirty per cent of every 
nickel collected is profit. Thus their books show it costs 
three and one-half cents to carry each passenger, the 
profit on which is one and one-half cents, or forty-three 
per cent added to the cost. Conceding the combine 
should be allowed its alleged three and one-half cents of 
cost, with seven per cent added for profit, the cost to the 
people would then be three and three-quarter cents each 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



113 



ride, or an equivalent of sev^n rides for twenty-five cents. 
Should not a general ordinance be passed regulating the 
rate of street car fares ?" 

What a commentary this is on the ignorance and 
utter fallacy which often lie behind these demagogical 
arguments intended to excite public feeling against street 
railway corporations. It is almost unbelievable that the 
responsible head of any public organization of this char- 
acter should so confound the idea of a "profit," or a mar- 
gin above operating costs, with "interest upon invest- 
ment," and yet it is not improbable that some unintelli- 
gible or careless public sentiment is manufactured by 
stuff like this. 



HOW should wheels be purchased ? What specifica- 
tions can be laid down to the makers ? What are 
the net results of the recommendations from practical 
men, which have appeared in our columns during the 
past twelve months on the subject of street railway 
wheels? To answer these questions with absolute cer- 
tainty is impossible, because of the prehistoric times in 
which we are living in street railway wheel matters. A 
large number of roads have started systems of record 
keeping, but their results are not yet available, as time 
is necessary to produce results. Still, advice can be given 
on certain questions which have been solved with some 
definiteness. In the first place, the counsel of the best 
and most experienced wheel maker known to the pur- 
chaser should be consulted as to the character and dimen- 
sions of flange and tread suited to the sections of rail in 
use on his road. It cannot be too strongly insisted upon 
that the rails, the special work and the wheels should go 
together — should be suited to each other — so that sharp 
flanging and undue "tool work " on either wheel or rail 
should be avoided, and, moreover, it is certain that a 
wheel maker's experience is almost necessarily more val- 
uable than that of any individual, since the former has 
studied all street railway questions from the wheel point 
of view, and has therefore become the most valuable 
kind of a "crank" — an intelligent crank. 

^ ^ ^ iit 

The wheel maker will doubtless sa}', among other 
things, that the side of the wheel flange next to the rail 
should be inclined at an angle of about thirty-five degrees 
from the vertical, and that the rail head when new should 
fit the wheel, if sharp flanges are to be avoided. He will 
also tell you that no amount of fitting of wheels to a half 
worn and badly worn rail will accomplish good results, nor 
can such results be obtained unless the track is perfectly 
gauged and unless wheels are pressed to accurate gauge, 
not necessai'ily that of the track, but especially suited to 
the track. The determination of the weight of wheel 
should next be made, and from all the experience avail- 
able, it may be considered certain that the weights should 
not be less than 325 lbs. for a thirty-three inch wheel de- 
signed for ordinary service. Light wheels mean acci- 
dents, and a single accident may mean a hundred times 
the entire annual wheel bill. It may be safely said that 
results from the use of the best quality of wheels in elec- 
tric service weighing 325 lbs. to 350 lbs. show that break- 
age is entirely avoidable. 

t}: ^ ^ ^ 

After deciding, therefore, upon the weight and the 
proper shape of the flange and tread the remaining prob- 
lems are those of iron mixture, strength and chill. Speci- 
fications of mixtures are worthless. The wheel rnaker 



knows what he is about. The purchaser has simply to do 
with results. He may specify that one wheel in every 
hundred shall be tested for strength in much the same 
way that railroad wheels have been tested along the lines 
of the Master Car Builders' standard, but it should be 
noted that it has been found in railroad practice easy to 
make wheels which shall stand these breakage tests but 
which are not, by any means, good wearing wheels, and 
few railroad companies, other than the Pennsylvania 
Company, now test wheels in this way, nearly all hav- 
ing returned to a guarantee and to dependence on the 
manufacturer from whom they buy wheels. The depth of 
chill, as shown by the broken portions of the wheel tested, 
should never be less than three-quarters of an inch, and 
one inch chills should be required, as the service on elec- 
tric railroads is much harder upon wheels than with 
steam roads. Finally, it should be specified that the 
wheels shall be of uniform circumference within one- 
quarter of an inch, and of uniform diameter (for un- 
ground wheels) within one-sixteenth of an inch, and all 
wheels should be rejected which do not comply with 
specifications. 

^ ^ ^ :Jj 

If the simple specifications outlined above are car- 
ried out, if a guaranteed life of at least 40000 miles 
for each and every wheel is demanded of the manufac- 
turer, if flatting of wheels is made an offence leading to 
prompt suspension of motorman, and if careful wheel rec- 
ords are kept, the standard of street railway car wheels will 
be immeasurably raised, and the pariahs of the industry 
— the manufacturers who make a poor and imper- 
fect wheel, from any kind of metal obtainable, at al- 
most the cost of pig iron — will be driven out of the 
field. One or two of our best manufacturers have re- 
cently produced combinations of carbon and iron for 
street railway wheels which are such that it is exceed- 
ingly difficult to determine from microscopic examina- 
tion or from analysis whether they are iron or steel. In 
fact, some specimens of chilled iron have been produced 
which can hardly, upon the closest examination, be de- 
tected from Muschet steel, which is one of the highest 
grades of steel in the world, and is sold at about fifty cents 
per pound. Is not such work as this worth encourag- 
ing in places where the use of good material means the 
saving to a road of thousands of dollars in avoidance of 
accidents and loss of car service ? 



THE extension of city electric railways to suburban 
towns has been naturally followed by the construc- 
tion of electric lines for an exclusively interurban busi- 
ness. This enlargement of the field of electric railroad- 
ing has been so logical and gradual that it is difficult to 
draw a definite line between what should be regarded as 
interurban and what city lines, and most roads partake 
of both characters. Two points are of special interest to 
notice as regards the construction and traffic of these 
lines. In the first place, they have all been new enterprises, 
and have been designed and built as electric railways. 
There has been, as yet, no transformation of existing 
steam railways to electric lines, or even their partial 
equipment for suburban work, as was once freely pre- 
dicted, though in most cases the towns connected by 
electric interurban roads were already joined by a steam 
road. In other words, the development has been an elec- 
tric extension, not an adaptation of existing methods. 
The second interesting point is that the electric railways 



114 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



are occupying a somewhat different field from their steam 
competitors, and in the case of parallel lines, do not nec- 
essarily greatly diminish the steam railway traffic while 
creating a considerable amount for themselves. They 
correspond more to the " light railways " of Europe,' car- 
rying passengers at low fares and at a moderate rate of 
speed, largely on highways, though often through a spe- 
cial right of way. Whether steam or electricity is more 
economical for this service is a question entirely of loads 
carried and train frequency. In track construction, and 
also in type of cars used, steam railway practice is being 
largely followed, except that steeper grades and curves 
of shorter radius are possible ; and so far there has been 
no departure from the ordinary 500 volt pressure, except 
a slight increase in some cases to cover long distances. 
The only novel electrical features introduced beyond 
mere increase of capacity, strength of apparatus and 
speed of motors have been, in instances, the avoidance 
so far as it could be done of overhead switches, 
by the use of two trolley wires on a single track road 
with turn-outs, and a special effort to reduce as much as 
possible at the points of trolley wire suspension any re- 
sistance to the smooth running of the trolley wheel. 



THE transportation of light freight and express 
matter promises to comprise an important portion 
of the traffic of the growing number of electric interurban 
systems. Those companies which have taken this up to 
any extent report themselves as more than satisfied with 
the results, and the possibilities in this line seem to be 
very large. It is reported that the systems about Cleve- 
land, all of which are under one management, are seeking 
entrance to that city on their own tracks with the privi- 
lege of hauling freight cars, produce, etc., between the 
hours of I A. M. and 5 a. m. If this should be granted it 
will mean a radical change in the methods of handling 
freight within a city. There seems no reason why such 
a request should not be granted, and every reason why 
permission should be given. The present method of trans- 
porting merchandise and freight in city streets by heavy 
drays driven over rough pavements is wasteful of power, 
destructive to both pavement and vehicle, and objection- 
able by reason of the noise inseparable from such service. 
Transfer this transportation to smooth rails and an 
economy is effected at the same time that a nuisance is 
abated. The public will be better pleased because the 
methods used are quieter, the merchant because they are 
cheaper, and the taxpayer because the renewal of the 
pavements need not be so frequent. We believe that it 
will not be long before a large part, if not the greater 
part of the intramural freight transportation of many of 
our cities will be over rails and by the use of electric 
power. 



THE expense of equipping steam and electric grade 
crossings with safety devices is one which should be 
borne by the steam railway companies. It is they who 
have introduced the danger element, and they must be 
compelled to guard their trains and the public as well 
with every safeguard which experience has shown to be 
of value. The effort being made in certain localities to 
impose this duty on the electric railway companies will 
not, we believe, be upheld in legal actions arising from 
accidents at such points. The legal status of the electric 
street railway is now pretty clearly understood. The 
transportation which it affords is in harmony with the 



original purpose to which the highway was dedicated. 
So long, therefore, as its cars are not run at an extreme 
rate of speed, or in other ways so as to interfere with 
the reasonable use of the highway by pedestrians or other 
vehicles, its cars should have the same rights and privi- 
leges as other users, and these include protection against 
high speed trains crossing the highway. 



New York Stale Street Railway Association. 



A special meeting of the Association was held at the 
office of the Metropolitan Traction Company, of New 
York, on January 14. The meeting was called for the 
purpose of acting upon proposed amendments to the 
Constitution and By-Laws designed to place the Associa- 
tion on a firm financial and sound business basis and to 
provide an income sufficient to defray legitimate and nec- 
essary expenses. The schedule embodied in the proposed 
amendments was recommended by the Executive Com- 
mittee, after a careful deliberation, as the most available 
means and equitable basis for raising the necessary sums, 
and, upon motion, the amendments to the By-Laws were 
adopted as follows : 

Article II. was amended by the addition of a clause 
reading 

" In the event of a vacancy during the year in the 
board of elected members of the Executive Committee, 
the President and Secretary of the Association and the 
two remaining members of the Executive Committee are 
hereby authorized to fill, such vacancy." 

Article VII. was amended by providing that the regu- 
lar meetings of the Association shall be held on the sec- 
ond Tuesday in September of each year. 

Article XV. concerning "Fees" was amended to read 
as follows : 

XV. Members whose annual gross receipts from pas- 
sengers shall be more than $100000 shall pay an admis- 
sion fee of $25. Members whose annual gross re- 
ceipts from passengers shall be less than $100000 shall 
pay an admission fee of $5, and an annual assessment 



shall be levied on each member of the Association upon 
the following basis : 

Members whose annual gross receipts shall be less than 

$50,000 shall pay $10.00 

Members whose annual gross receipts shall be over $50,000, 

or less than $100,000, shall pay 25.00 

Members whose annual gross receipts are over $100,000, or 

less than $300,000, shall pay 150.00 

All members whose annual gross receipts are over $300,000, or 

less than $500,000, shall pay 300.00 

All members whose annual gross receipts are over $500,000, 

or less than $1,000,000, shall pay 400.00 

All members whose annual gross receipts are $1,000,000 or 

over, shall pay 600.00 



The assessment levied upon each member to be based 
upon the report of gross receipts as filed with the State 
Board of Railroad Commissioners for the preceding fis- 
cal year, ending June 30. This assessment to be in lieu 
of all annual dues and shall be paid to the Treasurer of 
the Association on or before the first day of December 
each year. The Executive Committee shall have no 
power to expend, for any purpose whatever, an amount 
exceeding that received. 



Results of Reducing Omnibus Fares in London. 



As an illustration of the fact that a reduction in fares 
does not always mean an increase in traffic sufficient to 
bring net profits to their former level, the case of the 
great omnibus companies in London may be useful. 
There has been a sharp warfare of rates which has 
brought about a general cut in fares. The largest com- 
pany, the London General Omnibus Company, has, dur- 
ing the past year, operated sixty more buses, run 316,000 
more miles, and carried 3,695,000 more passengers, and 
yet has realized only $4,665 more in gross receipts, its 
net income being very largely reduced. The other com- 
panies have lost proportionately more. 



Fkkruary, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 




Street Railway Roadbed. 



By Mason D. Pratt. 



//. — Modern Girder Rail Sections. 



At the beginning of the present decade the six and 
seven inch sections shown in this and the previous article 
were the most approved rails in use, and indeed the 
seven inch sections continue to be largely used on elec- 
tric roads laid in asphalt or brick pavements, or even in 
shallow Belgian block pavements where the ties are im- 
bedded in concrete. The latter construction while not 
common in this country is coming more into vogue. 
These seven inch sections are also the ones most used on 
cable and conduit electric roads, where the rail is sup- 
ported on cast iron yokes and the pavement rests on a 
concrete base. Fig. 47 shows a seven inch rail lately 
adopted by the Metropolitan Street Railway Company 
of New York City for use on its lines, most of which 
will eventually be cable or conduit electric. It is peculiar 




street Ry. Journal 

FIG. 47.— NEW YORK RAIL 



manufacture presented many difficulties and the rail 
makers met with many failures in attempting to roll them. 
Much time, thought and money have been expended in ex- 
periments, with the result that to-day these rails are placed 
on the market at a price but slightly in advance of ordinary 
T rails. So great seemed to bet-he difficulties in the way 
at first that many devices were brought forth to accom- 
plish the purpose without making a solid rail. The 
most ingenious of these was the so-called "electric rail" 
which consisted of an ordinary "bulb" section and a ± 
shaped base rolled separately, the latter being cut into 
short sections of from four to eight or nine inches 
and electrically welded to the head portion at intervals 
suited to the tie spacing. By thus rolling the rail in two 
separate parts a very broad base could be produced, and 
a large economy effected in the omission of the entire 
lower half of the rail between the ties. This rail was 




FIG. 48.— WASHINGTON RAIL, 



FIGS. 49-50.— 10>^ IN. RAILS. 



in having an extended lip attached to the guard, the idea 
of which'is that it will carry the street traffic which tracks 
along the rails to such an extent as to greatly increase 
the wear on the rail and pavement. But since the rail 
now in use (Fig. 37, shown in previous article, p. 49) has a 
difference in elevation between the head and guard, thus 
guiding the street traffic along the rail — a feature which 
has been eliminated in the new rail by bringing the 
guard up to the level of the head — it is difficult to see 
why a tram should be provided for a traffic which will 
not be able to keep to the track. 

Fig. 48 shows the rail used on the new conduit elec- 
tric roads in Washington. 

There is a very serious objection to these seven inch 
rails on roads laid in granite block pavement on an ordi- 
nary sand base, in that the ties, having little or no sand 
over them, form a solid bed for the pavement, while that 
portion between the ties, having a more yielding founda- 
tion, sinks and the track soon presents the appearance of 
a "corduroy" road. To overcome this defect and to 
meet the conditions where even heavier pavement is laid, 
still deeper rails were required. Solid rails nine and ten 
inches high were suggested and called for but it was not 
until about four years ago that they were produced. Their 



fuller developed and a quantity of it laid, but the incon- 
veniences of handling and laying it proved to be many 
and great. During the two years following its introduc- 
tion a reduction in the price of steel rails of nearly fifty 
per cent took place and rapid strides were made in the 
art of rolling solid, deep sections, which, together with 
the difficulties above mentioned, rendered it a commercial 
as well as a practical failure. 

Many other schemes for the production of a deep 
construction without resorting to the solid rail have been 
devised. The idea of a combination rail — the head por- 
tion to be renewable — has been worked out (on paper) in 
many different ways. But no such schemes that have been 
offered may be considered practical in the light of expe- 
rience. In the first place they are objectionable on ac- 
count of multiplicity of parts — a condition which should 
be avoided in track work particularly. In the second 
place the renewable feature — their fundamental idea — is 
valueless, from the fact that the permanent parts become 
so much worn that it is impossible to secure a good fit 
on renewing the wearing portion. Then again the cost 
of this renewal amounts to as much as the laying of an 
entirely new track. For these reasons no other rails than 
the solid deep sections are seriously considered to-day. 



ii6 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



As to the proper form which these deep rails should 
have, a glance at the illustrations will show that there is 
a wide variation in ideas. Of course, as explained be- 
fore, local conditions govern to a considerable extent. 
Some city governments specify a full, narrow groove; 
others a broad, fiat tram, while those who leave the 
matter to the railroad companies find rails laid in their 
streets having all variations between the two. The ques- 



traffic. There are but few cities to-day which permit 
its use. A rail which approaches the center bearing rail 
in freedom from dirt is shown in Fig. 54, which is the 
section adopted by the New Orleans Traction Company. 

With externally applied power, while desirable, it is 
not so important to have the rail as free from dirt as in the 
former case, for, under like conditions, the resistances 
are not so great, and a full groove rail may be used. 






FIGS. 51 AND 52— RAILS WITH ELECTRICALLY WELDED FEET. 



FIG. 53.— CENTER BEARING RAIL. 



tion as to which is the proper form for the exposed upper 
surface of the rail is one to be carefully considered in all 
its relations to motive power, density and character of 
street traffic, pavement, etc. When these circumstances 
are considered, no one can say that any one section is the 
proper one for all cities, or even for all the lines in any 
one city. 

There is another and all-important factor in deter- 
mining the form of that portion of the rail which is to be' 
presented to the action of the car wheels, and that is the 
results of this action itself, the strains resulting from the 
forces exerted by the weights acting through the wheels 
at the point of contact, and the wear of the rail produced 
by both car and street traffic. The points to be consid- 
ered in connection with these various influences are 
briefly stated as follows: 

Motive Power : — This may be divided into two 
classes, that which is applied to the axles, as with the 
trolley electric system, together with gas, compressed air 

or other similar motors, 
and that which is applied 
externally, as in cable 
or horse traction. With 
the former it is far more 
important to have a rail 





Street Traffic : — This can have but little influence 
in towns where it is light and of a miscellaneous char- 
acter, but in cities where it is more dense and heavier it 
must be considered. The ideal condition obtains, as 
before stated, where the surface of the street presents 
an unbroken face. This is to be had only with a full 
grooved rail. With any other section, there is a guiding 
shoulder for wagon wheels, and they will surely follow 
the track. The next best section is of the half grooved 
type, in which this shoulder is a minimum and offers less 
obstruction to vehicles turning out. The guard or lip 
should be made substantial to resist bending as well as 





FIG. 54.— NEW ORLEANS RAIL. 



FIGS. 55 TO 59.— SECTIONS OF WORN RAILS. 



which shall be free from dirt. Particularly is this so with 
electric roads using the rails for a current conductor, and 
some form of half groove or tram rail would be selected. 
A center bearing rail is by far the most desirable, if only 
the interests of the railroad are considered, but there has 
been a strong and growing dislike to it on the part of 
the public, owing to the two grooves formed along each 
rail, and which render it doubly annoying to carriage 



wear. The full flat tram is very objectionable, from the 
street traffic point of view, for while it offers a smooth 
easy track to travel on, it is most severe on a vehicle 
when turning off. 

Pavement : — With asphalt there seems to be but one 
section — the full groove. Any other which attracts street 
vehicles is detrimental, in that this pavement is more 
yielding to a concentrated traffic than any, and is the most 



Fkbruary, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



117 



costly to repair. I have seen broad tram rails laid with 
this pavement and think them as much out of place as a 
square peg in a round hole. They practically defeat the 
purpose for which the fine pavement was laid, namely, a 
smooth street. The question as to whether a grooved 
rail should be laid in granite pavements is one to be set- 
tled by the probability of the streets being kept clean, as 
well as by the other considerations mentioned above. In 
macadamized streets a full grooved rail would be as much 
out of place as a tram rail in asphalt, but as such streets 
are found only in the smaller towns both vehicular and 
railway traffic is apt to be light and when girder rails are 





able feature in four out of five of these worn sections, 
and one which I have seen in practically all worn street 
railway rails, is the decided inclination of the top surface 
of the head from the gauge line up. This, no doubt, 
comes from the coning of the wheels. The majority of 
rails heretofore made have either been rolled flat on the 
head or with an inclination in the opposite direction, 
which has been given them to facilitate rolling. That it 
is not impossible to make rails having an inward slope to 
the head will be seen by a glance at some of the sections 
shown in coimection with this and the previous article. 
Aside from all questions of better electrical contact, better 





FIG. 60.— CHICAGO CITY RAIL. 



FIGS. 61-53 —MODERN 7. IN. TO 7 IN. RAILS. 



used at all the tram rail is the most suitable all around 
rail. 

Wear: — Now that we have, at last, a rail that will 
make, when properly laid, a most substantial track, the 
question of wear becomes of even more importance than 
formerly. Indeed so substantial may the track now be 
made in other respects that its life is determined almost 
entirely by the amount of abrasion the rails will with- 
stand, and with this the form of the rail head has some- 
thing to do as well as the material of which it is made. 
In this connection I have shown five sections of worn 
rails, Figs. 55, 56, 57, 58, 59. They were taken twelve or 




traction, etc., to be obtained from a full bearing fur the 
wheel tread, the rail head is bound to assume this shape 
early in its career, but if made so in the first place it is 
manifest that the life of the rail is increased thereby and 
any manufacturer who fails to incorporate this feature in 
his sections will be behind the times, for the observing 
street railway manager is going to insist upon having it. 

Before leaving the subject of proper form for the 
upper surface of the rail, I wish to call attention to its 
importance in its relation to the form and size of wheel 
flange and tread. The variety in design of wheels is as 
great as in rail sections themselves— a fact which is of 




FIGS. 64-66.— MODERN 8 IN. TO 8'X IN. RAILS. 



FIG. 67.— BOSTON RAIL. 



fourteen inches from the ends. In the first four are 
shown, in the lighter lines, the original section as rolled. 
The actual amount of metal lost is but a small percent- 
age of the whole section, but there is, in each case, and 
in one case particularly, a noticeable amount of distortion 
of the section which must have come from a very heavy 
vehicular traffic. These rails were removed because of 
their inability to stand up under this, as well as the car 
traffic, and the wear shown must not be taken as indica- 
tive of the life of heavier and deeper sections now being 
laid — exception possibly being made to the section. Fig. 
57, which is given here to show to what extent rails are 
sometimes allowed to wear. This rail had about reached 
the end of its usefulness when removed. Another notice- 



great annoyance to the manufacturer of special work, 
though not of so great importance in connection with 
straight track, except so far as the depth of the flange is 
concerned. The difference between the depth of flange 
and the height of rail head above the tram or bottom of 
groove represents, theoretically, the amount of wear pos- 
sible before the rail must come up. Flanges are made 
from five-eighths of an inch to one inch deep — generally 
about seven-eighths inch, and since this vertical flange 
space in the rails varies from one inch to one and one- 
quarter inches the amount of wear available is from 
nothing to five-eighths of an inch. 

Query — How many passing cars will be necessary to 
accomplish this amount of wear? The rail shown in Fig. 



ii8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



57 had carried about one million cars on a heavy up 
grade. The rail on the parallel track, which was down 
grade and carrying the same amount of traffic, showed 
but half as much vv^ear. 

And now what is the proper shape for the lower por- 
tion of our rail — that portion which is not exposed, but 
which has to withstand all the shocks and strains pro- 
duced by the traffic over and upon its head? It must be 
of a form to remain rigid and unyielding under the 
action of these forces; it must have a broad base to pro- 
vide ample bearing on the tie. All of which conditions 
are fully met in the deep sections shown. The web and 
bottom flanges are as thin as it is practical to roll them and 
yet are of ample strength. The surfaces against which the 
flanges of the channel plates find a bearing have a uni- 
form inclination — a necessary condition in manufacture 
and one equally necessary in securing a proper fit for the 
jointplates. There is little room for variation in the form 
of this portion of the rail. The distinctive feature of the 
early Johnson rails — the shoulder under the head — has 
disappeared, it being an unsurmountable obstacle in the 
way of securing a good joint plate fit, and a broad bear- 
ing at that point. 

The 10 in. and io}'2 in. rails shown have been but 
little used, but the 7 in., 8^ in. and 9 in. rails are all 
standards. Fig. 67 is the standard of the West End 
Street Railway Company, of Boston — the form of head 
being designed by the former Commissioner of Streets, 
Mr. Carter. The joint shown on this section is peculiar 
in having a rib extending along the center of the joint 
plate, in order to provide a bearing and prevent the plate 
being drawn in against the rail, whereby the fit of the 
joint is destroyed. This form of joint was designed by 
the writer over four years ago when deep rails were in- 
troduced, and it is now coming into general use. The 
subject of joints will be taken up later, when this and 
other approved fastenings will be considered more fully. 



Electric Street Railway Tracks. 



By R. J. McCarty. 



It is, of course, of the utmost importance that the 
tracks of electric street railways should be of the most 
substantial construction. It is also very important that 
this result should be so reached that the current interest 
on the first cost plus the cost of current maintenance 
shall be a minimum. 

The best street railway track is manifestly that which 
most nearly conforms to the above requirements. 

The importance of constructing a track in a substan- 
tial manner is so fully appreciated that some companies 
are led to extremes, which not only unduly increase the 
cost of track construction, but also actually increase the 
cost of maintenance. 

One mistake is the unnecessary use of concrete un- 
der the tracks. It is not, ofjcourse, intended to assert 
that there may not be instances in which the use of con- 
crete is unavoidable. It is claimed, however, that con- 
crete is often used unnecessarily. This no doubt arises 
from the extensive use of concrete under street pavements, 
and from the belief that if it is necessary to place the 
pavement on concrete outside the tracks, it is also neces- 
sary that it should support the pavement between the 
rails and between the tracks. Some even go so far as to 
advocate the use of concrete under the ties. 

Experience shows that even in the case of large con- 
tinuous areas of pavement it is possible to construct a 
perfectly substantial pavement upon sand alone. This 
requires, however, that the sand should be made perfectly 
secure from lateral displacement, and that the pavement 
should be so laid as to prevent the sand from working up 
through the interstices. In order to accomplish this the 
solid angles of the blocks should be practically rectangu- 
lar, the opposite faces parallel and reasonably smooth. 
The blocks should be laid with great care and the inter- 
stices should be well filled. There is one case on record 
in which a pavement laid in this way upon eighteen in- 
ches of sand stood up well under heavy traffic for more 



than fifteen years. In fact, there never was any trouble 
with the foundation. 

There are, of course, many objections to the general 
use of such a plan, the principal ones being the great 
care and skill required in preparing the bed and selecting 
and laying the blocks, and the certain failure of the pave- 
ment in case of unskilful construction. These objec- 
tions may be obviated to some extent by the use of 
broken stone. Broken stone alone, however, is objection- 
able because, the interstices being open, there is nothing 
to prevent the stone from being forced down into the 
earth ; nor is there anything to prevent the filling, or top 
base, from sifting down. It is much better to use broken 
stone in connection with the sand, but not sufficiently so 



feiikb 



15:: 



FIG. 



en ■AVo-afSi Sand'C. 
■ & ..rj. O ^ 0':V 



to warrant the general use of such a foundation under 
large continuous areas. 

In large continuous areas of pavement, the use of 
concrete greatly facilitates the construction of a firm 
bed of uniform surface, at precisely the proper grade and 
slope. It thus diminishes the labor of laying the pave- 
ment to a proper and uniform surface; it distributes the 
bearing of the paving blocks, and prevents their cocking 
under traffic, even when carelessly laid; and if the con- 
crete is sufficiently thick it will often prevent depressions 
in the pavement where the ground may be soft. It also 
facilitates repairs and renewals. 

There is, however, a great difference between the 
outside pavement and the pavement between the rails 
and tracks of a street railway. Here, instead of long dis- 
tances between solid headers there are either one or three 
narrow spaces, with the rail, a most substantial header, 
on each side. This makes it entirely practicable to lay 
the blocks within such spaces, in such a way as to pre- 
vent the possibility of lateral displacement or of cocking, 
even when the base is not a rigid mass. The only re- 
quirement is that the base should not yield to vertical 
pressure. For this reason a pavement laid properly on a 
base of broken stone, with the interstices well filled with 
sand, the whole being properly tamped and joined well 
up to the concrete outside, will stand between the rails 



-•'-0- 



" )' 1. q 



-0 • 



- o -V ^ o p . :ol^ 9. 



FIG. 2. 



just as well as a pavement laid on concrete. Such a base 
is very much cheaper than concrete and greatly facili- 
tates the work of lining and surfacing the track. That 
it is, therefore, superior must be obvious to every practi- 
cal man who is willing to concede the premises. 

While the superiority of broken stone and sand over 
concrete in the construction of electric railways is con- 
ceded by many, there seems to be some difference of opinion 
as to what constitutes the best form of construction. Some 
advocate the construction shown in Fig. 2. Here there 
is an excavation of the whole space occupied by the 
tracks to a uniform depth of six or eight inches below 
the bottom of the ties. Broken stone, thoroughly mixed 
with sand, is placed within this excavation to a level with 



February, iSq6.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



1T9 



the bottom of the ties, the whole being brought to a uni- 
form surface and thoroughly compacted by a steam 
roller. The ties are then placed in position, the rails be- 
ing spiked down and lined. The remaining space is 
then filled with broken stone and sand, topped off, and 
the pavement placed in position. 

This certainly makes a good track, but it is open to 
the objection that it involves a great deal of unnecessary 
expense. 

Nothing is gained by the use of the steam roller, 
because the bed can be made sufficiently firm without it. 

Strc'it Grade 



The Doom of the Cable in San Francisco. 



P u 



It o 



•■I ri 



rt Biolcc n hlr<n< \ S\ii'd ' 



H 

-15^^ 

FiG. 3. 



In addition to this, the plan involves unnecessary excava- 
tion and back filling. 

By far the better plan (see Fig. 3) is to excavate to 
a uniform depth of six inches below the bottom of the 
paving blocks; then excavate pockets for the ties about 
six inches wider and six or eight inches deeper than the 
tie; fill these pockets to a depth of six or eight inches, as 
the case may be, with broken stone and sand; place the 
ties in position, fasten the rails, tamp and surface; then 
bring the bed up to two inches below the bottom of the 
paving blocks, put on two inches of sand, and pave. 

The advantages of the plan shown by Fig. 3 are that 
it saves excavation and back filling; the pavement 
between the ties, except in extreme cases, is as well sup- 
ported as if the body of earth (H, Fig. 3) should be re- 
placed by broken stone and sand; the ties are as well 
ballasted as is necessary, and the pockets under the ties 
very greatly facilitate tamping with great compactness. 

The only objection to the plan is that of drainage, 
and this may be removed by connecting the pockets to a 
small trench, if it should be thought necessary or advis- 
able. 

The following may be of interest as showing the 
relative cost of constructing one mile of single track 
under the different plans mentioned: 

Cost of roadbed below top of ties, with minimum 
amount of concrete, as shown by Fig. i: 



Excavation 
Concrete 
Broken stone 
Sand 



1,044 cu. yds. at $ .55 $ 574.20 

400 " " 4.00 1,600.00 

461 " " 1. 00 461.00 

230 " " .70 161.00 



$2,796.20 

With minimum amount of broken stone and sand, as 
per Fig. 2: 

Excavation 1,564 cu. yds. at $ .50 $ 782.00 

Broken stone 1,381 " " 1. 00 1,381.00 

Sand . 690 " " .70 483.00 

$2,646.00 

With minimum amount of broken stone and sand, as 
per Fig. 3: 

Excavation 1,044 cu. yds. at $ .55 $574,20 



Broken stone 
Sand 



861 
430 



" 1. 00 
.70 



861.00 
301.00 



$1,736.20 

The plan shown by Fig. t is objectionable because 
of the first cost, and because of the necessity of digging 
out and replacing the concrete when making repairs. 

The plan shown by Fig. 2 is objectionable principally 
on account of the unnecessary first cost. 

The plan shown by Fig. 3, if properly executed, re- 
sults, under any ordinary circumstances, in a roadbed 
fully as substantial as either of the others, at greatly 
reduced cost, and of such a character that it can be 
repaired at a minimum expense. It seems, therefore, to 
comply with all the requirements first laid down. 



By S. L. Foster. 



In the month of September, 1873, or a little over 
twenty-two years ago, the first cable street railway in the 
world was started in San Francisco. This line was on 
Clay Street, where the grades are from ten to sixteen per 
cent, and its original object was only to furnish a means 
of transporting passengers over lines that were not feas- 
ible for horse or steam traction, as these were the only 
systems in use for street cars at that time. The road was 
a success mechanically and financially from the start, and 
its fundamental features were quickly copied on other 
roads in this city and in other cities. 

Articles have appeared in Eastern journals from time 
to time to encourage San Franciscans in the belief that 
the cable system was really more economical than the 
electric, except on long suburban lines, but for about a 
year and a quarter the Market Street Railway Company 
has owned electric roads of its own, and has been mak- 
ing data for itself. Snow has not bothered the company 
at all on its cable roads, nor has the frost closed up the 
slot. The expense for cables has not been abnormal, and 
the original constrtiction was most substantially done in 
iron and concrete. In fact the conditions for cable road 
traction in San Francisco are the equal of any in the 
world, and the construction and operation of these roads 
are unsurpassed. The Market Street Company, however, 
has become convinced that the people prefer to ride on 
the electric cars, and that the electric cars carry the 
people more cheaply then does the cable. These results 
were not obtained from a few electric cars run on level 
lines and at high rates of speed, but from the operation 
of upwards of 150 cars at from ij^ to 2^ minute head- 
way at times, and on lines having grades as high as 14% 
p. c. Most of these cars are subject to frequent inter- 
ference from the heavy wagon traffic on the downtown 
streets, and all of them are governed by the rule order- 
ing a reduction of speed at the crossing of each inter- 
secting street. 

The company began cautiously by changing its old 
horse car lines to electric lines. Later it decided to 
equip with electricity the route of a franchise designed 
to be a cable road, and for which $30,000 worth of cable 
material had already been bought. The routes of all 
new franchises w'ere then ordered to be equipped as elec- 
tric roads, and finally it decided to abandon the use of 
the cable on one line — Ellis Street — and substitute elec- 
tricity. This last decision is considered by many as very 
significant and as foreshadowing the changing of not 
only all cable roads on the level to electric roads, but the" 
changing of all cable roads on grades accessible to elec- 
tric cars, and not only the cable roads of the Market 
Street system, but also those of the other cable roads in 
the city. The Market Street Company maintains at 
present six cable power houses and each has its two 
large monthly items of fuel and labor. Every time 
a cable power house can be dispensed with and the lines 
operated by electricity, that power house's item " labor" 
is wiped out, and the item " tuel" is reduced both on ac- 
count of the less fuel required per car mile for an electric 
road as against a cable road, and because the cable 
houses are usually run non-condensing, whereas in the 
electric power house the engines are run condensing. 

When the Ellis Street line was changed from cable 
to electricity, it was decided that, as the road was pay- 
ing well, traffic should be suspended for the least time 
possible. The road is over 9600 ft. long, double track, 
and most solidly built with wrought iron yokes and solid 
concrete tube. It was designed to run for part of the 
distance in conjunction . with a parallel street, making 
6750 ft. single track and 2900 ft. double track on Ellis 
Street. The track and wires on the other streets were 
already completed and the trolley and feed wires were in 
place on Ellis Street. 

The ground was looked over and it was decided that 
the change could be made in one week. This statement 
at first seemed incredible. 



I20 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XIL No. 2. 



The cable road had a 3)^ ft. gauge, 11}^ ft. cen- 
ters and the 6750 ft. of single track was laid between the 
two cable tracks without interrupting the cars. When 
this was done the cars were stopped and the whole force 
concentrated on the 2750 ft. of double track. As the en- 
graving, fig. 21 shows, the 4 ft. 8)4 in. standard gauge 
straddled the 3^-2 ft. cable track, one rail of each track 
being set on one side of one cable yoke and the remain- 
ing rail on one end of a tie. The tube of concrete was 
left untouched and is available for holding return feeders 
and perhaps trolley feeders. The cable was left in the 
tube and being connected to the rails will be used to help 
out the return circuit. The iron in the slot rails, too, will 
yield up its quota of conductivity for the return cur- 
rent, as the slot rails are connected to the tram rails 
every 150 ft. To any one familiar with street railway 



Oakland, and by means of a simple auxiliary device as- 
cending a 25 p. c. grade in San Francisco, as described in 
the October number of the Journal, where no cable grip 
could be made to hold, the impregnability of any cable 
proposition is open to question. 

Fig. I shows the original cable construction and 
Fig. 2 how the new 4 ft. S}4 in. gauge was imposed over 
the old 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. 

The amount of money saved by this method of con- 
struction over that involving removal of the concrete and 
yokes or even over the partial removal of the concrete for 
a double set of wooden cross ties was very considerable. 
The saving in income to the road bv shortening the periop 
of idleness is even larger than the construction saving. 
Whether the fact that one rail of each track rests on a 
rigid foundation and the other on a wooden tie will 




construction in large cities the amount of work done in 
this week will be appreciated when it is stated that dur- 
ing these seven days over half a mile of double track was 
built, bonded and paved, two curves of a Y switch were 
put in from a single track line on Ellis to a double track 
line on Devisadero, a single curve was fitted in across the 
slot rails and concrete tube at Hyde and Ellis, a 30 ft. 
cable car turntable was taken out at Stockton Street, the 



stand up as well as a similar support for each rail re- 
mains to be seen. 

In this work 70 lb. long lipped steel girder rail, five 
inches high, was used. These rails were held together by 
six bolt splice bars of channel section and rested on 
chairs bolted to 6 in. X 8 in. X 7 ft. split redwood ties 
set two feet centers. The joints were opposite and sup- 
ported when on ties. 




pit filled up and a cross-over put in on top of it, a double 
track electric crossing and four double track cable cross- 
ings put in — all on operating roads without interfering 
with their operation. 

At ten o'clock on the day set for the operation of the 
new line, the tracks being cleaned and curves greased, an 
electric car was switched into Ellis from Devisadero and 
the officials of the company had the pleasurable surprise 
of riding over the line without a hitch. After making 
the circuit once the cars began running on schedule time, 
carrying their heavy Sunday loads of passengers to 
Golden Gate Park by electricity. 

There is a cable line on Oak Street requiring a cable 
26,000 ft. long, that is now under reconstruction as an elec- 
tric road. When this road is changed the large cable power 
house at Oak and Broderick Streets, from which both 
Oak and Ellis have been run, will be shut down. The 
grades on the Howard, the Post, and the McAllister 
Street lines are all perfectly practicable for electric cars 
and in case they are changed from cable to electricity 
two more power houses can be dispensed with. 

" Electricity has, perhaps, displaced the cable on the 
level and on easy grades," some cable men say, " but on 
heavy grades the cable will always be retained." When we 
consider the daily spectacle of electric cars unaided climb- 
ing i-\.}'2 p. c. grades in San Francisco and 15 p. c. grades in 



The bonding consisted of three No. o B. & S. Chicago . 
bonds per joint, tram and slot rails being cross bonded 
every five rails. 



To a visitor to the city of Milan one of the interest- 
ing sights is the cemetery system of the city. Owing to 
the hygienic conditions necessary in many parts of Italy, 
cremation is largely employed in many cities and this has 
resulted in the establishment of cemeteries which differ 
in arrangement from those in other places. Very often, 
as in Milan and Genoa, a considerable tract of land is de- 
voted to this purpose. This is laid out in an artistic 
manner and contains long corridors or halls with marble 
memorials to the deceased and vaults in which their ashes 
are placed. 

The main cemetery of Milan has been conndcted for 
some time with the center of the city by an elec- 
tric line, over which many funeral trains are run, 
and among the recent electrical developments in that 
city has been the construction of a new line ex- 
tending from this to a new cemetery recently 
opened at a considerably greater distance from the city. 
The funeral train operated is composed of a special 
funeral car painted entirely in black with the inscrip- 
tion " Service Funebre." This is followed by other cars 
occupied by the mourners. 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



121 



A Lesson in Gearing. 



In probably no cable station in the country are the 
gears put to more severe service than in that of the Chi- 
cago City Railway Company at Twenty first Street. The 
constant increase in the strength of the machinery here 
shows the hard usage to which it is subjected. 

No. I and No. 2 engines of the station have cylinders 
30 in. diameter and 60 in. stroke, making 60 revolutions 
per minute. In August, 1887, two spur gears, with 43 
teeth, each gear 18 in. face and 6 in. pitch, were placed 



I 




FIG. 1.— FIRST SECTION (HALF SIZE) ADOPTED. 



pitch, with staggered teeth, making 40 in. face. These 
gears have machined joints, the holes are bored and 
reamed, all bolts are turned to fit the holes tight, the 
teeth are carefully cut and the parts are bolted together 
transversely. The form and proportions of teeth in these 
gears are shown, half size, in Fig. 3, and were suggested 
by John Walker, general manager of Fraser & Chalmers, 
who built the gears, after consultation with J. R. Hill, en- 
gineer of the Chicago City Railway Company. The 




FIG. 2.— SECOND SECTION (HALF SIZE). 



on the crank shaft, with teeth staggered, forming a gear 
36 in. wide. 

Two spur gears of 61 teeth, each 18 in. face and 6 in. 
pitch, were placed on the line shaft, with teeth staggered, 
forming a gear 36 in. wide. They were made of cast 
iron, with strong oval arms. The two parts forming the 
pinion and the two parts forming the gear were each 
bolted together at eight different points of the rim. The 
form and proportion of the teeth in these gears are shown, 
half size, in Fig. i. These gears were calculated to trans- 
mit 1,500 H. p. with safety. After running eighteen 
months, the arms of the large gears broke, compelling 
their removal, and new cast iron gears, each 20 in. face 
f'.nd 7j^2 in. pitch, with very heavy arms of high section. 




FIG. 3.— THIRD AND LAST SECTION (HALF SIZE). 

took their place. They were built similar to the first 
pair, that is, each gear was of 20 in. face, with teeth stag- 
gered, forming a gear 40 in. wide. The two gears, each 
20 in. wide on the line shaft, were removed in 1892, and 
two new gears, same pitch and face, were placed on the 
line shaft. These ran about eighteen months, when a 
tooth broke out of one, and the other split through the 
rim. The form and proportions of teeth in these gears 
are shown, half size, in Fig. 2. 

After this experience it was decided to use steel 
gears, and a contract was made January 28, 1895, for a 
set. The pinions have 42 teeth, 20 in. face and 6 in. pitch, 
with staggered teeth, making a total of 40 in. face. The 
cast steel gears have 62 teeth, each 20 in. face and 6 in. 



Chicago City Railway Company considers these gears 
safe for 5,000 h. p. On several occasions the maximum 
load of the engines has been put on these gears, which, 
under these conditions, ran perfectly noiseless. 

To realize the actual difference in size between the 
three forms of teeth shown the reader should really com- 
pare full sized sections, which can be reproduced from 
the engravings by doubling each linear dimension. 



A system of telephone transmission between the 
cable cars on the New York & Brooklyn Bridge and a 
central dispatching office has recently been decided 
upon by the managers of that road. A trolley wire is run 
under the cars, and connection is made by a novel type of 




FIG. 4.— TRANSMISSION GEARS. CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY STATION. 

brush. A transmitter and receiver will be carried on each 
ca.r, the former being hung on springs to prevent as far 
as possible vibration from the jolting of the train. 



T22 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. 2. 



Club House for Motormcn and Conductors. 



The Derby Street Railway, of Derby, Conn., has a 
new institution in the way of a club house for its em- 
ployes, which is a novelty both in design and results. For 
a long time the president, H. H. Wood, has had in mind 
a scheme for bringing the men into closer relationship to 
the company, providing reading and 
recreation rooms, a comfortable place 
in which they could wait when wait- 
ing was necessary and a clean and neat 
place where lunches could be eaten. 
Usually the men took their lunch pails 
to the car barn and there in a cold 
and cheerless corner did what eating 
was necessary. 

For a time a finished room was 
given the men on the second floor of 
the car house next the offices. The 
men did not like it. There was an 
unusually long flight of steps to reach 
it and it was too near the office and 
the men did not use it, preferring 
the lower floor and such corners as 
were available. 

The president had for some time 
intended to fit up a building for the 
use of the men. It was finally de- 



very neat and comfortable. It consists of tables, chairs 
and case for books in the reading room, table and chairs 
in the eating room and the usual rack for cues, chairs, 
etc., in the billiard or pool room. 

The eating room will have, in addition to its present 
furniture, a gas stove or a steam table of some kind on 
which coffee, etc., can be heated and lunches warmed. 





FIG. 2.— BILLIARD ROOM. 

cided to take the old brick carpenter 
shop for the purpose. This is shown 
on this page(Fig.i). The building con- 
sisted of four brick walls and a roof. 
The second floor was used as a shop 
and the lower one for storage. The 
building was well adapted for the 
purpose, standing as it did next the 
car house. It measures in plan about 
85 ft. X 18 ft., and has, as the engrav- 
ings show, a good height of ceiling. 
The plan shows the arrangement. 
There are three large rooms, each 
from twenty-three to twenty-four feet 
in length and the full width of the 
building. In the front end was placed 
a hallway with a short flight of steps 
leading up to the level of the rooms, 
together with a bath room and a 
small room for eating. 

The finish of the rooms is in hard 
pine and as will be seen from a glance 
at the engravings is very attractive. 

The large room next the hall 
serves as a reading room. The next 
one contains a billiard table which is 

used both for pool and billiards. The other room is the 
gymnasium. At present it is supplied with several pairs 
of boxing gloves and a striking bag. The furniture is 



FIG. 1.— EMPLOYES CLUB HOUSE— DERBY. 



In the hallway there is an ample supply of hooks, 
etc., for clothing, a much needed arrangement in 
a country where every man wears a bearskin coat 
when on duty in the winter. The bath room has 
a bath tub with hot and cold water from a large 
boiler standing in the corner. There is also a 
basin and a wash out closet in the room. The 
building is heated by steam, and a coil of pipe 
in the boiler furnishes an unlimited supply of 
hot water for both the tub and the shower bath. 
The heating and lighting are both furnished by 
the company's power house. 

In the reading room the company furnishes 
Har/>e)-s, Sci-ibiicrs, the Street Railway Jour- 
nal, Puck, Life, Cassicr, McCliircs and several 
other magazines and papers amounting to a dozen 
or more. 

The whole expense of furnishing, fitting up 
and running the place has been assumed by the 
company, and is considered a good investment, its 
effect upon the men being more than an offset to 
the expense incurred. 




FIG. 3.— READING ROOM. 



Another thing looking toward making the men a 
part of the road has been an annual supper on New 
Year's eve. This was proposed by the superintendent. 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



123 



B. W. Porter. The idea of making the men a part of the 
road and centering their interests upon the success of 
the company is also forwarded by a system of rewards 
which is in force. 

Having seen the good results coming from much 

Street ^ 



'Hall- 
way 



Bath ^\ '-''"'"9 Room 



Reading Room 



Pool and Billiard Room 



Gymnasium 



Strcf( Railway .Touin.il 



F G. 4.— PLAN OF CLUB HOUSE-DERBY. 

less extensive efforts to benefit motormen and conductors 
by arranging for their comfort when off duty, there can 
be little doubt as to the results of this systematic effort. 

Electric Construction in Chicago. 

Although Chicago has the reputation of being one 
of the most progressive cities in this country, if not in 
the world, it has been the last of the large American 
cities to share in the advantages of electric traction. Each 
of the three larger companies, however, seems to have 
possessed itself, during the past year or two, with the 
proverbial Chicago hustle and the work accomplished 
during the past year materially changes the figures rep- 
resenting respectively horse and electric mileage. 

On the Chicago City Railway electricity has been 
substituted on over forty miles of former horse lines, re- 
ducing the mileage of the latter 
to less than ten miles for the en- 
tire system and bringing the total 
electric mileage up to 118. 

On the North Chicago lines 
the change from horses to elec- 
tricity has been complete, ex- 
cepting less than three miles, the 
electric mileage being now about 
eighty. 

On the West Chicago lines 
ninety-seven miles of horse car 
line were reconstructed into elec- 
tric, and thirteen and a half miles 
of new electric construction were 
added to the mileage. This work 
reduces the horse car mileage to 
less than fifty and increases the 
electric mileage to 122. 



nished by the Chicago City Railway Company. They 
weigh about nine hundred pounds complete. They aver- 
age about one hundred and fifteen feet apart and are set 
six feet in the ground, in cement. The method of flexible 
suspension has been used. The span or suspension wire 

is twenty-four inches long and 

21^ H is formed of seven iron wires of 

No. 10 gauge, twisted into a 
cable. Each end of the span 
cable is made fast to a strain 
insulator, and these are fastened 
to insulated bolts having soft 
rubber washers, for the purpose 
of cushioning the effect of the 
trolley vibrations. There are, 
therefore, three insulations be- 
tween trolley and pole. 

The trolley wire used for 
this line is the new Roebling's figure 8 pattern, the 
same as used on the Nantasket Beach road. It 
weighs 1.02 lbs. per foot, being three times as 
heavy as No. o. There is a sag of from 10 ins. to 
12 ins. between poles. The trolley clips are of malleable 
iron and 11 ^'2 ins. in length. Many have predicted that 
this wire would flop over, but this has never happened. 
Brazed connections are not used. Wherever a splice is 
necessary it is made at a pole with a special connecting 
device devised by Mr, Knox, the electrician of the com- 
pany. By this arrangement the splice is as perfect, in 
all respects, as any part of the line. Sparking at the 
trolley, on this line, is very rarely seen. 

All insulators were especially designed for this line. 
They are generally of the West End pattern but are fully 
twice as large as ordinary and the breaking strain is 
three times as great. All the section insulators, insula- 



All of the electric work, thus 
on street railway lines is with 



far 

overhead construction. The op 
position to the overhead trolley 
system has been remarkably 
strong in Chicago, and its advo- 
cates and promoters have been 
obliged to encounter and over- 
come every conceivable obstacle. 

There still exists a powerful opposition to its exten- 
sion in the heart of the downtown district, but the 
Chicago City Railway has finally succeeded in practically 
entering this district from the south, with its Clark 
Street line whose northern terminal is at Washington 
Street, three blocks north of the post office. The Clark 
Street line was formerly a horse car line, and the passen- 
ger traffic over it was very light, but since the change to 
a trolley line the traffic has increased enormously, al- 
though the line has been in operation but a short time. 
Fortunately the Chicago City Railway Company, in the 
construction of this line, anticipated an unusually heavy 
traffic, and the overhead material in its construction is the 
heaviest ever used on a street railway. A view of the line 
is shown in the accompanying illustration. As will be ob- 
served, it is of center pole construction. The poles were 
manufactured by Morris & Tasker, from designs fur- 




ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION ON CLARK STREET, CHICAGO. 



ted crossovers, connecting ears and other special appli- 
ances for the heavy wire, were designed by Mr. Knox and 
made in the company's own shops. 

Although the Falk cast-welded joint is used on the 
rails of this line, the joints are also bonded with double 
0000 Chicago bonds seven-eighths inch terminals. Two 
500,000 cm. supplemental wires are also used for return, 
as well as all tracks leading to the power station. The 
feeder wires are carried overhead from the power station 
to Clark Street, and are there carried underground in tile 
ducts. Manholes are placed at an average of 450 ft. 
apart. Six 350,000 cm. feeder wires are used. The far- 
thest distance from the power station is 31,020 ft. 

As many as forty double motor cars with thirty-five 
trailers have been handled at one time, on a division of 
this line 19,800 ft. in length. The line was opened for 
traffic Decernber 3. 



124 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XH. No. 2. 





™.SG] liNCE EMGINBERING ' 

INVENTION 







it 



General Engineering Notes. 



The Montreal Street Railway Company decided at its last annual 
meeting to build its cars in its own shops, in order to give employ- 
ment to Montreal mechanics. 



A Zurich syndicate has applied to the Swiss local and federal 
authorities for several electric railway concessions to be constructed 
in the Cantons of Zurich, Argovie and Zug. 

The State Commissioners of Railroads and Telegraphs in Ohio 
have obtained an opinion from the attorney general to the effect that 
he is authorized to inspect and pass upon the condition of bridges 
and trestles used by electric interurban railways in the State. The 
attorney general holds that such railways cannot properly be classed 
as street railways, but, transporting passengers, freight and express 
between different parts of the State, are properlv railroads. 

PiTTSBtJRGH is wrestling with the smoke problem in earnest. The 
city authorities have passed an anti-smoke ordinance which is to be 
strictly enforced. Under its provisions the emission of more than 
20 per cent, of black or gray smoke from any chimney or stack where 
bituminous coal is used in connection with boilers for heating or 
power purposes will be deemed a public nuisance, and any such 
emission for a continuous period of more than three minutes' duration 
will be punished by a fine of from $10 to $50. 

The Mil'oaukce Street Railway Btillctin says : 

"Conductors will please bear in mind that the rear brake should 
not be set by them unless it be in order to avoid an accident or when 
the car gets beyond the control of the motorman. The practice of 
setting up the rear brake at the ends of the route by the conductor is 
one which should be stopped at once. It is the province of the 
motorman to attend to the brakes and the controller, and his pre- 
rogatives must not be interfered with or his duties assumed except 
in case of greatest necessitv. " 



The Marseilles Street Railway Company reports that one of its 
cars has recently run 21935 miles without a single accident to its 
electric equipment. This record was made between January 24 and 
September 15, 1895. During this time it was at the repair shop 
three days owing to an accident to the car body, and one day for the 
repair of the hand brake. The average distance covered per day was 
ninety-six miles, the maximum 129 miles; the total number of pas- 
sengers carried during this time was about 215000. The car is equipped 
with two 18 h. p. Oerlikon motors, type E. Z. Another car has re- 
cently covered more than 10000 miles without any repairs whatever. 



The Metropolitan Elevated Road of Chicago is operated, so it is 
stated, at an expense of 22 cents per train mile, and it is expected 
to reduce this figure to 20 cents. The Southwest branch or 
Douglas Park extension of this road will probably be open for busi- 
ness about April l next. President Worcester is reported as saying 
that since the cool weather has set in the traffic has increased from 
10,000 to 15,000 passengers per day. With the completion of the 
elevated loop, work on which is progressing rapidly, the company 
will be enabled to run its trains into the heart of the down town busi- 
ness district. This is expected to increase the travel between 35,000 
and 40,000 passengers per day, which would considerably more than 
meet the payment of fixed charges. 



As an indication of the immensity of street railway construction 
and operation, the following figures concerning the Milwaukee 
Street Railway system will be of interest. During the year 1895 
there were consumed in the power station about 30,000 tons of coal, 
which was converted into about 12,000,000 electrical horse power hours 



for the operation of 165 cars per day (on an average) traveling over 
7,000,000 miles — together with electric lights for station, car houses, 
cars and a general city commercial service. About 28,000,000 passen- 
gers were transported during the year and some 6,000,000 transfers 
were issued. One thousand tons of new steel rail are to be laid and 
from 25,000 to 30,000 new ties. Seventeen miles of new trolley wire 
have been erected and fifteen miles of feeder wire. Patrol wagons 
have responded to 2,150 calls. About $750,000 were paid out in wages. 



In a recent issue, the Pall Mall Gazette (London) expresses great 
concern at the present condition of Great Britain as an iron producer 
and calls attention to the fact that the statistics of iron production 
show that iron and steel shipments from Great Britain have actually 
diminished and that imports are increasing in an astonishing manner 

" We share with the United States the honor of being the largest 
producers, but the trade of the United States, Germany, Belgium, 
and France is growing steadily, while ours is going quite the other 
way. The pig-iron production of the leading countries forms a fair 
basis of comparison as to the relative position of each and all. In 
1880 Great Britain turned out 7,749,233 tons, the United States 3,835,- 
191 tons, Germany 2,729,038 tons, and France 1,725,293 tons. In 
i8go we produced 7,904,214 tons, the United States 9,202,703 tons, 
Germany 4,658,450 tons, and France 1,962,196 tons." 



The new subway in Boston is making fine progress. By next 
fall all cars coming from points west of Tremont Street will be taken 
up to Park Street Church and arotind the loop at that place without 
stopping except at the one station nearly opposite the Tremont 
Theatre. At the same time Boylston Street will be cleared of all 
tracks between Park Square and Tremont Street and probably 
widened to the old cemetery fence. A portion of the subway under 
Tremont Street, seventy feet long, opposite the Park Street Church, 
has been completed and is now ready for tracks and wires. The 
work on this section has been pushed more rapidly than elsewhere, 
partly because of the complicated subterranean pipes, and partly be- 
cause it may be decided to tunnel the rest of the distance northerly to 
the Union Station, and this completed section will furnish the en- 
trance to the tunnel. One side of the stone arched tunnel that is to 
form the subway south of Boylston Street is also constructed. 



U Elcttricita of Milan gives the following information of the Ma- 
lignani process for obtaining a vacuum in incandescent lamps. 
First, a special compound, the ingredients of which are not men- 
tioned, is introduced into a tube connecting with the bulb. An air 
pump is then applied, and after a suction of about twenty seconds 
the current is turned on. After ten or fifteen seconds of illumination 
during which the pump is kept in operation the connection between 
the pump and the tube is severed. The gas which is disengaged 
from the filament during the passage of the current fills the bulb. 
The pressure is then about one-half millimeter of mercury ; 
this is the practical limit of the vacuum which can be pro- 
duced by the pump. As soon as the communication with the 
pump has been severed, the current is again turned on, and 
with a jet of gas the tube is heated to a point where the chemical 
composition contained therein is melted. The vapors which disen- 
gage themselves from the filament are precipitated in a solid state, 
and the two produce a perfect vacuum in the bulb. This entire 
operation occupies about one minute, and it is possible to treat at 
least forty-five lamps in this way in an hour. The chemical vacuum 
appears to give excellent results and the light furnished by the lamp 
diminishes in brightness more slowly than with any other process. 
One great advantage of the process is the fact that the use of mer- 
cury is dispensed with. 



February, T896.] j ^ ' STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



The Laconia Car Company. 

The works of the Laconia Car Company, at Laconia, N. H., are in 
many respects amon>^ the most interesting ot the kind in the country. 
They are situated upon the Winnepesaukee River, the outlet of tlie 
great lake of that name. The works derive from the stream looo 
h. p., which is supplemented by the power of several steam engines 
in different buildings remote from the water 
wheels. The works were started under the name 
of the Ranlett Manufacturing Company in 1844, 
and for some years they made on a small scale 
freight cars for steam roads. In 1870 the plant 
received great additions, and the manufacture of 
passenger cars was undertaken. In 1881 the 
Laconia Car Company was started by the pur- 
chase of the Ranlett Manufacturing Company, 
and the plant and manufacturing facilities- were 
greatly increased. 

Last fall the company had the misfortune 
to lose one of its largest shops by fire. This was 
rebuilt and work was progressing in it in a sur- 
prisingly short time. In fact, the company's 
freight car work for steam roads was scarcely 
interrupted by the fire. This shop was 220 ft. X 
42 ft., with a 75 ft. extension. It was built in a 
week's time, and men were working in it the 
thirteenth day after the fire, a fact which illustrates 
the organization and energy of the company, and 
it also speaks well for the vim and push of the 
New England workmen. In this shop during 
December they were building five coal cars per 
day. A new store house, 60 ft. x 70 ft., takes the 
place of one which was burned at the time of the 
fire, and is arranged for sand storage below, with 
shed room above. 

The lumber department of the establishment 
is one in which the street railway man is especi- 
ally interested. From two million to three million feet of lum- 
ber is constantly upon the sticks, and the company carries a 
stock which enables it to build the longest electric cars with- 
out splicing sills or rails. The drying house into which the 
lumber goes after being thoroughly air seasoned has a capacity 
for forty thousand feet at a time. The treatment of oak is somewhat 
unusual. It is steamed under a pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch. 
Steam is allowed to enter very slowly, and after having the sap 
thoroughly coagulated in this way it is removed to the dry house and 
after remaining there for a week's time the moisture has been thor- 
oughly removed from it. For street railway work all the lumber is 
carried through the dry house before being worked up. This is for 
the purpose of insuring its absolute freedom from moisture before 
going into the car. 



Adjoining these shops, and separated from''them by a deliver" 
switch from the railway, are large stock and storage sheds. A little- 
further down the stream is a building, 60 ft. x 120 ft., devoted to the 
foundry. Here gray iron castings and car wheels are made, the 
capacity of this department being ten tons per day. The wheel de- 
partment can make seventy wheels per day, and the capacity of the 
wheel pits is equal to 350 wheels. The coal and sand for this foun- 




FIG. 2— FRAME OF TWENTY-FIVE FOOT CAR FOR WEST END RAILWAY. 



dry are delivered to a chute directly alongside of it from the cars by 
a special track. 

The cabinet shop, which is a large building two stories high, 
200 ft. X 42 ft., is fitted up in the lower story with a complete set of 
modern wood working machinery for getting out the material for 
steam, passenger, electric or horse car work. There are also con- 
nected with this department carving and routing machines to save 
hand work. The carving is largely a hand product and the carving 
machine merely used to save labor in roughing, routing and the 
general work which requires neither taste nor artistic ability. The 
upper part of this shop is devoted to the finer portions of the cabinet 
work and the finishing and putting together of the work which is 
brought from below by an elevator. From the upper portion of the 
shop there is a covered bridge to the second floor of the erecting shop. 




FIG. L— INTERIOR OF PAINT SHOP, SHOWING LONG WEST END CARS. 



There are two special wood working shops arranged at the end 
of the erecting works, which take the lumber from the pile or the dry 
house, and make it ready to go upon the car without the necessity 
for hand work. Immediately adjoining these shops is a machine 
shop, 70 ft. X 70 ft., fitted up with tools of the latest pattern, enabling 
them to complete, conveniently and carefully, all sorts of machine 
work that may be needed in the forging or blacksmith shop. The latter 
is 50 ft. X 160 ft. The company makes forgingsof all descriptions, 
bolts, nuts and all the iron work necessary in the establishment, 
beside turning out a great deal of special work upon orders. The 
product is about twenty tons of forgings per day. 



This erecting shop is Soft, x 160 ft. and has upon one side a ninety- 
foot extension. The arrangement of this shop is exceedingly con- 
venient and the tracks are laid in such a way as to enable the work 
to be entirely progressive without interrupting the work on any par- 
ticular car. Across the sixty-fool street is a large paint shop 70ft. x 
140 ft., having four tracks for five twenty-foot car bodies. An 
interior view of this shop is shown in Fig. I. Three only of the 
four tracks are shown in the engraving. At the time the photo- 
graph was made, but three cars were in place on each track, but 
the shop has accommodations for twenty cars. Adjoining this 
shop at the right and connected to it by several doors is an uphol- 



126 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



stery and finishing shop 40 ft. x 100 ft. There are also several com- 
municating store rooms. All these rooms are isolated from each 
other in case of fire by tin covered wooden sliding doors, which close 
automatically in case of fire. Automatic sprinklers have also been 
put into the greater portion of the establishment and are being made 
to cover the entire works. Separate oil and paint rooms of brick 

also open into 
the paint shop. 
There are two 
40 ft. X 80 ft. 
store rooms 
connected with 
the paint and 
upholstery 
shops. 




the standard metal, and castings are made only of copper and tin. 
The company makes complete bronze fittings for electric cars besides 
a great deal of outside work. The smoothness with which such 
metal runs and the perfect character of the castings, as well as the 
ease with which they are finished and polished, undoubtedly make 
them the cheaper metal in the end. 

It will be a surprise to many to find a car establishment of this 
character with so complete a wheel foundry. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 illus- 
trate the character of the iron, showing two samples taken from test 
pieces, and also a section of a wheel. The quality of the metal is 
quite well shown in the engravings. For street car work the chill, 
of course, will be made very much deeper by changing the mixture 
of the metal. The test pieces show a hard steel-like chill which cuts 
glass with considerable ease, and a soft, strong gray iron of good 
quality; this is also very well shown in the car wheel section. 




FIG. 3.— END OF LONG CAR FOR WEST END 
RAILWAY, SHOWING CORNER BRACKET. 



FIG. 4.— INSIDE OF CAR FOR WEST END RAILWAY, 
SHOWING GUM BLOCKS IN POSITION. 



One of the most remarkable features of this establishment is the 
complete and extensive malleable iron department. This is situated 
in a four story brick building 50 ft. x 150 ft. It is provided first 
with a pattern storage department of brick, which is fire proof. 
There is a pickling room, a mill room for finishing hard castings, and 
a mill room for small castings, packing and machine rooms. In the 
third story is an extensive machine shop with special tools for finish- 
ing electric work and metal pattern work of all kinds. The fourth 
story is devoted to finishing electrical work and similar light finish- 
ing operations. In this finishing department there are facilities for 
turning out, in the highest style, brass, bronze and malleable iron 
work of every kind. The finished work, both plated and simply 
polished, will compare most favorably with anything made anywhere 
in the country. 

The moulding room and the malleable iron department proper 
contain two furnaces for melting and five ovens of the largest size for 
annealing, giving four fires. There are two air furnaces. Taken all 
together this 'is a very complete handsome foundry, capable of pro- 
ducing a great variety of work. The building is 225 ft. long x 60 ft. 
in width. In addition to what is'familiarly known as malleable iron 




FIG. 5,— SECTION OF WHEEL. 



In addition to having numerous switches and trucks for steam 
cars there is a separate system of narrow gauge tracks running 
through the works for the transportation of material and car bodies 
in various directions. 

During December just past, the company was building a lot of 
unusually interesting street cars upon an order from the West End 
Railway of Boston. The engravings show these cars in various 
stages of construction. They all have twenty-five foot bodies and 
are to be carried on double trucks. Many who are familiar with the 
theory of the car body and the action of the double truck will be sur- 
prised to see that instead of the steam road truss construction the 
street or horse car body has been retained in principle, and the 
car depends largely for its strength and stiffness upon the panel and 
frames instead of on a truss. The reason for this in this case, how- 
ever, is sound. Several gentlemen connected with the West End 
Company explained very carefully the circumstances which made 




FIGS. 6-7.— SECTIONS OF TEST PIECES. 



castings of all sizes and styles, the company also makes " homogene- 
ous steel" castings up to pieces of about half a ton in weight, as well 
as small fine steel castings. Some of the samples of this kind of 
work are exceedingly beautiful and have a closeness and perfection 
of grain which is quite remarkable. 

The brass foundry is extensive enough to handle about a ton per 
day of brass work. In some respects the term brass work is a mis- 
nomer, for the president of the company, Mr. Putnam, is thoroughly 
converted to the belief that good metal is not only about as cheap 
as common brass but much more easily finished and much better 
in appearance under wear; consequently bronze has been adopted as 



this form of construction imperative. There are several places in 
Washington, Tremont and other streets where the space available 
for the passing of cars is so narrow when trucks are upon the street, 
that the ordinary straight sided car would not be able to pass. In- 
deed, with the ordinary concave panel there are many of these places 
where even projecting nuts and washers are inadmissible and every- 
thing has to be flush with the surface. Inside the car the best use is 
made of the space available and a heavy truss rod is put through 
under the seats to give as much of a support as possible. Although 
this truss thus formed cannot be very deep the large size of the rod 
and sure anchorage at the end render it a powerful aid in holding up 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



127 



the car. In Fij>. 2 just inside the end sill will be seen the malleable 
iron casting used to take the end of the truss rod. This casting was 
specially designed for the place. The facilities of the company for 
producing anything and everything in the way of malleable iron en- 
able them to introduce very many pieces of special elegance of 
design without extra cost. This casting is anchored not only to the 
sill itself l)ut also to the cross timber or needle beam, which takes the 
inner bearing of the platform timber. 

A number of these cars in the white are shown in the view 
of the paint shop in Fig. r. They are very handsoine and when 
painted in the standard style, fitted up with the necessary signs, etc., 
are v£ry neat in appearance. In the construction of the floor frame 
of these cars are some exceedingly good and ingenious features. 
The dropping of the end sills below the side sills brings down the 
platform, while it raises the sills themselves and enables them to be 
deeper than would otherwise be possible with double trucks. The 
rails are well secured, and the design of this portion of the car is in 
general exceedingly good. 

In Fig. 4 we have a view of the method of fastening panels and 
ribs together. It shows the inside of the end of the car, with the last 
window post next the corner. The panels are first thoroughly 
steamed and bent to form over hot cauls. The heating of the forms 
dries out the moisture left by steaming, and the panels go on bent to 
shape and dry. When they are tacked in place they are hot, and the 
glue on ribs, rails and post is in its best condition to insure adhesion 
between the panels and the ribs. Glue blocks are put into the 
angles very carefully, as shown. This, together with the applica- 
tion of the canvas, is an unusual feature. Fig. 4 shows the inside of 
one of these cars, with the canvas applied over the blocks. Great 



The Manufacture of Iron and Steel Poles for Rail= 
way Work, 

Among the pioneer manufacturers of wrought iron pipe and 
boiler tubes in the United States were Morris, Tasker iS: Company, 
Incorporated, of Philadelphia. Up to the time when they com- 
menced business, the only wrought iron tubes that had been avail- 
able for any purpose were gun barrels. These were hand forged 
upon a mandrel and differed from ordinary modern tubes, not only 
by being thicker at one end than the other, but in having the weld 
spiral. They were made from strips of metal wound spirally around 
a mandrel and welded under the hand hammer during the process. 
About the earliest use of barrels for tubing of which we have any 
record in this country is found in the tubular boiler which Colonel 
Stevens built for his screw propeller at Hoboken, N. J., in 1804. 

In 1821, the late Stephen P. Morris, then a very young man, in 
company with the late Thomas T. Tasker, started in a small way to 
make grates adapted to the use of anthracite coal. At that time 
anthracite coal was a new fuel, and no small amount of difficulty was 
encountered in using it successfully. Indeed, it is on record that In 
attempting to burn it for the first time in a large way the "black 
stones" utterly refused to ignite, and a whole forenoon was spent in 
poking, blowing, fussing and coaxing. When noon came, in despera- 
tion the furnace doors were shvit and lunch was eaten. At the close 
of the noon hour the furnace was found white hot, and the discovery 
was made that anthracite coal must be let alone if it is to burn. 
There was a considerable call for grates \vhich would burn this new 
fuel, and as these differed from those previously used, the young firm 




FIG. 1.— WORKS OF MORRIS, TASKER & CO., INCORPORATED. 



care is taken in doing this, and the manufacturers feel that the labor 
expended in this careful application of canvas to the blocks and 
panels is well expended. The work appears neat and mechanical, 
and as far as can be judged, the claim, that it makes an exceedingly 
good and strong side, is valid. 

It will be noticed in this last engraving that the inside belt rail 
behind the sill is well chamfered to allow dirt and dust which might 
accumulate to slide off upon the floor. This rail, as will be seen in 
Fig. 2, is very deep and gives considerable vertical strength to the 
side. The upper or window rail is deep, and is reinforced on the 
inside by a deep, strong rail, as shown in Fig. 4, laid horizontally. 
This binds the posts togetherand is a part of the framework of the car, 
instead of the inside finish, as is the usual construction. The end of the 
car is shown in Fig. 3 on a larger scale. The raised roof has a hood, 
the bow of which is formed from a single piece of wood bent to the 
proper shape. The upper rail and the belt are firmly secured to both 
the post and the end plate, and the joint is covered and protected by 
specially designed bracket and handle of inalleable iron. This 
bracket also supports the hood. The designer here has intended to 
make the hood and end of the car as light as possible. The hood itself 
is built on a " last " or mould, and afterthe plan frequently employed 
in fine boat building, which gives a very light but exceedingly strong 
construction. The form employed is well shown in Fig. I. In this 
engraving also is seen the special casting employed for a buffer iron. 
It is very light, of malleable iron and the outer part reversible, so as to 
be adjustable for any required height. The one and three-quarters 
inch platform floor butting, as it does, firmly against the end sill 
and coming with equal firmness against the platform end timber 
gives all the strength necessary to resist collisions. 



The Chapin-Douglas Electric Company, of New York, N. Y. , has 
been organized to manufacture electrical supplies. President, Chas. 
E. Chapin ; secretary and treasurer, J. S. Douglas, of 136 Liberty 
Street, New York. 



soon found their business growing, and gradually launched into reg- 
ular foundry work. Learning that gas was becoming popular in 
England, and had every indication of being in demand in Philadel- 
phia, they began to look around for a cheap pipe for conveying gas. 
They began to buy old gun barrels and connect them with screw 
joints, converting them into pipe, but they soon found that the 
method was too slow, and also that there were not enough gun 
barrels to be had in the country to supply the demand. The firm 
then purchased the sole right to manufacture butt welded pipe in the 
manner that was then being carried on in a small way in England. 
The gas industry became very extensive and profitable, and the 
business of the firm increased so rapidly in consequence, that in 
1S36 they bought a large tract of land and built what was afterwards 
known as the Pascal Iron Works. The works covered two Phila- 
delphia squares, 800 X 400 ft. As long ago as 1870 this establish- 
ment was employing 2000 men. About this time, and for a few 
years later, immense improvements in the methods of manufactur- 
ing pipe and great increases in the regular sizes took place. Twelve, 
fourteen, sixteen and in fact (at present) any size up to thirty or 
thirty-six inch are common, whereas before 1875 a fifteen-inch pipe 
was something almost unheard of. Lender the great stimulus of an 
increased market the location in Philadelphia was found alto- 
gether too small for the enormous business, and a tract of some 
sixty acres of land was then purchased at New Castle, Del., on the 
Delaware River below Philadelphia. In 1875 a fine mill was built 
upon this property, and since that time new buildings have been 
added from time to time, until at the present time the whole plant 
has been moved to the New Castle property, and the site of the old 
works in Philadelphia is now covered with fine dwelling houses. 

The engraving. Fig. i, gives an inadequate idea of the New 
Castle Works which have a river front of more than 2000 ft. The 
shops are of great depth connected both with the water front and 
with the railroad by an extensive system of tracks. The establish- 
ment includes the rolling mills at the left, the pipe works, gas 
producers and the necessary boiler and engine houses, At the ex- 



128 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



treme right of the engraving is seen the large two story office 
building, which is now in process of completion. 

This New Castle plant or mill is operated under the name of the 
Delaware Iron Company. It is there making 300 tubular poles 
per day for electric light and street railway purposes. It also 
produces a very large tonnage of wrought iron pipe from one-eighth 
of an inch to sixteen inches in diameter, and boiler tubes from one 
and one-half inch to sixteen inches of all grades, from the heaviest 
to the lightest. It also manufactures cast iron pipe fittings, cast- 
ings, and foundry work in general, as well as special gun metal 
castings for electric power plants. In addition to electric railway 
poles, lighting poles and telegraph poles it makes side arms, cross 
arms, double and single brackets, etc. The products of the company 
embrace everything in the way of street supports for lamps, lights, 
overhead irons and all things connected with electrical work. The 
firm is noted for having had a number of the leading men of the city 
of Philadelphia connected with it. At no time, however, in its history 
have there been many interests. Even now as a corporation the 
stock is almost entirely owned by the officers and the directors. 

Both Mr. Morris and Mr. Tasker lived to be very old men, each 

of them reaching nearly 
a century of life, and they 
passed away only a few 
years ago. Prominent 
among the different own- 
ers were Henry Morris, 
Thomas T. Tasker, Jr., 
A. G. Morris, Wistar 
Morris and Charles 
Wheeler. For the past 




lengths of pipe of different sizes and thicknesses of metal. Manu- 
facturing conditions change to a slight extent the theoretical sizes 
and weights of the different portions of the pole. This, however, 
does not interfere in any appreciable way with the strength rela- 
tively to the weight, and the cost is proportionally less. 

The modern pole of the most approved form consists of three or 
more wrought iron tubes of different diameters. The sections are 
telescoped one within the other far enough to obtain an ample sup- 
port, and the joint made perfect by swedging. The lower section is 
not only the largest, but is of thicker metal. The thickness of the 
metal is, in the lighter poles, decided by the usage to which the pole 
is subjected in the way of accidents, collisions from vehicles,, etc. 
When it is strong enough for this purpose, it is amply thick for 
the work put upon it by the strain of wires, etc. The re- 
maining sections are of such thickness as is found most eco- 
nomical in manufacture, the resulting strength being ample. While 
this form of pole has at last been accepted by all as the best that can 
be found, the methods of manufacture are as various as can be im- 
agined. Morris, Tasker & Company have adopted a system which 
produces a strong, durable pole which is quite ideal in its beauty and 
fitness. In this process the sections used are of such a size that the 
smaller section telescopes within the larger with a small margin to 
spare. The larger section is then brought up to a high heat at the 
point where the joint is to be, the smaller one slipped inside so as to 
make a lap of some eighteen inches in length, and the hot metal 
compressed or swedged till the smaller tube is firmly held by the 
outer tube. This is the solid sunk swedged joint which has given 
their poles a very enviable reputation. Under the influence of the 
compression the two parts are very nearly welded. When cooling 
takes place, shrinking as well as compression of the metal holds the 





C^^ti Ground Line 



FIG. 3.— SIDE BRACKET POLE. 



FIG. 4.— CENTER POLE. 



FIG. 2.— COMBINED TELEGRAPH AND 
RAILWAY POLE. 



ten years the management and control of the business has been in 
the hands of the following officers: Andrew Wheeler, president, 
Jonathan Rollins, vice-president, William R. Mcllvaine, treasurer, 
H. Cheston Vansant, secretary. These gentlemen, together with 
Stephen P. M. Tasker, T. Wistar Brown, and a representation of 
the Charles Wheeler estate constitute the board of directors and the 
entire ownership of the corporation. 

In the matter of poles for the support of wires, lamps, feeders 
and other electric work, the past few years have taught many very 
important and costly lessons. 

Theory indicates that the strongest form in which material can 
be placed to resist strains from all directions, the point of support 
being at a distance from the plane in which the forces act, is that of 
a tapering tube, cylindrical in cross section and having walls gradu- 
ally diminishing in thickness as the diameter becomes smaller. The 
manufacturer finds that the cheapest form of iron pole which can be 
made approximates, closely to the theoretical conditions in being the 
strongest for a given weight of metal. 

In practice the street railway pole is made from three or more 



parts together. Shrinking of the different portions, most of our read- 
ers know, is considered almost sufficient to hold the parts of a gun 
in place, and, in the case of poles, is more than ample. Indeed, the 
poles become stronger at the joints than at any other place. 

Pull-off' poles have been constructed by this method which are 
able to safely take a horizontal strain at the top of seven thousand 
pounds. The solid swedged joint presents a great contrast to the 
pole made up with shims. It always stands up in place without 
bending and without showing an angle at the joints between the sec- 
tions and upon relieving the strain of the wires one joint never 
drops within another. It is also found that shim joints are not so 
tight as to keep out water, and rusting is sometimes rapid. These 
difficulties are all avoided in the swedged joint. 

The engravings show sev-eral new styles of pole made by the 
company to meet the demand for something which shall be both or- 
namental and effective. Fig. 5 is a new design for an electric 
light pole. It provides ample strength for the purpose while its or- 
namental character makes it a desirable feature for street use. 

Fig. 2 shows a decided novelty in the way of iron poles. It is 



Fkbruary, T896.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 129 



a telegraph and trolley pole combined and was designed for Belle- 
ville, Pa. The construction is adapted both for side, bracket, or 
center pole construction. There are insulators for fifty-six wires in 
all. Eight of these are for feeders and the others for telegraphic 
purposes. It is a beautiful design and does away with many of the 
objections usually urged against poles of its class. Its safety is one 
important point which should not be overlooked. A line of such 
poles can be furnished of any desired strength, and such wrecks as 
were reported everywhere in the great snowstorm of a few years ago 
would not be often experienced with such a construction. 

Fig 3. is a twenty-two foot side arm pole decorated at the arm 
as in the last case and having a fine ornamental base casting. These 
castings add very much to the appearance of the pole. 

Fig. 4 is a twenty-two foot center pole adapted to any method 
of wire suspension. 



Type "G" Overhead Material. 




To the full line of overhead material known as form " D " the 
General Electric Company has added as complete a line of another 
type to which it has given the name of form "G." In this form are 
embodied improvements and modifications which have suggested 
themselves as advisable from the experience had with overhead ma- 
terial of previous types. Special attention has been given to strength- 
ening the metal parts at points where the greatest strain is applied. 
In appearance form "G" is somewhat neater than preceding types 
and the metal parts are of malleable iron or composition metal as the 
taste of the purchaser may select. 

In the form "G" material, the metal parts enclose an insulated 
bolt and protect it thoroughly from all moisture and accident; these 
bolts are interchangeable in all form "G" suspensions, and the use 
of this bolt enables the trolley wire supporting ear to be soldered to 




TROLLEY FROG. 

the wire, and the suspension to be assembled afterwards. The form 
"G" material has already secured the favorable consideration of 
railway men. 

The trolley frog and drawbridge frog have undergone improve- 
ments suggested by past experience. These frogs are now so ar- 
ranged that the trolley wheel does not slip as it passes under them. 
The drawbridge frog is a special device and has the advantage of 
giving a firm but flexible contact which allows" ofjconsiderable end 



FIGS. 5 AND 6.— ELECTRIC LIGHT POLES. 




HANGER. 



SECTION SWITCH BOX. 



Fig. 6 shows a new side arm electric light pole. It is a great 
contrast to the so called " poles " which are doing duty for electric 
light supports in most of our smaller towns as well as some of our 
cities. 

From the experience so far gained it appears probable that the 
life of an iron pole with swedged joints is nearly unlimited. The 
outside is easily protected while the interior appears to be so perfectly 
sealed that rusting does not take place. 



play to the bridge over which the trolley line may pass. It avoids 
the use of running feeders to the draw span, the frog connecting the 
trolley wire on the draw to the trolley wire at each end of the shore 
span. 

The section switch boxes have been designed to meet all require- 
ments of line service. The movable side of the switch is connected 
to the trolley line ; when the switch is open the cover of the bo.x may 
be closed and locked to prevent any tampering with the line by un- 
authorized or incompetent persons. 



What Becomes of the Old Trolley and Magnet 

Wire ? 



Calendars for the New Year. 



Very few people outside of a certain line of business know what 
becomes of the large accumulation of scrap copper wire, discarded 
throughout the country by electric railways and elecric lighting 
plants. It would be surprising news to some that there is an in- 
dustry existing that handles such accumulations of scrap copper 
wire, brass, etc., and that there are firms engaged in such business 
whose purchases and sales aggregate from $500,000 to $1,000,000 
annually. 

One company, in particular, engaged in this business in Chi- 
cago, makes a specialty of catering to the street railway and elec- 
trical trade throughout the country, purchasing their accumulation 
of scrap copper, etc., and supplying them with the very highest 
grades of Babbitt metal, solder, pig lead, etc., which is manufactured 
by it. This industry has sprung up only in the last few years and is 
growing very fast. This company is the Swarts Metal Refining Com- 
pany, and it reduces the copper wire into ingot shape and disposes 
of the result to brass foundries and manufacturers requiring copper. 

The company at times gets much larger quantities than it can 
market successfully in this country, and makes large shipments to 
Germany and other countries. 



The number of tasteful calendars issued for i8q6 seems to be 
greater than that of those published in previous years. Among 
others which have been received since the January issue went to 
press and which deserve special mention are that of the Meaker 
Manufacturing Company, which is the color of its registers and bears 
a representation of one of the Meaker registers; one issued by J. 
W. Hoffman & Company, of Philadelphia and New York, one of 
Hoefgen, Moxham & Company bearing an engraving of the yacht 
Defender; one of the Shultz Belting Company with a view of its 
works, and one of P. Pryibil. 



The San Diego Cable Railway Company of San Diego, Cal., has 
issued a pamphlet descriptive of its lines, which will be sold at auc- 
tion March II at the power house of the company in San Diego. 
The pamphlet describes the route and plant of the company, with 
views of the station, cars, etc., and a statement of its earnings for 
different periods. There is also given a report by Frank Van Vleck, 
M. E., as to the value of the plant and facilities for a conversion to 
electric service. The pamphlet also gives some particulars of the 
growth, climate and resources of the city of San Diego. 



130 STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. ^ ^. [Vol. XII. No. 2. 

Brooklyn Heights Parlor Cars. An Inexpensive Electric Fountain. 



The car shown has recently been built by the Barney & Smith 
Car Company for the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, is 25 ft. 
long over the body and 36 ft. long over the platforms. The width 
over the main panels is 7 ft. g ins., the width over the cove panels 
is 7 ft., and the height from the bottom of the sill to the top of the 
roof is 8 ft. 6 ins. The cars are framed with a special iron construc- 
tion, with extended platforms supported by " T " irons. The plat- 
forms are enclosed with railings, with bronze trimmings and with solid 
bronze posts supporting the hoods. The windows of the car are fur- 
nished with selected plate glass, the inside finish is of St. Jago ma- 
hogany handsomely carved and finished in oil. The windows are 



The accompanying engravings show an electric fountain re- 
cently installed by the Syracuse Street Railway Company, and for 
which patents have been applied for by Albert Vickers, recently of 
that company and now of the firm of Rodgers, Baldwin & Vickers. 
The special feature of this fountain is that it can produce elaborate 
and beautiful effects, and yet so simple is the design that it can be 
built cheaply enough to be within the reach of any road that is looking 
for an attraction of this character. 

Incandescent lamps of different candle power and colors are 
used, and the principle of the fountain is that these lamps are im- 
mersed bodily in the nozzles from which the jets are thrown. From 




PARLOR CAR FOR THEATRE PARTIES— BROOKLYN. 



supplied with Burgess tapestry curtains, with Burrowes automatic 
fixtures, and furnished with silk velour draperies of the most artistic 
design. In each of the four corners of the car there is a buffet with 
lockers above and below, the doors in the upper lockers are furnished 
with plate glass mirrors beveled. 



the principle of internal reflections, every drop of water leaving a 
nozzle will be illuminated when the lamps are lighted. The lamps 
are of several colors, and these can be changed at will, changing the 
color of the jets. The jets can of course be made in any form, and 
the amount of water used can be varied to suit any conditions, from 




B.-ass 
Plate Rubber gasket. 

^ Heavy tin. 

Semicircle 

ot brass. 



Center of fountain. 



INTERIOR OF PARLOR CAR. 

The doors of the car are of the double automatic pattern at each 
end. There are three incandescent electric chandeliers in each car, 
with an incandescent goose neck bracket over each buffet. The 
headlining in the car is of composite pattern, such as used in steam 
railroad parlor cars, and are ornamented in the most artistic manner 
by hand. The hand straps are carried on bronze hand rods sup- 
ported on solid bronze brackets of the latest design. The seating is 
of loose wicker chairs, finely upholstered. The floor is covered with 
the Bigelow Wilton carpet. Each car is also supplied with two tables, 
which may be attached to the sides of the car at different places. 

The cars are painted a Marseilles royal blue, and ornamented in 
■gold leaf, as shown on the elevation. 

The cars are mounted on Barney & Smith's standard Class " E " 
suspension spring motor trucks, and are so arranged that the height 
ot the body is very little different from that of the ordinary four 
wheel car, the wheels are 30 ins. in diameter. 

In addition to the seating capacity above mentioned, each car is 
supplied with twelve camp stools, carried in boxes on each platform, 
which may be used in case seats are desired on the platform. 

The cars have just been received by the railway company, and 
will be leased for theatre and trolley parties and other excursions. 




Sprays shown by 
arrows. 



DETAILS 



ELECTRIC FOUNTAIN. 



a form of many jets using many gallons of water to one throwing 
nothing but a fine mist. 

The fountain had five rim fan jets, not shown, as well 



Fl-'.l'.RUA RY, I.S96.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



as two center drum jets. Each rim jet is provided with tliree colors. 
The lower central drum has lamps of three colors alternately around 
the inside of the drum, and the top drum has four colors. By mak- 
ing suitable connections, the three rim colors may be revolved in 
one direction, the lower central drum colors may be revolved in the 
opposite direction and the central jet may bechanced independently, 
into any ot four or five colors, or the wliole fountain may be made 
any one of the three colors. The alternations are made from a drum 
switchboard to which the connections are run. With this simplicity 
of design and flexibility of manipulation it is easy to see that even 
in the very simple form illustrated, what endless combinations and 
beautiful effects are possible. 



Air Brakes in Street Railway Service. 



The increasing speeds of cable and electric cars in our densely 
crowded citv streets, and particularly the speeds which are getting to 
be common on the highways between cities and 
towns, in the competition with parallel steam 
railway lines, are making absolutely necessary 
the adoption of methods of braking which shall 
be, in power and quickness of application, at 
least proportionately as efficient as those which 
have been developed in steam railroading. From 
the universal use of air brakes in railroad service 
the conclusion is natural that compressed air has 
been found in practice to be peculiarly fitted for 
this special purpose, and it may readily be sup- 
posed that inventors have been busily at work in 
trying to solve the problems connected with the 
use of air brakes on street railway cars. 

These problems however, present unusual 
difficulties, if among the problems to be solved is 
included that of low first cost, and until the last 
two years no large success had been achieved 
either in building satisfactory brakes at a reason- 
able cost or in bringing street railway managers 
to an understanding of the necessity of replacing 
hand brakes with the " quick acting" power of 
compressed air. Some two years ago, however, 
the air brake problems were grappled with by 
strong men — men who were capable of taking a 



from Australia and from many of the principal cities of the United 
States are coming orders and contracts which are taxing its facilities to 
the extreme, and which make promises of deliveries difficult to keep. 
The company's business department has been successful beyond 
precedent or expectation in awakening an interest among street rail- 
way managers in what can be done by compressed air for the pro- 
tection of their passengers and property, and in the reduction of 
their annual damage account. Mr. Wessels' active and persistent 
campaign in this direction has produced remarkable results of which 
the company may well be proud. 

The company is to-day equipping with its air brakes, cars found 
in every kind of service — thirty-five foot double truck cars as well 
as twenty foot single truck cars — cars for heavy grade work as well 
as for level lines — and its chief engineer, Mr. Merriam, is boldly at- 
tacking every special problem presented for the company's considera- 
tion. It will be of interest to refer to a few of these problems in 
order to understand exactly the kind of work which the company is 
undertaking. 





FIG. 2.— AIR BRAKE CONTROLLER. 

large view of the field and who were determined to build up an in- 
dustry which should have for its main object the more perfect pro- 
tection of life and property in municipal transportation. 

The Standard Air Brake Company has created a demand for air 
brakes which it finds it difficult to satisfy to-day, in spite of constantly 
increasing manufacturing facilities. From England, from Germany, 



FIG. 1,— CABLE CAR EQUIPPED WITH AIR BRAKE. 

The equipment of the eight calile cars used on the 
Montague Street hill of the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Com- 
pany, from Wall Street Ferry to City Hall, has just been 
completed. This division had met with several unfortunate 
accidents due to lack of proper braking capacity, the last be- 
ing one in which the car got beyond the control of the grip- 
man and ran down hill, crashing into the bumper at the 
ferry. President Rossiter, becoming convinced that hand 
brakes were of insullicient power, decided to equip these 
cars with air brakes, and the Standard Company has put on 
its axle driven compressor, which is especially adapted for 
cars running at moderate speeds. The Brooklyn Heights cars 
illustrated in Fig. i. The grades on this line rise to a maxi- 
mum of ten per cent for nearly one-quarter of its length. 

Many interesting conditions were met with in equipping 
these cars. One was the necessity for compressing air very 
quickly, so as to provide for frequent stops, the entire road 
being so short. Special reservoirs were made, together with 
a quick acting compressor which provides sufficient air for 
every possible demand. Again, the brake cylinder is mount- 
ed on the truck, instead of on the car body, as is usual. The 
cars have single trucks, with an eight foot wheel base and 
thirty inch wheels. The speed is about eight miles per hour. 

In Fig. 2 is shown the controlling apparatus used on 
these cars. The upper platform type of valve is used, which 
])rovides the least obstruction on the platform and does away 
with the pipes formerly used. All that is visible is the valve, 
the controlling staff, next to which is the small gauge pipe, 
the quadrant containing the gauge, and the removable con- 
trolling handle. The air brakes are relied upon for all kinds 
of stops from the ordinary service to the full emergency 
application. The car is also equipped with hand brakes, 
which are not used, however, in regular stoppages. 

The company has also equipped with its brakes the five 
eight wheeled combination postal and passenger cars recently 
put into service by the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, 
one of which is shown in Fig. 3. These cars weigh over ten 
tons each, exclusive of passengers and mails. Three- are 
running on the East New York section and two from the 
Post Office to Greenpoint. They travel over several grades, 
one of which is long and especially dangerous because of 
a bad crossing at the foot, where there is also a congestion 
of wagon traffic. It has always been difficult to brake cars 
on this grade as wagon drivers run undue risks in attempting 
to cross tracks when cars are coming down grade. The 
speed of these postal cars may occasionally rise to such a 
point as to make the quick and certain application of brakes 
important, and the fact that the Standard air brakes have 
been chosen for this service is significant. It is worthy of 
note, by the way, that with the Standard air brake there is 
said to be little difficulty in using the sand boxes. In cases of emer- 
gency, the motorman throws his handle completely over and sets 
the brake and can then devote his entire attention to properly sand- 
ing the track. The company now offers a special device by which 
with one turn of the handle sand is run out and the air brake applied. 
It is a well earned compliment to the Standard air brakes that 



132 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company is equipping its parlor cars 
Amphion and iVIontauk with them, and that the third (not yet de- 
livered) will also be so equipped. The weight of these cars is ap- 
proximately nine tons without passengers. They will be used in 
different parts of Brooklyn and will therefore have to travel over very 
bad grades in numerous places. One of these cars is illustrated on 
page 130. 

In Fig. 4 will be seen the long double truck car of the Washing- 
ton, Alexandria & 
Mt. Vernon Rail- 
way Company, 
eighteen of which 
are equipped with 
the Standard brakes. 
This road will oper- 
ate its cars at very 
high speeds, up to 
forty-five miles per 
hour, on account of 
which, and of the 
motor and truck 
arrangement, the 
Standard Company 
is using its geared 
compressor type, an 
illustration of which 
was shown in the 
January issue of 
the Journal. These 
com.pressors are not 
mounted on the mo- 
tor axles, but on the 
small wheel axles of 
the Brill Maximum 
Traction Trucks. A 
high grade of effi- 
ciency is said tohave 



Electric Switching on the Brooklyn Bridge. 

The success attending the electric equipment of the Chicago In- 
tramural Railway, the Metropolitan West Side Railway and the Nan- 
tasket Beach Railway, has led the trustees of the Brooklyn Bridge to 
request the General Electric Company to equip one car with their ap- 
paratus in order to demonstrate the advantages of electric motive 
power on the Bridge. 




eOOKLVnCITV RaILPO 




FIG. 3.— MAIL CAR EQUIPPED WITH AIR BRAKE- BROOKLYN CITY RAILWAY. 



been developed by these compressors in recent trials. 

These contracts, in addition to others now being filled for simi- 
lar and even more difficult classes of work, show that the company is 
making rapid and sure headway. The business management of the 
company is responsible in a large degree for the very satisfactory re- 
sults already achieved, since Mr. Wessels is not only able to care for 
the financial and selling interests of the company, but exercises a di- 
rect influence in the engineering and mechanical departments, 
through his sound common sense and business judgment. The com- 
pany is also fortunate in its chief engineer, Mr. Henry P. Merriam, 
whose training as a mechanical and electrical engineer is not super- 
ficial, but has been gained through hard experience in electric rail- 
roading, and in some of the best machine shops of the country, 
while a fundamental knowledge of principles was acquired by him in 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the foremost engineering 



The general plan is to mount four 50 h.p. motors on the axles of one 
car of each train.' These passenger car locomotives will remain with 
the trains at all times, and will switch the trains from the incoming 
to the outgoing platform, and to the tilting sheaves, where the trains 
are attached to the cable. If, while ascending the 3.78 p. c. grade, 
the grips should slip and a train be in danger of stopping, the elec- 
tric motors can be employed to assist the train over the summit. 
During the early morning hours, when the cable is not running, the 
trains may be operated entirely by electric motors. 

By supplying each train with its own facilities for switching, the 
interference of the locomotives with the incoming and outgoing 
trains will be avoided and the complexity of the switching reduced 
one-half. Of course, the common nuisances of a locomotive will be 
done away with. The noise, steam, ashes and gases will be com- 
pletely banished. 




FIG. 4.— DOUBLE TRUCK CAR EQUIPPED WITH AIR BRAKE— WASHINGTON. ALEXANDRIA & MT. VERNON RAILWAY. 



school in the country. Finally, the financial support given to Mr. 
Wessels has been generous and unfailing, the company's stockhold- 
ers being among the best known and most influential international 
financiers. 

The Eighth Avenue Metropolitan Lease. 



The Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York City, 
has just issued a general order to officers and employes dated Jan- 
uary r, i8g6, and referring to its acquisition of the Eighth Avenue 
Railroad through a lease taking effect on January i. This property 
will be operated as the Eighth Avenue division of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway system, and the authority of the general officers and 
heads of departments of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company 
will be extended over the division. 



The controlling apparatus is in duplicate and the motors can be 
operated from either platform. 

It is also the desire of the trustees to heat the cars by electricity, 
and twelve electric heaters will be located in each car. Further de- 
tails of the interesting installation contemplated will be given in our 
columns shortly. 

With each train equipped with electric light, heat and motive 
power, and possibly with a telephone connection, the Bridge Rail- 
way will fitly illustrate the advance in electric art of this day. 

The Winchester, Arlington' & Waterford Street Railway Com- 
pany, of Winchester, Mass., has been organized to build an electric 
railway in the suburbs of Boston. Capital stock, $150000. Among 
those interested are : Chas. F. Chandler, John H. Cunningham, of 
Chelsea, Mass. ; James F. Shaw, W. W. Kimball, of Arlington, Mass. ; 
A. B. Coffin, of Winchester; E. C. Benton, of Belmont, Mass. 



February, 1896.] 







STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



133 



New Motor Truck. 



The accompanying illustration shows a new pattern of motor 
truck, designed and patented by E, A. Curtis. It is designed espe- 
cially to overcome the disagreeable and hurtful element of oscillation 
caused by both high speed and uneven track surfaces. This object 
is accomplished by the application of an equalizing principle, which 
enables the car body to retain and travel in a horizontal position un- 
der all conditions, instead of responding to every lateral and vertical 
thrust of the truck frame. By the use of a jaw which fastens to the 
underside of the top strap of Iruck-and extends down on each side of 
the rear of pedestal, the springs are rendered absolutely free from all 
thrust or jar, thus enabling them to act as springs only at all times. 

The springs supporting the car body are situated at the extreme 
ends of the equalizing bars instead of directly on the frame of the 



the day. It projects only three inches beyond the dashboard and 
being made of malleable iron is practically indestructible. 

The lamp has been adopted as standard by a large number of 
companies, including the West End Street Railway Company, of 
Boston, Mass., and the Brooklyn Heights Railway Company, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., both of whom speak in excellent terms of it. 

All the rights and titles of this device are owned by F. E. Hunt- 
ress. 



Triplc=Drum 



EighURoll 
Machine. 



Sand=Pap«"ing 



The machine shown herewith is designed to sand-paper planed 
surfaces of material for panels, doors, or any class of work in street 



SPRING BASE 15 FT 




■--WHEEL BASE B FT. - - ^ 

NEW MOTOR TRUCK. 



iruck, and the only point of communication between the truck frame 
and the spring seats being through the one and one-half inch steel 
pins that confine the equalizing bars in the saddle at top of pedes- 
tal, the car body is relieved of all jar or trembling. The projection of 
the long equalizing bars beyond the ends of the truck gives a greatly 
extended spring base, resulting, it is claimed, in a very superior sup- 
port for the car body. 

The truck frame rides on eight springs independent of springs 
carrying the car body, situated inside the pedestals, and therefore 
rides softly and easily and free from rigidity. The truss for the car 
body is so constructed and applied that it is absolutely free from con- 
tact with the springs or frame of the truck and is practically a part 
of the car body. 

In the effort to produce a truck embodying the very best riding 
qualities, resulting not only in the comfort of the passenger, but in 
prolonging the life of both equipment and roadbed, simplicity of 
construction and maximum strength have been observed at every 
point. 

» I ■ I ^ 

Electric Headlights. 



The accompanying engraving shows an electric headlight of 
which F. E. Huntress & Company are agents, and which is manu- 
factured by Neal Electric Headlight Company. The advantages of 
electric headlights are many, among which may be mentioned the 
fact that there is no smell of oil when sitting on the front seat of an 
open car, the cost of maintenance is very small, the expense of labor 




ELECTRIC HEADLIGHT. 

for cleaning and filling lamps is entirely avoided and they abolish 
kerosene from the car house, reducing liability from fire and lower- 
ing insurance rates. All of these facts make the cost of maintenance 
of the electric over the oil lamp very great. 

The arrangement of the lamp is such that there is no interfer- 
ence with the lettering on the dashboard. The headlight is painted 
the same color as the dashboard, making it hardly noticeable during 



car construction requiring a perfect surface either for varnishing or 
painting. It is heavy and substantial and made to work 30 ins., 
36 ins., 42 ins., 48 ins. and 60 ins. wide. The drums are of steel, three 
in number, and upon them the sand-paperis placed and graded accord- 
ing to the work to be done. The first drum carries a coarse grade of 
paper, the second a fine grade for smoothing, and the third a finer 
grade for giving the material the polished surface. Each has 
an oscillating or vibratory motion laterally across the material to 
prevent the formation of lines which would result if the revolving 
motion was direct. They are equipped with a device for placing the 
sand-paper about them and giving it the proper tension in the short- 




SAND-PAPERING MACHINE. 



est possible time. The drum-shafts revolve in heavy bearings, 
gibbed to the sides, and with adjustments to lift both ends of the 
drums at once, or either end separately for alignment. By a 
special device they can be easily adjusted or removed by raising the 
entire roller and bed frame. 

The feeding rolls are eight in number, four above and four be- 
low the platen, driven by a train of heavy expansion gearing, and 
giving a powerful feed. They are placed so the material will pass 
between the upper and lower sets and open to receive material eight 
inches thick. The lower rollers are placed one on each side of each 
drum, each roller is located in a separate bed-plate, which is adjust- 
able with the roller, and the roller having a separate adjustment 
from the bed-plate. Each bed-plate can be set to gauge the amount 
of cut to each drum, or all the bed-plates can be set in line and the 
drums set to the cut desired above this line. The feed is governed 
by a double belt-tightener operated by a hand lever. A brush at- 
tachment is provided for cleaning the material as it passes finished 
from the machine. The machine is built by J. A. Fay & Company. 



134 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



Flexible Pole Brackets. 



The accompanying illustrations show the i8g6 patterns of the 
Creaghead pole bracket. The desirability of a flexible support for 
trolley wires on high speed roads is fully appreciated by those hav- 
ing had experience with rigid bracket supports, the hammering and 

sudden jars peculiar to stiff forms of 
brackets being avoided by their use. 

As will be seen a number of im- 
provements have been made over the 
*i _ ■ fc-«prfU» company's former pattern. The 

4jJ[i'2!l|tJj|l ||t^5f^' bracket for wood poles and for single 

track construction is made in lengths 
from seven feet to twelve feet and up 



sible in many stations hitherto unable to use them on account of the 
difficulty in installing them, where they can be conveniently read. 

The station output meters known as form G are constructed 
upon the same principle as the recording wattmeter, the construc- 
tion undergoing modification, however, to adapt the instrument to 
the conditions imposed by extremely heavy loads. They are con- 
structed upon the series principle, the entire current passing through 




FIG 1.— FLEXIBLE BRACKET 
FOR IRON POLES. 




FIG. 2.— FLEXIBLE BRACKET FOR WOODEN POLES. 

to twenty feet in length, by adding a second guy rod for proper 
support. For double track work, center pole construction, a 
double track bracket is made with arm extending through the 
pole and arranged and supported on each side in manner simi- 
lar to supports for the single bracket. 

The bracket for iron poles has clamps for its attachment to 
the pole. The end casting is of malleable iron and is 
arranged with an insulator in the bottom of the casting to which the 
span wire is attached. A strain insulator is shown in the span wire 
near the center casting. The insulator in the casting at one end of 
bracket and strain insulator in center of the span wire, insulates the 
span on which trolley insulator is hung from the bracket and iron 
pole. This arrangement provides double insulation between the 
trolley wire and the iron pole. This bracket is made in slightly 
modified form, omitting the insulation for the span wire, leaving 
only one insulation between the trolley and the bracket and reducing 
the cost. 

Brackets similar to that shown are also furnished for double 
track center pole construction in lengths to suit the work. This 
center pole bracket construction with iron poles is very popular in 
cities with wide streets. 



Dials for Wattmeters. 



In central stations and railway power stations using Thomson 
recording wattmeters to measure the total output from each 
machine, or upon each feeder, the grouping of the dials of all 
the meters in one place where they could be conveniently read at one 
time has been frequently urged as advantageous. The General 
Electric Company has therefore brought out a telltale dial system. 
This permits the placing of all the dials upon one panel and the 
installation of the meters out of ordinary reach, as it is no longer 
necessary to read them each day. 

The necessary wiring from the meters to the panel is simple and 
inexpensive. The panels can be duplicated and the performance of 
the meters be read either in the dynamo room or in the manager's 
office, or any other necessary place, and the performance of the sta- 
tion be accurately learned at any time. Each row of dials on the 
panel represents a single generator or feeder, and the recording indi- 
cator is actuated every kilowatt hour by a simple make and break 
device upon the meter. The dials are several times larger than those 
on the ordinary meter, and they are all direct reading, all constants 
being eliminated by modifications of the actuating mechanism. It is 
only necessary in ordering the telltale dial, to state the constant of 
each meter and the character of the generator, the panel can then be 
properly lettered. The introduction of this ingenious telltale system 
renders the use of a complete system of station output meters pos- 




FIG. 2.— MECHANISM OF WATTMETER. 

the field, and thus any error and possibility of loss which might 
result from the use of a high capacity shunt is eliminated. 

These meters are adapted for direct application to^lthe switch- 
board, the studs supporting the meter passing through the board 
and the bus bars and forming the electrical connection. The con- 
ducting parts are of forged copper of high conductivity. The three 
sizes of these instruments, for either lOO volt or 500 volt circuits, are 
2500, 5000 and 8000 amperes. 



February, 1896.] A<j ^ ^ STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



135 



Coal Pocket at Astoria, N. Y. 



The new coal bin or storage pocket, which has recently been 
erected at Astoria, N. Y., by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company, for the 
Steinway Railway Company, is attracting much attention. The de- 
sign is unique and seems to possess many points of merit, since the 
floor space occupied is exceedingly small for the amount of coal the 
pocket is capable of storing. 

The pocket is cylindrical in form, and is so constructed that the 
pressure on all sides is equal. The pocket is 28 ft. in diameter, 54 ft. 
high, and has a capacity of 1000 tons. The coal is unloaded from a 
barge or car in the ordinary way, and hoisted by a bucket to the top 
of the pocket by an ordinary hoisting engine. It is taken out of the 



These side pieces are rigidly attached together by a ten-inch tran- 
som bolster, which is fitted at its ends in strong and thoroughly 
braced pockets formed on the side pieces which embrace this bolster, 
for sixteen inches at each end, and are thoroughly bolted or riveted 
thereto. 

This construction of the truck frame accomplishes two results 
besides giving a very easy riding passenger car. One is to hold the 
truck rigidly in square, and the other is to connect the journal boxes 
of the driving wheels with their load, directly and in practically the 
same way as in steam locomotive construction. All the pulling is 
done directly by the journal boxes of the driving axles upon the ped- 
estal openings of the truck frame, which are directly and rigidly con- 
nectetl to the load without the intervention of any swinging, vertic- 





COAL POCKET AT ASTORIA, N. Y. 

pocket through an opening in the bottom, and can then be delivered 
to the boiler by machinery or hand power, as may be required. But 
its principal recommendation is its large capacity for small floor 
surface. 

New Combined Electric Locomotive and 
Passenger Truck. 



The accompanying cuts show a nev.' departure in motor rolling 
stock for elevated and high speed surface roads, in the "L" truck, 
built for the Lake Street Elevated Railway, Chicago, and the Brook- 
lyn Bridge, by the McGuire Manufacturing Company. 

This truck is designed to carry a car both on straight track and 
on curves with the same easy motion that modern steam passenger 
cars have, in combination with practically the same points of draught 
or draught connections between the driving wheels and body or at- 
tached train, that a modern steam locomotive has. Equalizing bars, 
similar to those on a modern passenger coach truck, are mounted on 
the axle journal boxes in the usual manner, except that cushion 
springs are interposed between their ends and the top of the journal 
boxes. These equalizers are double or two to each side of each 
truck, to permit the truck frame to play between them as hereafter 
described. 

On these equalizers are mounted two cross sills, from which are 
suspended the electric motors, so that the wheels, axles, equalizers, 
and motors, all move together, and entirely independent of the truck 
frame and car body. This forms the electric locomotive, which, it 
will be noticed, is cushioned on the axle journal boxes, as above de- 
scribed, and on this locomotive frame is mounted the passenger 
truck, so to speak, in such a manner as to obtain practically the same 
draught and connections as a locomotive and practically the same 
riding qualities as a passenger coach, as follows, viz.: 

Two equalizer springs are mounted on each pair of equalizers 
(four per truck) in the usual manner, and from the two cross or motor 
sills above mentioned are suspended, on inclined swinging links, a 
spriniT plank for receiving two elliptic springs on each end (or four 
per truck). On these four spiral equalizers and four central elliptic 
springs is mounted the truck frame, consisting of two side pieces 
having openings formed in each end for embracing the journal boxes 
between the double equalizer bars, clearance being allowed to per- 
mit the wheels to have a lateral motion of ij^ ins. in either direction 
independent of the truck frame. 



FIG. 1.— SIDE VIEW OF TRUCK. 




FIG. 2.— END View OF TRUCK. 

ally vibrating bolster. At the same time an equivalent action for easy 
riding on the truck frame is obtained by the side and vertical move- 
ment of the ten-inch equalizer and elliptic springs and swinging links, 
as above described. 

The brakes are located inside the wheels. This avoids the ne- 
cessity of extending the truck frame beyond the wheels, making a 
short, compact truck, occupying the least possible space under the 
car and making the truck frame less liable to damage in case of acci- 
dent. These brakes are perfectly equalized, surround the motor 
without interfering in any way with it, will not lengthen or shorten 
by the movement of the truck on curves, and are of simple construc- 
tion. 

The brakes are suspended from the truck frame by patent elas- 
tic brake hangers, which form shoe backs, brake hangers, equalizing 
levers, and adjustable release springs all in one, and at the same 
time take up their own lost motion, preventing all chattering and 
kicking of the brakes which has hitherto been a common fault of 
swinging brake hangers. 



New Electric Brake. 



Some experiments have recently been tried on the Ogden City 
Street Railway of Ogden, Utah, of an electric brake, a description of 
which was published in the Journal for April, 1894. The general 
principle upon which this brake works is that of a solenoid with, how- 
ever, the addition of a second lever worked by electric power holding 
the plunger of the solenoid in either a set or free condition, so that no 
current need be taken continuously from the line to keep the brake 
in any position. The device, which is very ingenious, was designed 
by Messrs. Skinner and Borland, of that railway company. 

The brake for a ten ton double truck car weighs complete about 
200 lbs. and the leverage between the brake plunger and the shoes is 
as twenty to one. The current required for setting the brakes is 
from five to ten ampereg. 

A Thomson wattmeter was placed in brake circuit in a recent 
experiment and a counter on the brake to count the applications 
made. The average power required to operate the brake in 2000 ap- 
plications was about 4 h.p. for five seconds, equal to .006 h.p. hour. 
This test was made when the brake was in usual service and the 
motorman was making stops for passengers. The brake showed ex- 
cellent results in stopping the car at high speed and has made stops 
in fifty feet when running at high speed. 



136 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XIL No. 2. 




RAI LWAX 



' > I r"^/ ■/ tin r> 



Notes from England. 

{-By Our London Correspondent) 



The receipts of the Glasgow Corporation Tramways for the half 
year ending Dec. 31 last show an increase over the corresponding 
month of i8g4 of .,{^43743, or nearly a quarter of a million dollars. 
It has to be explained, however, that this enormous increase arises 
from exceptional causes and cannot be expected to continue in the 
future. The second half of 1894 represented the first six months- 
working after the Town Council took over the undertaking from the 
displaced tramway company, and during nearly the whole period a 
full service of cars was not run, as both men and animals were only 
getting familiar with and inured to the work. Glasgow is the great- 
est specimen we have of tramways being worked by a Town Coun- 
cil, and there have been many prophecies of failure. The accounts 
which were published last summer of the first year's working were 
subjected to much criticism, as many tramway men considered that 
the apparent profit shown was not real, and held that no sufficient 
allowances had been made for depreciation, etc. It will be impos- 
sible to say how the Town Council is now standing till the annual 
accounts are issued next summer, but I am informed on good 
authority that the Town Council considers that it is at present mak- 
ing profits at the rate of some /"40000 per annum. Whether this is 
after making any larger percentages of deduction for depreciation 
and renewals than in the first year I cannot tell. On the capitaliza- 
tion of ^565000 the above profit would represent about seven per 
cent. 

An example of the old saying that the worm will turn comes 
from Huddersfield, where the Town Council has for a few years 
been working the tramways at a loss. The corporation carries on 
the work on the plea that it has been unable to get a reason- 
able offer for the lease of the lines. It is proposed to apply for 
powers in the coming session ■of Parliament to work the lines 
permanently, but this was more than the long suffering Hudders- 
field ratepayers could stand, and such an agitation arose that the 
proposal has been abandoned. 

London County Council is about to buy up, under the provi- 
sion of the Tramways Act, 1870, further portions of the lines of the 
London Street Tramways Company. Doubtless these parts will in 
the meantime be leased to the present company. 

Swansea Town Council will buy the local tramways, lease them 
to the operating company, and sell to the company electric energy 
for propelling the cars. The Town Council will from the same 
generating station light the town electrically. The corporation will 
equip the line and lend money to the company for the purchase of 
electric cars. A most amicable arrangement has been come to, and 
the scheme is a fine comprehensive one. The company agrees to 
take from the corporation a minimum of 400000 units at two pence 
per unit. If the quantity rises to 600000, the price willbeis^,/. 
(that is three and a half cents) per unit, and if 750000 units are sup- 
plied, the charge will be only Y^Ad. per unit. It is expected that 
the corporation's revenue from the tramway company will largely 
defray the cost of the street lighting. Accumulators will be used to 
assist the engines during the period of the overlapping of the day 
and night loads. 



San Francisco Notes. 



It appears as if the San Francisco and San Mateo Railway had 
finally reached the end of its eventful career. On January 3 .Tudge 
Seawell of the Superior Court ordered that the road be sold to the 
highest bidder— that from the proceeds of this sale the expenses in- 
curred by the receiver, including the receiver's certificates, should be 
paid first, the claims of preferred creditors second, the employes' 
claims for back wages third, and the bond holders last. 

This road was originally built in '9i-'g2 and had a length of 
thirteen miles. On the route of the road were two grades of eleven 
per cent each and 500 ft. long. It has had a checkered history. 
The line may be purchased by the bondholders. Next to them the 
Sutter Street Railway is spoken of. The Market Street Company is, 
of course, frequently suggested as a probable purchaser, but as it 
has already paralleled all the San Mateo lines on easier grades it 
would gain little by the move. 

Work on Mayor Sutro's electric road is being finished up pre- 
paratory to the opening of the road on February i. Thig road was 
built as the result of an ineffectual effort on the part of Mr. Sutro to 
compel the Market Street Company to reduce the*fare to five cents 



frcjm the ferry landing at the foot of Market Street to the Cliff House. 
When he actually began work, the fare was reduced by the old com- 
pany, but as Mr. Sutro had many blocks of land along the route of 
his new road, the work was prosecuted to a finish. The transfer with 
the Sutter Street Company practically makes the rate on through busi- 
ness two and a half cents per passenger. To stimulate travel a series 
of attractions has been arranged by the builder of the road at the 
Cliff House end of the line. On the site of the old Cliff House, that 
was burned down a year ago, has been built a fine three-story struct- 
ure overlooking the seal rocks and giving an unobstructed view 
down the beach and across the Golden Gate. No expense has been 
spared to make this complete and modern in every respect. On the 
beach below Mr. Sutro has erected at great expense magnificent en- 
closed baths in which water directly from the ocean is used after be- 
ing warmed by condensing the steam from the railway engines. His 
private grounds are also open, but these attractions are free only to 
such visitors as have reached the Cliff House via the Sutro road. 
Those coming on other lines will be charged admission fees. The 
work of changing the one and a half miles of Oak Street double 
track cable roadway of the Market Street Railway Company, between 
Fillmore and Stanyan, to a single track electric line has been com- 
pleted. The unfinished track work on Folsom Street from Second to 
19th will be taken up ne.xt. Work has also been finished on the 
Bryant Street line and a trial trip was successfully made Dec. 31. 

As if there was not enough excitement in attending horse races, 
a car load ol race people on the Ingleside branch of the Market Street 
Company's Mission Street line, were treated to a still further stimu- 
lus to their nervous centers on Christmas day by four highwaymen. 
These men stopped the car on a lonely part of the return trip, shot 
one man and escaped with the plunder, about $1200. As yet the per- 
petrators have not been apprehended. 



News Items. 



Albany, N. Y. — The Albany, Greenbush & Bath Railway Com- 
pany and the Albany Railway have asked for the same franchises in 
the village of Greenbush. 

Asbury Park, N. J. — The Board of Aldermen of Long Branch 
has granted a franchise to the Atlantic Coast Electric Railway Com- 
pany. C. A. Hammond is general manager of the company. 

Baltimore, Md. — J. M. Hood, president of the Western Mary- 
land Railway Company, Baltimore, Md., is thinking of organizing 
a company to build an electric railway to Fairview. 

Barre, Vt. — F. C. Kennedy, A. E. Humphrey, J. J. Flynn and 
J. C. Pierson, of Burlington, Vt., have signed an agreement with 
the incorporators of the Barre Electric Company, whereby an electric 
railway will be built and be in operation by July, 1897, in Barre 
and East Barre Centre, three miles distant. 

Basic City, Va. — Plans for the construction of the Basic City, 
Bridgewater & Piedmont Electric Railway Company are being dis- 
cussed. E. P. Wilson is general manager of the company. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — The electrical engineers of the surface rail- 
ways of Brooklyn have been invited to furnish the executive com- 
mittee of the new East River Bridge Commission with information 
necessary to determine the system under which electric cars shall be 
run on the new bridge when built. 

Charleston, S. C. — Julian Fishburne and others have asked 
for a franchise to construct an electric railway in Charleston. 

Charlevoix, Mich. — A franchise for an electric railway has been 
granted to the Charlevoix Electric Light Company. Charles Gabriel 
is manager of the company. 

Chicago, 111. — The Arnold Electric Power Station Company has 
been'incorporated to construct and equip electric plants and electric 
railways. Incorporators: Arthur F. McArthur, Bion J. Arnold and 
Henry W. Magee. 

Chickasawba, Ark. — John B. Driver, L. W. Gosnell and others, 
have formed the Chickasawba, Luxora & Gilmore Railway Company 
to build an electric railway about twelve miles long. 

Cohoes, N. Y. — The Cohoes City Railway Company may extend 
its line to Crescent. Urban Weldon is president of the company. 

Cleveland, O. — A franchise for an electric railway from Barber- 
ton to Hametown has been granted to T. F. Walsh, representing the 
Akron & Cuyahoga Falls Rapid Transit Company. 



FkUKU AKV, 1896.1 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



V. A.Tavi.ok and I". H. Eg^ers, Cuyahoga Building, Cleveland, 
can give further information about the construction of the Cleveland 
& Chagrin Railroad Company, recently incorporated. 

Cohoes, N. Y. — The Cohoes City Railway Company has made 
all arrangements for the extension of its line to West Troy. 
Urban Wclden is president. 

Detroit, Mich. — The Detroit Railway Company has asked for 
permission to build forty-five miles of new track. W. E. Davis is 
purchasing agent for the company. 

Elizabeth, N. J. — The motive power of the Elizabeth Street 
Railway Company will soon be changed from horse to electricity. 
J. C. Husbands is superintendent of the company. 

Elyria, O. — Another franchise tor an electric railway has been 
granted to James L. Mauldin, of Cievelanil, (). 

Hamilton, Ont.— The International Radial Railway Company 
will receive information about steam, electric, gas, or any other 
motive power which can be used on 350 miles of railway to be built 
in and around Hamilton. The officers are : President, A. Burns ; 
vice-president, A. McKay ; secretary, J. D. Andrews ; treasurer, W. 
G. Lumsden ; attorney, P. D. Crerar ; chief engineer, Joseph Powell. 

Hoquiam, Wash. — H. C. lleermans has been granted a fran- 
chise to build an electric railway in Hoquiam. 

Kingston, N. Y. — A franchise has been granted to the Rondout 
& Eddyville Electric Railway Company. 

New York, N. Y. — The Board of Aldermen has granted several 
franchises for extensions to the Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
pany. A. C. Tully, 106 51st Street, J^ew York, is purchasing agent 
for the company. 

Norwich, Conn. — The route for the electric railway between 
Norwich and New London has been surveyed, and it is e.Kpected to 
have the line completed by May 20. E. P. Shaw, Jr., of Norwich, is 
interested. 

Orange, N. J. — It is probable that a franchise for an extension 
to its line will be granted to the South Orange & Maplewood Street 
Railway Company on January 16. Frank Brewer is president of the 
company. 

Patchogue, N. Y. — J. B. Swezey, of Patchogue, is secretary of a 
company that will build an electric railway from Port Jefferson to 
Patchogue at once. 

Plattsburgh, N. Y. — The Plattsburgh Traction Company has 
been organized to build an electric railway in Plattsburgh. Among 
those interested are S. M. Weed, H. M. Pierson, H. G. Runke, D. 
F. Dobie and H. E. Barnard. 

Portsmouth, Va. — The Prentis Place Land Company is think- 
ing of building an electric railway to Pinner's Point, a distance of 
three miles. 

Providence, R. L — Work will be commenced on the electric 
railway from Watch Hill to Narragansett Pier in February. Wm. 
C. Clark, of Wakefield, R. I., is interested in the enterprise. 

San Diego, Cal. — The Bailey Triple Ledge Gold Mining Com- 
pany has been incorporated to construct highways, railroads, elec- 
tric, steam, or other motive power and chutes to and from mines. 
Capital stock, $100,000. Incorporators: L. H. Bailey, of Banner, 
Cal., A. C. Nason and O. C. Dranga, of San Diego, E. A. Stanley, of 
Julian, Cal., and Jas. A. Jasper, of Ramona, Cal. 

Stockton, Cal. — Robert Doble, president of the Stockton Water 
Company, Mr. Hatch, of the Hatch-Armstrong Company, and Mr. 
Langford, of the Langford Colony, all of Stockton, are talking of 
building an electric railway from Stockton to the mines in the 
vicinity. 

Syracuse, N. Y. — A franchise has been granted to the Syracuse 
& Oneida Lake Electric Railway Company. 

Urbana, O. — A franchise has been .granted to the L'rbana & 
Mechanicsburg Electric Railway Company to build an electric rail- 
way twelve miles long. George M. Eichelberger, and E. Hunter 
Moore are interested. 

Waterloo, la. — The Waterloo & Cedar Falls Rapid Transit 
Company will let contracts for the construction of its line, fifteen 
miles long. L. S. Cass, of Sumner, la., is president of the company; 
C. J. Casselman, of Waverly, la., is interested. 

Wyandotte, Mich. — An electric railway will be built in Wyan- 
dotte by H. C. Burke, C. W. O'Brien and Alex. E. Riopelle. of 
Ecorse, Mich., who have received a franchise. 



Mountain Railway in California. 



A few miles from San Francisco there rises from a low mountain 
chain a high volcanic peak, known as Mt. Tamalpais, from which a 
very fine view can be obtained. Access to this peak has heretofore 
been only by rough trail or a still rougher road, but a new com- 
pany has been formed for the purpose of constructin.g an electric 
railway to the top. The line, which has already been surveyed, will 
have an average grade of five and a half per cent, and at no place 
will it be steeper than seven and a half per cent. The distance to 
be traversed will be a little more than seven miles, which will be 
made by the cars in the ascent in about three-quarters of an hour. 



Among the leading incorporators arc .Sidney E. Cushing, A. E. 
Kent, Alfred Horel and Louis Janes. It is estimated that the road 
can be built for $125000, and it is hoped that cars will be in operation 
by the end of Jidy, 1896. 



Important Electric Plant in Washington. 



O. T. Crosby and Charles A. Lieb, who have, for some time, con- 
trolled the stock of the Georgetown i.S: Tcnalleytown Railway Com- 
pany, of Washington, have just purchased the Potomac Light & 
Power Company and the Washington Electric Company, and are 
combining these interests and establishing an entirely new plant for 
the economical production of electricity for light, heat and power. 
They have acquired the buildings of the Dent Iron Works, together 
with 1 10000 sq. ft. of land lying between the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal 
and the Potomac River. At this point the canal is about forty feet 
higher than the river, and it is thus possible to obtain a head of 
water for condensing purposes sufficient to make air pumps unneces- 
sary. Coal, water and all supplies will be brought directly to the 
station by the canal or river, and the coal can be delivered by gravity 
to the boiler room from the canal, thus avoiding the necessity for 
any accessory appliances. A steel stack will be constructed, g ft. in 
diameter inside and 215 ft. high, the Philadelphia Engineering 
Company being the contractors. 

The first mstallation of machinery will consist of two 800 h. p. 
engines direct connected to two 500 k. w. General Electric gener- 
ators, the steam plant complete being furnished by the Cramp-Hoad- 
ley Company. This original plant will furnish power to a number 
of the suburban electric railways in the vicinity, including the 
Georgetown & Tcnalleytown Railway. Within a short time, how- 
ever, a large two phase alternating installation will be made, in 800 
k. w. units, for distribution of electricity for all purposes to an area 
within a radius of thirty miles. The station is being laid out for a 
total capacity of 10000 h. p., and there is, of course, large additional 
land on which further plants can be put up as required. 



A New Industry in the Street Railway Field. 



In Worcester a firm has been incorporated with an ample cap- 
ital under the title of the American Car Sprinkling Company. The 
company owns and controls all the patents of the LInited Tramway 
Sprinkler Company, whose street car sprinkler was one of the 
earliest in the field and which has been adopted in a number of cities. 
The new company proposes to introduce its sprinklers into every 
important city in this country. 

The sprinkler for electric railways consists of a large tank, 
over which is built a plain car. The whole is mounted upon almost 
any kind of a truck. Two men are needed to operate the car, one to 
manage the motor and one the sprinkler. Any rate of speed can be 
maintained, up to fifteen miles an hour. The car is filled from 
hydrants placed flush with the pavement, between the tracks if on a 
double track road, and close beside the track on single. From one 
to two minutes is required to fill the tank, according to the pressure 
used. The stream is under perfect control. 

A tank fully loaded will sprinkle from five-eighths to one mile 
of street according to the width of street. This company will either 
lease its sprinkler or contract to do the entire sprinkling for any city, 
or it will form local companies to do the business. 



Possibilities of Telegraphy. 



According to a report from Philadelphia, a new method of prac- 
tically doubling the capacity of a telegraph line for the receipt and 
transmission of messages has been perfected. The principle de- 
pends upon the illuminating effects produced in a vacuum by al- 
ternations of comparatively low intensity but of high frequency. In 
the exhibition rooms in Philadelphia, an operator telegraphs over a 
long wire on the usual Morse instrument, and a second operator 
sends and receives at the same time over the same wire messages 
with the aid of the subtle light developed in the vacuum device, with- 
out interfering with the other system. In another room telegraph- 
ing between moving trains and stations without any metallic con- 
nections is practically illustrated. A third phase of the exhibition, 
that of communicating between vessels at sea and the land, would 
have been of great value to the pride of our ship-building industry, 
the St. Paul, if it could have been utilized for her benefit before the 
calamity which befell her last month. The method adopted is simi- 
lar in these two cases to that of the duplex telegraph already 
described. 

^ 

New Publications. 



The Educational Value of Engineering Studies, by Thomas Mes- 
singer Drown, LL.D., President of Lehigh University. Pub- 
lished by the University. 30 pages. 

This is a thoughtful discourse on a subject of great interest to 
all students. 

American Street Railway Association. Verbatim Report of the 
Fourteenth Annual Meeting at Montreal. Published by the As- 
sociation. 

The new President and Secretary of the Association are to be 



138 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. 2. 



commended for the energetic manner in which they have pushed for- 
ward the early publication of this report, which has made it possible 
to place copies in the hands of members long before the time cus- 
tomary in recent years. An excellent steel engraving of ex-Presi- 
dent Joel Hurt forms the frontispiece. The report is well arranged 
and well printed. 

The Anatomy of a Railroad Report, by Thomas F. Woodlock. 
Published by the United States Book Company, New York. 
72 pages. Price, 50 cents. 

This little manual is written with the object of enabling investors 
in railroad securities to analyze and thoroughly comprehena railroad 
reports so as to form an idea as to whether their securities are in- 
creasing or decreasing in value. The author describes by chapters 
the functions of the " Income or Revenue Account," " The Balance 
Sheet " and " Physical Statistics," and finally suggests a system of 
analysis applicable to railroad reports. 

Timber. An Elementary Discussion of the Characteristics and 
Properties of Wood, by Filibcrt Roth, Special Agent in charge 
of Timber Physics, United States Department of Agriculture. 
Published by the Department. 88 pages. 

This is a pamphlet which is aimed to be of service to engineers, 
architects, carpenters, lumbermen and all wood workers. Much of 
the information exists in the experience of practical wood workers 
and in books in other languages, but has never before been published 
in the English in systematic and accessible form and with special ap- 
plication to American timbers. The pamphlet is most fully illus- 
trated in such a way as to make it possible to thoroughly understand 
the characteristic features of different kinds of timber. 

Motive Powers an3 Their Practical Selection, by Reginald Bol - 
ton. Past President of the Civil Mechanical Engineers Society. 
Published by Longmans, Green & Company, New York and 
London. 257 pages. Price, $2.50. 

In this valuable little book the author has given a condensed 
presentation of the relative advantages of the engineering features 
of different forms of motive power, and has attempted to define the 
field in which each may be made most useful. He has brought to- 
gether a large amount of technical data and information from many 
sources in order to throw light upon the various problems arising 
when a motive power is to be chosen. After discussing funda- 
mental principles, the author proceeds to deal with manual power, 
animal power, power of wind, power of water, power of steam (en- 
gines and boilers), the power of expanding gases, the storage of 
power by electricity, and the transmission of power by shafts and 
belting. The book is so written as to be readily understood by the 
student, and even to some extent by non-technical readers, while en- 
gineers will find a great many valuable and important tables for 
direct and constant use in their work. 



the selling. Mr. Vansant has given much attention to the subject 
of the manufacture of poles for electrical service, and is probably as 
well posted upon this subject as any person in the country. He has 
always advocated a tubular pole with swedged joints, and it has 



Personal. 



Mr. P. A. B. Widener, oi Philadelphia, expects to take a trip 
around the world. In a recent interview, Mr. Widener said that he 
intended to withdraw from all street railway enterprises with which 
he had been connected, except those in New York City. 

Mr. J. J. Walklate, of England, is visiting this country on his 
way to Brisbane, Australia, where he will have charge of the elec- 
trical equipment of the lines of that city. Mr. Walklate has been as- 
sociated with Mr. Alfred Dickinson, of Birmingham, England, in a 
number of electric railway enterprises, and will visit a number of 
Eastern cities before his departure for the Pacific slope. 

Mr. Henry C. Payne, who is traveling abroad for rest and im- 
provement in health, writes from Nuremberg to personal friends 
that he is feeling much stronger and better. His physicians have 
ordered him South to a warmer climate, and he will pass the winter 
in Italy. It is earnestly hoped by Mr. Payne's many friends that he 
will return to this country entirely rested and refreshed, and that he 
will not again find it necessary to take up the severe and exhausting 
labors which have been imposed on him in times past by his large 
financial interests. 

Mr. Charles Yerkes Flanders, of Messrs. Morris, Tasker & 
Company, Incorporated, and whose portrait is presented herewith, 
was born in Philadelphia in 1863, and was named after the father of 
Mr. Charles T. Yerkes, of Chicago. He entered the employ of Mor- 
ris, Tasker & Company, as office boy. He was rapidly promoted, 
working in all departments and before giving up the office for 
the road was doing no small portion of the book-keeping work. 
He commenced traveling eight or nine years ago, first going 
South and then West, and confining himself exclusively to the 
pipe and electric light pole business. When the development 
of street railways in electrical lines began, Mr. Flanders saw the 
advantages of tubular poles for this work and secured a large order 
from the Consolidated Traction Company of Jersey City. He is a 
man of unusual originality and a most pleasant companion. His 
fertility of resources and action have had an important bearing in 
enabling the firm to anticipate the wants of its customers in a variety 
of ways. 

Mr. H. Cheston Vansant, secretary of Messrs. Morris, Tasker 
& Company, Incorporated, has been connected with that company 
for a long time, beginning in a position of little responsibility and 
achieving his present place through ability and assiduous devotion 
to his work. He has charge, not only of those duties which are 
usual to the office of secretary, but also the buying of all the large 
supplies for the extensive Morris, Tasker Works, such as iron, coal 
and other heavy materials. He also directs and attends to much of 




C. Y. FLANDERS. 



H. C. VANSANT. 




been largely through his efforts that this pole has received such gen- 
eral adoption. He is of an old Holland family, the name being 
originally spelled Vanzandt, and is a member of a number of clubs 
and social organizations in Philadelphia. 

Mr. B. W. Porter, superintendent of the Derby Street Railway 
Company, of Derby, Conn., is a native of Freeport, 111., where he 

was born in 1865. His first 
railroad experience was with 
a preliminary surveying party 
for one of the Western roads. 
He then entered the office of a 
large manufacturing establish- 
ment until the winter of 1888, 
when he went to Derby to enter 
the employ of the Derby Horse 
Railroad Company, the prede- 
cessor of the Derby Street 
Railway Company. In the fol- 
lowing year he was appointed 
superintendent and in 1894 
secretary of the company. The 
Derby Street Railway is a his- 
torical road, having been 
equipped in 1888 with the Van 
Deptaele system. The company 
has been through all the vi- 
cissitudes of railway motor 
work, from the Van Depoele 
apparatus, employing sprocket 
chains, to the G. E. 800 and 
1200, which are in use at the 
present titne. During this time 
the company has built two 
power stations. It has about 
seven miles of track, is opera- 
ting a park in connection with the road, and is running from ten to 
twenty-five cars. One of the interesting features of the line is the 
motormen's and conductors' club house, illustrated upon another 
page. 

A Strong Philadelphia Combination. 

Within the past month the extensive business in street railway 
supplies heretofore carried on in Philadelphia by Charles J. Mayer 
has been reorganized, and A. H. Englund, of the International Reg- 
ister Company, has joined him in partnership under the firm name of 
Mayer & Englund. Both gentlemen are very popular and suc- 
cessful in their respective territories. 

Mr. Mayer has established an enviable record for himself in 
Philadelphia as an energetic and successful supply man. Before 
locating in that city he had acquired a valuable experience through 
his connection, extending over a period of four years, with the R. D. 
Nuttall Company, with whom he became associated early in its 
career as a manufacturer of electric railway material. This com- 
pany was among the first in the country to start as independent 
manufacturers of motor gears, trolleys, etc., and here Mr. Mayer 
found an opportunity to demonstrate his ability as a salesman. 
Much of that company's early success was due to his efforts and 
push. At the commencement of electrical construction on the street 
railway systems in Philadelphia early in 1894, Mr. Mayer returned 
East and established the Middle States office for the Nuttall Com- 
pany. 

His abilities were here soon recognized and at once led to in- 
creased business for the company, as shown by the adoption of its 



B. W. PORTER. 



Fkbruary, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



139 



trolley as standard by all the railway companies in Philadelphia, up- 
ward of 2000 being sold in that city. Having;- established the com- 
pany's business in this territory, Mr. Mayer enlarged the scope of 
his business by adding other lines, principally that of overhead line 
material, of which he has furnished over 300 miles in the city of 
Philadelphia alone. During a period of less than two years he has 
succeeded in establishing an extensive business in general railway 
supplies that has necessitated increased facilities, and this has led to 
the union with Mr. Englund. 

Mr. Englund's association with Mr. Mayer does not mean any 
material change in the International Register Company, of which 
Mr. Englund still remains secretary and a director. One of his first 
objects in view is to push the International register more directly in 
the East than has yet been done. Mr. Englund brings with him a 
long experience, in both the manufacture and sale of electric railway 
material. He was first connected with the old Sprague Electric Rail- 
way & Motor Company in l88g. From this company he resigned in 
l8go to organize, with his associates, the Electric Merchandise Com- 
pany, of which he became secretary and treasurer. After two years 
of successful business with this concern he resigned to take the active 




C. J. MAYER. A. H. ENGLUND. 

management of the International Register Company, which he had 
organized independently in the fall of i8gi. The fare registers 
manufactured by this cortipany have been adopted by many of the 
most important street railway systems in the United States. The 
International portable register, which was the first machine placed 
on the market by the company, has met with equal popularity. 

The factory and general office of the International Register Com- 
pany will remain in Chicago under the management of A. H. Wood- 
ward, treasurer of the company, while Messrs. Mayer and Englund 
will take entire charge of the eastern territory. 

The new firm will succeed to the business of Charles J. Mayer, 
acting as Middle States Representatives of the R. D. Nuttall Com- 
pany, the Partridge Carbon Company, and the International Regis- 
ter Company, and will also continue the business of overhead line 
material on a greatly enlarged scale. In addition to this they have 
been appointed district representatives of the Westinghouse Glass 
Factory, manufacturers of a complete line of electrical globes, shades, 
etc. The aim of this factory is to produce artistic glassware of the 
most select quality, and the excellence of their product attests their 
success. 

The bringing together of this Eastern and Western ability must 
of necessity bespeak a brilliant future lor the firm of Mayer & Eng- 
lund. 

Obituary. 



Alfred E. Beach, one of the members of the firm of Munn & 
Company, and editor of the Scientific American, died last month. 
Mr. Beach was born in Springfield, Mass., in 1826, and was a son of 
Moses Y. Beach, the founder of the New York Sun. In 1846, in 
company with O. D. Munn, he purchased the Scientific American, 
which had been started in 1845, and about the same time engaged in 
the business of patent solicitation, which his firm has conducted so 
extensively since. Mr. Beach was an active inventor himself, as 
well as editor and patent lawyer. He invented in 1853 the first type- 
writer, for which he was awarded a gold medal at the Crystal Palace 
Exposition. Among his other inventions are cable traction and 
other railway inventions, pneumatic tubes for delivery of mail 
matter, and the famous Beach hydraulic shield for tunneling in earth 
and under river beds. 



EQUIPMENT NOTES. 



The Delaware Iron Works, of New Castle, Del., have just 
completed an order for 600 trolley poles for Cairo, Egypt. It is said 
that there is a kind of ant in Egypt which destroys wooden poles, 
making iron poles necessary. 

The General Electric Company, of Schenectady, N. Y., pub- 
lished as souvenirs of the Cotton States and International Exposi- 



tion held recently at Atlanta, several very handsome catalogues de- 
scriptive of some of the products of its factories. Several of these 
were composed entirely of illustrations, and all were very high ex- 
amples of taste in trade catalogue publication. 

The Wason Car Manufacturing Company, of Springfield, 
Mass., besides having a large amount of steam car repair work, is 
building on its standard patterns of street cars at the rate of one per 
day. The company is building cars for the Hartford, Manchester & 
Rockville Tramway, the Blackstone Valley Railway, of Worcester, 
the Bristol & Plainville Tramway and a Springfield company. The 
company has also an order for cars from the Woronoco road, of 
Westfield. 

The J. H. McEwen Manufacturing Company, of Ridgway, Pa., 
manufacturers of the well-kn<jvvn engine bearing that name, and of 
the Thompson-Ryan generator, which was described in our last 
issue, advise us that the efficiency of this new generator, within the 
range of ordinary service in the sizes which would be naturally used 
in railway work, is 95 p. c. This high efficiency is due largely to 
the peculiar design of the generator, by which the least possible 
amount of energy is wasted. Other important features of the ma- 
chine were described in our last issue. 

The John Stephenson Company, Limited, of New York, is en- 
joying its usual large share of business and the company's works 
are at present busy. Among other orders the company is turning 
out fifty closed cars of the Broadway type for the Metropolitan Street 
Railway Company of New York, and 100 open cars for the Citizens 
Street Railway Company of Detroit. Among * other foreign orders 
the company is at work upon some electric cars for Rio Janeiro, 
Brazil, and some horse cars for Kimberley, South Africa. 

J. P. Sjoberg & Company, of New York, have recently moved 
from 155-57 Eleventh Avenue to g8-ioo Eleventh Avenue. Here 
they will have about twice as much room as in the old works and 
better facilities for turning out their work. The change has been 
rendered necessary by the steady increase of the business of the 
firm. Mr. Sjoberg reports that the business done by him during the 
past year has been very satisfactory and has shown a rernarkable 
increase over that of previous years. His new springs, which have 
been illustrated in these columns, are selling very well. 

R. A. Humphrys, of Philadelphia, reports an excellent business 
in cotton ducks for cars, as well as in car curtains. These are sup- 
plied with stripes in all colors and widths. Mr. Humphrys' factories 
are in Philadelphia. He claims to have such excellent facilities that 
he can supply the best quality of goods at lower prices than can any 
other manufacturer. He also manufactures car covers, which are 
used to cover new cars when they are being shipped, and does a 
large business in waterproof oil duck, which is used by many com- 
panies for covering motors. 

A. O. Schoonmaker, of New York, is doing an excellent busi- 
ness in all kinds of mica for electrical purposes, especially washers 
and rings and commutator segments. These are all stamped out of 
solid sheet mica, and the commutator segments are carried in stock 
for every type of motor in use, from the Sprague No. 6 and the T. 
H. F. 2o's and 30's up to the latest types of all companies. The 
mica in which Mr. Schoonmaker deals comes direct from the origi- 
nal sources in India, and is selected stock of guaranteed purity. It 
is claimed to be entirely free from iron, thus giving it non-conduct- 
ing properties of the highest order. 

The J. G. Brill Company, of Philadelphia, has recently been 
awarded the contract for building twenty new cars for the Mil- 
waukee Street Railway. The style of car selected shows the ten- 
dency of railway companies at the present time to adopt some of the 
best things of steam road practice which are applicable upon street 
railways. The new cars are to have double trucks; the bodies will 
be twenty-six feet long, with five foot platforms. These will have 
removable vestibules. The seats will be placed across the car after 
the steam road practice, and each will be furnished with a push but- 
ton for signaling the conductor, a convenience much needed on all 
cars where great crowds are carried. 

George Kissam, of New York, successor of Carleton & Kissam, 
has recently formed a new partnership, associating with him in the 
street car advertising business, Chas. A. Fish, of New Orleans, La. 
Mr. Fish is an old New Yorker, who moved to the Crescent City some 
sixteen years ago, where he was engaged in the commission fruit 
business, and was also the owner of a line of freight and passenger 
steamers to Central America. He possesses executive ability of the 
rarest order, and will be a great acquisition to Mr. Kissam in the 
conduct of street car advertising business, insuring for the firm the 
same continuous regard and esteem in which Mr. Kissam has always 
been held by the railroad corporations. 

Eugene Munsell & Company, of New York, with agencies in 
the principal cities, reports an increased demand for solid sheet 
India and Amber mica, of which they make a specialty for electrical 
insulation. The firm imports direct from the mines, and at all times 
carries probably the largest stock of mica to be found in this country. 
The firm recently installed several new power presses, which give 
increased facilities for furnishing stamped solid sheet mica segments 
for all types of railway motors, and mica to any shape or pattern. 
Franklin Brooks, the junior member of the firm, is now making a 
tour around the world, and, at the present, is spending considerable 
time at the mines in India, where the firm is largely interested. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin, Conn., has 
just completed for the town of Houlton, Me., a new iron bridge 300 
ft. long and 18 ft. wide, with a sidewalk 5 ft. wide. The bridge 
company furnished the entire bridge, sub-structure and super- 



140 



STREET. RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. Xn. No. 2. 



structure complete. The company has also just completed for the H. 
W. -Tohns Manufacturing Company, at Brooklyn, N. Y., a new dryer 
house, which is built entirely of steel. It has also just completed for 
the Windsor Company, of North Adams, Mass., a new fireproof store 
house, 70 ft. X 125 ft. The construction is composite iron and brick 
and fireproof, no woodwork being used. The floors are of terra 
cotta. 

The E. Horton & Son Company, of Windsor Locks, Conn., has 
published a new catalogue descriptive of the Horton lathe chucks 
and drill chucks. The catalogue contains much new matter includ- 
ing engravings and descriptions of a number of new styles of chucks 
which have been added to the company's list since the publication of 
its last catalogue. The catalogue is well illustrated by views which 
show both the exterior appearance and construction of the chucks. 
The Horton chucks have been on the market for some forty years or 
more, and the manufacturers have achieved during that period a very 
high reputation for excellence of construction and design. The com- 
pany also makes all kinds of iron castings. 

The Business of the Standard Air-Brake Company has in- 
creased so rapidly that it has become necessary to secure larger 
oflice space and better facilities. In considering the difterent build- 
ings adapted to its use, the company decided that the American 
Surety Company's mammoth new structure at 100 Broadway would 
be the most desirable headquarters. A suite has been rented on the 
tenth floor, giving an abundance of light and air. The view from 
the offices is fine and takes in the harbor and river. The re- 
moval occurred on the 21st ult., since which date the company's 
headquarters are in the American Surety Company's building. 
Mr. Wessels says the latch string will hang out, and that he will be 
glad to welcome old and new friends in the new offices. 

The Kelsey Electric Railway Specialty Company, of New Haven, 
Conn., is meeting with excellent results in the placing of its trolley 
stand. Since July the company has received orders for thirty roads, 
and in every case, except two, after a short trial, the company has 
received at least one more order. An example of the reason why 
this stand has gained so much popularity is shown by its record on 
the line of the Middletown-Goshen Traction Company, where, ac- 
cording to the testimony of the officers of that company, the stand 
causes the trolley wheels to have three times the life of any other 
stand. Each car on this line ran igs miles per day, passing twenty- 
two times under two railroad bridges giving only three inches of 
clearance over the top of the stand. Ordinarily the wheel is nine- 
teen feet above the rail. In spite of this hard service, the company 
has never had to replace any springs in the stand. The E. S. 
Greeley & Company write that after testing the trolley stand that 
they are satisfied it is equal to any on the market and in some re- 
spects superior. 

Messrs. Clarence Whitman & Company, of New York, the 
well known wholesale dry goods house, have recently put upon the 
market a new type of duck curtain foropen cars, which is thoroughly 
waterproof. It is of two thicknesses of duck, sheeted together with 
Pantasote, the waterproof material which the firm has introduced 
with such successful results for railroad curtains, and in other indus- 
tries. There is no rubber used in this adhesive compound, and it 
will not dry up and deteriorate like rubber. Temperature does not 
affect it and it will resist the action of the sun and dampness, mak- 
ing it especially desirable for curtains for open cars. Pantasote 
duck has also great tensile strength, and has been in use for four 
years without showing any signs of splitting apart. This is prob- 
ably the first time that the principle of a mackintosh cloth has ever 
been applied to a car curtain or awning, for which purpose it is 
equally desirable. Pantasote has been used very successfully on 
linen for inside car curtains, and the New York Central Railroad 
Company has 500 cars so equipped. 

The Craven Supply Company, of New York, is the title of a 
new company of which Frank T. and N. J. Craven are the proprie- 
tors. They are making a specialty as manufacturers' agents for the 
sale of rails, tees, poles, wire, line material, steam power plants, etc., 
for electric railway work. They have their offices at 26 Cortlandt 
Street and are energetic and hustling. Since starting, their ability, 
combined with their especially good connections, have secured for 
them an extensive and satisfactory business. Several large orders 
recently booked by them seem to point to and assure them of con- 
tinued success. Frank T. Craven, the young and active manager of 
the firm, by his open and genial manner towards those with whom he 
has business relations, has made him very many warm personal 
friends in this and other cities. He has been connected with electric 
railway work for the past eight years. Part of this time was spent 
on the Buffalo Railway Company's work under the supervision of his 
brother, J. B. Craven. While there he had especial charge of a large 
amount of line track and underground construction. His experience 
there and at other places where he has been engaged on electrical 
work has especially fitted him for recognizing and supplying the 
wants and requirements of electrical railway companies. 

Edwin Harrington Son & Company, Incorporated, of Philadel- 
phia, have recently brought out a new catalogue descriptive of the 
hoists and traveling cranes which they manufacture. This firm has 
achieved a very high reputation for appliances of this description and 
with the improved equipment being introduced for repair shop work 
by electric railway companies the Harrington hoists are meeting with 
a great demand. They are manufactured in all sizes and for opera- 
tion by both hand and electricity. Among the particularly interest- 
ing features of the catalogue might be mentioned the spur gear hoist, 
the improved Harrington screw hoist, the new combination hoist and 
a new combination electric motor and hoist. This is something which 
has recently been brought out and appeals particularly to electric rail- 



way managers. The hoist has a capacity for raising 10000 lbs. at a 
maximum speed of five and one-half feet per minute, and can lower 
the same weight at the rate of ten feet per minute. Smaller loads 
can be raised faster. By means of a controller the operator raises 
and lowers at any speed within these limits. The motor is multi- 
polar, iron clad and not affected by surrounding machinery, and is 
as well entirely enclosed, making it dust proof , fire proof and moist- 
ure proof. Among the other apparatus described and illustrated of 
particular interest to street railway managers are the safety travel- 
ing crane, especially adapted for power stations which will hold the 
load at any point, and a 2000 lb. hand swing crane with supple- 
mental jib arranged to rotate about an independent axis, and very 
convenient in repair shop work. In fact, this company has a com- 
plete line of articles which are essential in the equipment of an elec- 
tric railway. 

The Sterling Supply & Manufacturing Company, of New York, 
reports a continued demand for its Millen brake. The increase in 
the size and weight of the cars and equipment which has occurred 
during the last few years, together with the increase of speeds, has 
developed the necessity of having efficient and reliable safety brakes. 
The amount of power necessary to be applied to the brakes, in stop- 
ping the car within a given distance, depends upon the condition of 
the brakes, the weight and speed of the car and the condition of the 
track. Another and very material point in connection with this sub- 
ject is that the braking power should be thoroughly reliable, the 
best material should be used in all its different parts, as well as good 
workmanship in its mechanical construction. In no other class of 
service is there more necessity for reliable, non-failing and positive 
braking power than in street railway service, where cars are run up 
and down steep inclines or heavy grades and through crowded thor- 
oughfares, where quick short stops have to be made very often to 
avoid accidents and loss of life. The Sterling Company's brake is 
the result of a great deal of thought devoted to that particular sub- 
ject, and for it the company makes the following claims : Safety, 
due to double chain connections. Increased power, owing to ratio 
or gearing from brake post to sprocket wheel. Instantaneous opera- 
tion, regardless of direction in which handle may be turned. Reduc- 
tion of lost motion, by having chain and connections the precise 
length required, so that brake shoe may be carried close to wheel. 
Less liability to breaking of chains, owing to positive and equal 
bearing for each link of the chain in sprocket wheel, thereby length- 
ening the^ life of the same ; docs not subject it to undue strains, as 
is the case where the chain is wound around the ordinary brake 
shaft, in a cramped position, in which case it is more or less liable 
to fracture. Maximum power, obtained with one-half turn of wheel 
or handle. 

The Whittingham Electric Car Heating Company, of Balti- 
more, reports among recent sales of the Whittingham electric car 
heaters orders from the following roads: City & Suburban Railway 
Company, Baltimore, Md., twenty-one heaters; Baltimore (Md.) 
Traction Company, five heaters; Second Avenue Traction Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., twelve heaters;. Ithaca (N. Y.) Street Railway Com- 
pany, five heaters; Cortland (N. ~Y.) & Homer Traction Company, 
two heaters. Heaters have also been shipped to the following 
roads: Montreal Street Railway, Belle City Railway Company, Ra- 
cine, Wis.; Terre Haute Electric Railway Company, Consumers' 
Electric Light & Street Railway, Tampa, Fla.; North Chicago Street 
Railway Company, Winnipeg Electric Street Railway, Bloomington 
(111.) Street Railway Company. The following is an extract from a 
letter recently received from the Ithaca Street Railway, Ithaca, N. Y. : 
" We are pleased to note that, so far, we have had so much satisfac- 
tion with the use of them (the heaters) that we have no hesitation 
whatever in saying that they are the best thing in the market, of 
which we have any knowledge, and it is the writer's opinion that you 
should in some way make them more extensively known,' and their 
adoption would surely be more universal. You should particularly 
impress upon any one using car heaters, the fact that your heaters 
are clean and sightly, and that the heat is not intense at any one point, 
but is evenly distributed throughout the entire length of the car. In 
almost every other heater that is on the market, the exact reverse of 
this is the case. Then again, with the old style open resistance coil 
heater, the heat is so intense in some of them, as to not only scorch 
the seat rugs of the car, but sometimes the passenger's clothing. 
The heaters in our cars are often taken for hot water heaters, and 
are a mystery to the passengers, as to how they are heated." The 
letter is signed by D. Thomson, general superintendent. 

WESTERN NOTES. 

The Steel Motor Company, of Cleveland, O., has removed its 
works from Cleveland, O., to Johnstown, Pa. Here the company 
will immediately double the capacity of its works and otherwise in- 
crease and improve its facilities for manufacturing. 

The Broderick & Bascom Rope Company, of St. Louis, has re- 
cently sent to some of its customers and others a handsome paper 
weight made of a short section of the company's well known cable 
for street railways. The paper weight is nickel plated and it makes 
a tasteful and useful desk ornament. 

The L. A. Thompson Scenic Railway Company has recently 
published a handsome catalogue descriptive of its well known park 
attractions. These are usually a four track gravity road with loops 
at each end, the length of the structure being about 800 ft. Effective 
tunnels are arranged en ?-ozite, built up of papier mache work. De- 
scriptions of a number of these interesting installations have been 
published in the Street Railway Journal. The pamphlet is illus- 
trated by views of a number of these lines, showing general views of 
the railway, cars, tunnels, etc. 



February, 1896. | 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



The Swarts Metal Refining Company, of Chicago, makes a 
specialty of high grade l^abbitt metal adapted to high class engine, 
work and electrical machinery. The Swarts Company is thoroughly 
experienced in this line and has gained a high reputation for putting 
out a Babbitt metal of honest make and which it guarantees to give 
perfect satisfaction. The company does a large business with elec- 
tric street railways and lighting companies. It also supplies a su- 
perior graded waste for power plants and purchases old trolley wire, 
etc. Its catalogue contains much that will interest all users of 
metals. 

The Fulton Truck & Foundry Company, of Mansfield, O., re- 
ports the outlook for the coming year as very bright, and the com- 
pany anticipates a large business in Imperial trucks and other sup- 
plies manufactured by it. The company is discussing the advisabil- 
ity of building a large steel castings plant in connection with its 
foundry; and this step will probably be decided upon. At the an- 
nual meeting of the stockholders of the company held on January 16, 
the old directors and officers of the company were re-elected. The 
officers are as follows : W. E. Haycox, president and general mana- 
ger ; M. B. Kushnell, vice-president ; C. J. Langdon, secretary and 
treasurer. 

The Standard Boiler Company, of Chicago, has recently moved 
into new offices, 1120 and 21 Marquette Building, and reports a good 
business during the past year. These boilers are built by the well 
known firm, Link-Belt Machinery Company of Chicago, who have in- 
stalled new and improved machinery for their manufacture, reduc- 
ing the prime cost as well as making the various parts interchange- 
able. During the past year a number of fine plants have been in- 
stalled with Standard boilers, among others the following : 4000 h.p. 
for the North Chicago Street Railroad Company at its new power 
station at Hawthorn Avenue; 500 h.p. for the Cincinnati Edison 
Company at Cincinnati, O.; 600 h.p. for the Western Electric Com- 
pany at its factory in Chicago, and various others. . The company re- 
ports prospects for the coming year as good. 

Edward E. Ayer, dealer and manufacturer of cedar telegraph 
and street railway poles, who has his main office in the Old Colony 
building, Chicago, claims to be the largest producer of white cedar 
products in the world. His main pole yards are located in Chicago, 
Menominee, Alpena, and West Bay City, Mich., and has numerous^ 
smaller yards throughout Wisconsin and Michigan. For years he 
has supplied all of the largest telegraph, telephone, and street rail- 
way companies in the United States and Mexico. Every pole shipped 
from his various yards is thoroughly examined by a competent pole 
inspector, and nothing but the very best stock of full standard speci- 
fications is shipped. He now has upwards of 1000 men in his cedar 
swamps, manufacturing poles for the spring trade. Mr. Ayer claims 
to carry the most complete stock of street railway poles of any 
dealer in his line, and this of course means the filling of all orders 
without delay. 

The Adams-Bagnall Electric Company, of Cleveland, is busily 
at work in turning out the " A-B" arc and incandescent lamps, the 
former having just been placed upon the market and the latter being 
now manufactured on orders at the rate of 1200 to 1500 lamps per 
day. Full descriptions of these lamps will be published at an early 
day. It will be remembered that the engineers and manufacturers 
of this company, Messrs. Adams, Bagnall, Cox, Rogers, Pripps, 
Arnold and Dodd, were originally connected with the Brush Electric 
Company for many years, and have the benefit of an excellent train- 
ing in that well known manufacturing establishment. The company 
has just appointed A. D. Dorman, who was also for several years an 
employe of the Brush Company, its New York representative, and 
Mr. Dorman has opened an office in the Havemeyer Building. Mr. 
Rogers has recently arranged with Chicago and St. Louis houses to 
handle the incandescent lamps, and a large business is being ar- 
ranged for in all departments of the company's business. . 

The Ohio Brass Company, of Mansfield, O., reports a most sat- 
isfactory year's business, and the outlook for the coming year is more 
than encouraging. The establishment of several branch offices, and 
the adding of many domestic as well as foreign agencies, has re- 
sulted in largely increasing the company's sales, which have doubled 
in amount during the past year over the previous twelve months. 
This company, always on the outlook for new and impor- 
tant devices of utility, has recently added to its line the following ar- 
ticles:— Type K trolley wire hangers, mine insulator. Walker trolley 
ear. Walker splicing ear, a full line of straight underrunning de- 
vices such as the Detroit section insulator, straight underrunning 
adjustable switch, straight underrunning adjustable crossover, etc.; 
also the H. & C. sleet cutting trolley wheel, the adjustable track 
brush holder, and the Warner electric car heater, all of which are al- 
ready largely in use, and in many cases have been adopted as stand- 
ard articles by many of the electric roads in this as well as in foreign 
countries. The company's manufacturing plant, which consists of a 
foundry, and thoroughly equipped pattern and machine shops, has 
been enlarged and its capacity increased by the addition of new ma- 
chinery and tools. Realizing the requirements demanded by elec- 
trical engineers, which make it necessary to have this class of goods 
acceptable to consumers, no pains have been spared by the company 
to maintain and improve upon the quality of its material. The com- 
pany's catalogue, issued last spring, is one of the most complete pub- 
lications in its line. It contains a well assorted variety of those ar- 
ticles in everyday use and demand by electrical roads, and every pur- 
chaser interested in this class of goods will find it both convenient 
and useful. 

The Bradford Belting Company, of Cincinnati, O., the sole 
manufacturer of " Monarch" insulating paint, has gained a deservedly 
high reputation in electrical and street railway trade. Monarch 



paint is manufactured from a newly discovered, valuable mineral, 
which is extremely rich in its own natural oils, and is especially 
adapted for armatures, fields, switchboards, conduits, iron and 
wooden poles, connections, mouldings and other kinds of electrical 
appliances where high insulation is a desideratum. It is quick dry- 
ing and makes a lasting gloss equal to varnish. It does not crack, 
blister or peel off, and is not affected by extremes of climate. An- 
other valuable quality of the paint is that it can be used on heated 
surfaces of moderately high temperature, and loses none of its prop- 
erties under 550 to 600 degs. Fahr. of heat. Its qualities enable 
it to resist the action of acids, alkalies or salines, and for this 
reason it has been employed with excellent results as a wood pre- 
servative. It might be mentioned that surfaces coated with Monarch 
insulating paint when dry have no odor or taste. The Monarch in- 
sulating paint is recommended by the manufacturers especially for 
street railway motor work where salt is used on tracks, as the salt 
slush has no effect on it. This use of the paint is by no means ex- 
perimental as every test possible has been given to it for the past 
eighteen months. The long established reputation of the Bradford 
Belting Company is a guarantee that the quality of the Monarch 
paint will not deteriorate at its hands. This company intends making 
a very handsome exhibit at the National Electrical Exposition, to be 
held during the coming May in New York. The company has secured 
from the exposition association an excellent location, and will give 
street railway managers an opportunity of inspecting its products 
and of investigating their value. 



List of Street Railway Patents. 



U. S. Patents IsstiEn November 26, 1895, to January 14, i8g6. 
Inclusive. 



November 26. 

Electric Tramway With L'nderc;round Distribution of Cur- 
rent. — A. Diatto, Turin, Italy. No. 550319. 

A circuit closing device comprising a cylinder containing a 
quantity of mercury, a rod or piston operating within the mercury 
in said cylinder, and a coupling piece serving to unite the wires of 
the conducting cable and as a feeder for the current. 

Electro-Locomotive. — J. J. Heilmann, Paris, France. No. 550344. 

Consists in the combination, with one of the driving wheels, of 
pairs of oppositely arranged pins, each pin passing through a spoke, 
a spring connected with each pin and acting to force it toward its 
mate, a hollow armature shaft inclosing the axle and of an internal 
diameter sufficient to permit relative displacement of the axle and 
the shaft and arms secured to said shaft, each arm entering between 
two opposing pins. 

December 3. 

Car Brake. — E. E. LaRose, Providence, R. I. No. 550627. 

Cable Roadway. — J. B. Martindale, Chicago, 111. No. 550631. 

A cable adapted to propel vehicles having rigidly fixed to it at 
intervals a sleeve-shaped bushing with flanged ends, carrying a 
sleeved hook loosely surrounding said bushing. 

December 10. 

Street Car. — W. Robinson, Boston, Mass. No. 551047. 

Switch for Underground Electric Railways. — A. Rosenholz, 
San Francisco, Cal. No. 551145. 

Consists of a stationary magnetic core projecting from the main 
conductor, a sealed casing therefor, fulcrumed and turnable in jour- 
nals or bearings about the main conductor, a flexible insulating 
sheath or jacket surrounding the junction of the main conductor and 
core, and a ring and groove joint at the termination of the sheath 
within the casing. 

Automatic Brake and Fender. — J. Kurtz, Moore, Pa. No. 551210. 

A cross bar, springs and guides therefor, ears thereon, a buffer 
pivotally connected to the latter, and means for holding the same in 
a vertical or horizontal position. 

December 17. 

Closed Conduit Electric Rail\\-ay System. — F. C. Esmond, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 551534. 

Consists of an insulated supply conductor, working conductor 
sections, switches and magnets for operating the switches, with a 
double set of overlapping collectors leading to the motor, and a 
switch for including a resistance in the circuit between the motor 
and the rear set of collectors in either direction of motion of the car. 

Fender. — J. Grant, Omaha, Neb. No. 55(585. 

Street Car. — W. R. Dodson, Jermyn, Pa. No. 551621. 

Consists of a frame, a seat, a locking bolt passed through the 
frame and having a transverse bar, a block secured to the seat and 
having the transverse bars of the bolt passed through it, and a plate 
hinged to the block and covering the said transverse bar. 

December 24. 

Car Fender. — W. M. Watts, Philadelphia, Pa. No. 551802. 

A basket mounted upon the front of a series of lazy tong levers, 
whereby said basket may be shifted to and from an operative posi- 
tion — and a lever adapted to retain said lazy tong levers in a prede- 
termined position. 

Car Fender. — C. P. Woodruff, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 551805. 



142 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



Wheel Fender for Cars. — W. R. Derr, Baltimore, Md. No. 551851. 

Comprises a main frame or body portion, a compound tipping 
bar hinged to the forward end of said main frame, said bar being 
composed of two members, one of which is hinged to the other, both 
members of said compound bar normally lying in an inclined posi- 
tion relative to the track and supported at the joint by wheels. 

Car Fender. — A. Lutz, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 551904. 

Rolling Support for Car Bodies. — D. L. McOuarrie, Gloucester, 
Mass. No. 551907. 

Consists of a body containing a conduit, a pipe, connecting the 
ends of said conduit and removable therefrom at said ends, to form 
a continuous endless conduit, with a series of balls, filling the said 
conduit, and free to roll therein. 

Electric Railway Train Signaling. — W. S. Greene, Covington, Ky. 
No. 551930. 

Car Truck. — D. F. Henry, Allegheny, Pa. No. 551963. 



Car Fender. — C. L. Klauder, Philadelphia, Pa. No. 551972. 

B3 




PAT. NO. 550,319. PAT, NO. 552,63'. 



Electric Signal. — E. M. Phelps, Lynn, Mass. No. 551998. 

A circuit controller for use in connection with trolley wires, con- 
sisting of a contact and co-operating rod bent to form a double 
switch arm pivoted at its ends and having its middle or'bent por- 
tion astride and resting upon the trolley wire. 

Underground Current Supply for Electric Railways. — A. Rast, 
Nuremberg, Germany. No. 552001. 

December 31. 

Apparatus for Automatically Maintaining Current Upon Moving 
Vehicles. — H. E. Dey, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 552,105. 
A vehicle, an electric motor embraced in a circuit energized from 
a suitable source, a motor dynamo or similar converting device, and 
a storage battery energized from the motor dynamo and adapted to 
actuate the latter and energize the motor circuit upon a cessation of 
the main supply. 

Street Car Motor. — J. H. Elward, Whitewater, Wis. No. 552109. 

Consists of a boiler and main engine, a tank, a receptacle for the 
exhaust steam, means in said receptacle for condensing the steam, 
means for forcing the condensed steam into the tank supplemental to 
the boiler, and means between the tank and the boiler for heating the 
feed water. 

Car Wheel. — W. J. Taylor, Bound Brook, N. J. No. 552155. 

Electric Railway Signaling Apparatus. — H, J. Hovey, Evanston, 
111. No. 552181. 

Switch Operating Device. — C. E. Sipp, Roscommon, Pa. No. 
552206. 

Comprising levers pivoted beneath the car and working in uni- 
son, whereby the depression or elevation of one raises or lowers the 
other, and a dog situated in the track and adapted to contact with the 
levers. 

Pneumatic Railway. — H. S. Bolton, Washington, D. C. No. 552231. 

A vehicle having a depending hollow arm provided with a valved 
shoe at its lower end, said arm mounted at its upper end to swing 
laterally, and maintain open connection with the tank or engine of 
the vehicle. 

Street Car Fender. — F. Fiechter, Philadelphia, Pa. No. 552281. 

Electric Signal for Railways. — E. B. Cutten, New York, N. Y. 
No. 552279. 

Car Fender. — A. Fryer, Bath-on-Hudson, N. Y. No. 552283. 

Car Fender. — J. W. Harris, Columbus, O. No. 552286. 

Comprises a main frame, a front part or tongue hinged to the 
main frame and having a downwardly projecting arm or lug, a lever- 
like frame pivoted at or near the bottom of the main frame and hav- 
ing an arm or lug and a link connecting the arms. 

Electrical Railway Signaling System. — T. B. Dixon, Henderson, 
Ky. No. 552316. 



Car Fenuer. — E. B. Clark, Cohoes, N. Y. No. 552348. 

Consists of an apron having its sides provided with laterally 
extending cutaway portions and binding strips flexibly connected 
together. 

Car Fender. — S. H. Coffee, Beverly, N. J. No. 552349. 

Means for Operating Electric Railway Vehicles. — E. G. Hoff- 
mann, Charlottenburg, Germany. No. 552369. 

Car F"ender. — H. Kramer, New York, N. Y. No. 552377. 

Electric Railway. — M. H. Smith, Halifax, England. No. 552451. 

Consists of a main conductor, sectional surface bar conductors 
having extended pole pieces, and a magnetic switch comprising a 
pivoted lever carrying an armature for the pole pieces and carrying 
a contact piece for the main conductor. 

Car Fender. — W. T. Waugh, Waynesborough, Pa. No. 552475. 

Rail Bond for Electric Railways. — B. J. Jones, Chicago, 111. 
No. 552477- 

Electrical Rail Bond. — M. T. Kendall, Melrose, Mass. No. 552479. 

Car Brake. — A R. Roney, Chicago, 111. No. 552486. 

Consists of a brake rod, a series of expanders, each comprising 
a closed vessel containing a volatile fluid and an electric heater also 
contained in said vessel and submerged in said fluid, said electric 
heaters being wired in multiple, an electric circuit and means for 
successively or simultaneously cutting said heaters into said circuit. 

Car Truck. — E. F. Goltra, St. Louis, Mo. No. 552493. 

January 7. 

Automatic Switch. — G. A. Schmittuz, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 552622. 

An automatically movable point, a series of tripping levers 
therefor, a tripping device mounted upon a car and having a later- 
ally adjustable tripping shoe, and an index mounted upon the car 
and operatively connected to the tripping device to indicate the posi- 
tion of the shoe. 

Trolley. — B. Dale, Milwaukee, Wis. No. 552631. 

Automatic Cleaner for Rails of Tramways. — A. Flahaux, Laeken, 
Bel. No, 552637. 

Car Fender. — J. Gibbons, West Troy, N. Y. No. 552639. 

Car Fender. — W. P. Young, Pottstown, Pa. No. 552655. 

A frame with a cross bar at the front thereof, a fender, a cradle 
connected with said fender, and knuckles on said fender and cradle 
intermediate said parts, said knuckles being freely seated on said 
cross bar, and guards on the fender freely embracing said cross bar. 

Car Fender. — M. Sparmo, New York, N. Y. No. 552789. 

Consists of a body section, a front pivoted section capable of as- 
suming a position at an angle to the body section, a rock shaft oper- 
ating the pivoted section, and actuated slides operating said rock 
shaft and controlled from the body portion of the fender. 







1^ 




Wm% —- ■■-:;a--=J 






■■*! 

a. 


i 






L.„_J 











PAT. NO. 552,105. 



Car Fender. — J. B. Morrow, Oxford, Md. No. •552852. 

Comprises a fixed section, a yielding section carried by the fixed 
section, and a yielding frame interposed between the said sections. 

January 14. 

Sand Box for Street Cars. — F. C. Murray, Boston, Mass. No. 
552922. 

A sand box, rotary on a horizontal axis and having a discharge 
opening in the end thereof, and a valve arranged to open and close 
said opening and turning in a vertical plane upon a stationary 
center. 

Car Fender. — J. T. Rodgers, Memphis, Tenn. No. 552927. 

Car Fender. — W. Burgey, Brooklyn, N. Y. No. 553050. 

Car Fender. — S. Ellison, Philadelphia, Pa. No. 553155. 

Electric Railway. — Thomas F. O'Connor, New York, N. Y. No. 
553176. ^ _ . _ 

In an electric railway, the combination with a suitable v/ay, of a 
motor vehicle, a slotted conduit extending parallel with the way, an 
electric conductor having one end stationary and connected with a 
source of power, and a conducting arm carried by the motor vehicle 
and traveling in the slot and to which the electric conductor is con- 
nected within the conduit. 

Car Fender. — C. A. du Quesnay, New Orleans, La. No. 553186. 
Car Fender. — W. S. Clement, Westmont, N. J. No. 553208. 



We will send copies of specifications and drawings complete of 
any of the above patents to any address upon receipt of twenty-five 
cents. Give date and number of patent desired. The Street Rail- 
way Publishing Company, Havemeyer Building, New York. 



Fl'.ltKUAKY, 1896.1 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



143 




Annual Report New York Railroad Comniis= 
sioners. 



The following tabulation of matter ct)ntained in the Annual Re- 
port of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, sent out on January 
S, referring to the surface railways of the city will be of interest: 



Year ending June 30, 


1894 


1895 




.162,957,535 


161,792,152 




251,692,610 


241,126,487 


" " surface railways. . . 


.504,070,025 


561,409,498 


" " total 


.918,720,170 


964,328,137 




, 23,911,026 


25,477,227 




15,418,848 


16,628,452 




■ 8,492,178 


8,848,776 




576,022 


942,961 




1,000,211 


1,095,472 




2,367,060 


2,911,1-16 


Rentals 


• 3,301,897 


.3,620,246 




. 1,577,107 


1,993,773 


Surplus for the year 


812,997 


171,130 




48 


17 




223 


119 




185 


181 


1,166 


630 


Others killed 


490 


496 




432 


376 


Total killed 


723 


694 


Total injured 


1,821 


1,125 


June 30, 


1894 


1895 




$88,261,929 


$89,693,580 




77,574,730 


80,180,424 


Unfunded debt 


9,216,834 


12,056,520 




161,007,475 


170,647,266 



The Board makes a comparison between the accidents in New 
York State and those in Pennsylvania, the advantage being very 
largely in favor of New York railroads in the matter of safety ap- 
pliances for protection of both passengers and employes. 

The Commissioners also say : 

" The use of power brakes on street surface cars operated by 
mechanical traction is receiving attention at the hands of the man- 
agers of such roads. The necessity for such an appliance is con- 
ceded. The difficulty is to procure a brake that will safely answer 
all requirements. Experiments are constantly being made in this 
direction, and it is confidently predicted by street railroad managers 
that in the near future all mechanically operated street cars in large 
cities will be equipped with power brakes. The shorter the distance 
in which a car can be stopped, the less danger there is of accident 
either to persons or property. 

" All street cars in this state should be heated during the winter 
months, and most of the companies have complied with the recom- 
mendations of the Board in this respect. A law requiring all street 
surface cars to be properly heated would secure full compliance in 
this important matter. 

" The Board, in addition, renews generally its recommendations 
of 1893 and 1894, and urges the Legislature to consider the propriety 
of embodying, at least, a part of them in some enactment." 



Annual Report Connecticut Railroad Commis= 
sioners. 



The annual report of the Connecticut Railroad Commissioners 
was sent to the Legislature on Jan. 17. That portion of the report 
which deals with street railways will be of interest. 

The Bridgeport Traction Company, representing 45 miles of road, 
makes no report of the number of miles run, passengers carried, or 
the number of employes. The other companies report 7,782,530 
miles run, 38,037,474 passengers carried, and 1525 employes. 

The report says that in no single instance did the books of the 
street railway companies supply the necessary data for comply- 
ing with the law in regard to returns. 

The report says that public safety demands the adoption of a 
power brake on electric cars. The weight of cars and their speed 



make it impossible to stop them by hand brakes as quickly as emer- 
gencies may require. The necessity, or at least the expediency, of 
their use is now generally admitted. Their adoption has been de- 
layed by a division of sentiment between those favoring an electric 
brake and those advocating the air brake. 

The total street railway mileage in the state was 317. The fol- 
lowing general statement is presented'in tabular form : 



Capital stock issued and outstanding $8,604,240.00 

Bonds issued and outstanding" 7,966,000.00 

Floating indebtedness 1,123,457.70 



Total $17,723,697.70 

Amount per mile 59,167.00 

Gross earnings 2,232,201.00 

Operating expenses 1,523,191.00 



Net earnings $708,860.00 

Interest charges paid 278,136.00 

Taxes 76,522.00 

Dividends (by eleven companies ) 168,630.00 



Operating expenses of electric roads in the state have been 
68.24 P- c. of gross earnings, and of the steam roads 68.43 P- c. 



Abstract of the New Buffalo Franchise. 



The following are the principal features of a franchise just 
granted to the Buffalo Traction Company and approved by the 
Mayor. The State Board of Railroad Commissioners have, however, 
refused to authorize the construction of the road. 

The company must finish and put in operation 30 miles of road 
within one year from the date of the grant, and the remainder within 
three years, delays caused by unavoidable legal proceedings to be 
deducted. 

The company is to use grooved girder rails g ins. deep, with 
flange not more than '4 in. below the head of straight rails, and on 
curved rails not more than }i in. above the head. All rails are to 
be placed on steel ties, with concrete foundation. 

The company shall repave and keep in permanent repair all 
pavement between its rails and 2 ft. outside each of the outer 
rails. The company is also to repair bridges and viaducts on its 
route, and to pay for all strengthening necessary on account of the 
operation of its cars over such bridges and viaducts. 

The company must vestibule all closed cars, must provide life 
guards at the front end, and must adopt such lighting, heating and 
ventilating methods as may be prescribed by the Aldermen and 
Council. 

The company must employ only citizens of the United States 
and actual residents and inhabitants of the city of Buffalo in the per- 
formance of any work done by it or by anv contractor in its employ 
in constructing, operating or maintaining the road, except engineers, 
superintendents and managers, and shall pay such employes not less 
than lyyi cts. per hour in weekly payments. 

The fares are to be five cents for cash with universal transfers 
throughout the system. Childen under ten years of age are to be 
carried free of charge. Passengers not desiring transfers are to re- 
ceive from the conductor on the payment of a cash fare a ticket, four 
of which shall entitle the holder to another ride, said tickets to be 
void if not used within sixty days. Any members of the police and 
fire departments are to ride upon their badges. It is also specified 
that the company must be prepared and willing to enter into an ar- 
rangement with the Buffalo Railway Company for a general transfer 
system at any time when the latter may consent, upon payment, each 
company to the other, of one-half regular fares. The company is to 
sell tickets at the rate of three for ten cents with all transfer privi- 
leges. 

The company is to pay to the city one per cent of its gross re- 
ceipts. 

The company is forbidden to consolidate or lease its property 
with or to any other company operating within the city limits with- 
out the consent of the Common Council. 

The franchise life is to be for fifty years and the city is to have 
the right to acquire the plant at the end of this time at its appraised 
valuation. 



144 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



STOCK AND BOND QUOTATIONS. 



Notice.— Tlieso quotations are carefully revised from month to month hy local bankers and brokers, and closely represent the market value of the different securities as 
tested by individual sales. Few of these, however, are actually quoted on city exchanges, and accuracy in the range of prices cannot, therefore, be vouched for. 

Securities.— Active securities only are quoted in these tables, and tiie bond issues described do not necessarily constituie the entire funded Indebtedness of the different 
properties. For a full and detailed description of all the securities, see American Street Kailway Investments, published annually on March 15th. 

Abbreviations.— The following abbreviations are used: M. mortgage; Gen. M. general mortgage; cons. M. consolidated mortgage; deb. debentures; convert, convertible; 
in esc. In escrow; g. gold; guar, guaranteed; bds. bonds; Int. interest; + In addition; auth. authorized; tncl. Including; cert, indebt. certlHcatea of indebtedness; In tr. in 
trust; n nominal. 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS 



ALBANY, N. Local quotations to 
Jan. 18 

Albany Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Cons. M. 5^ bds. (incl. $113,000 In esc). 

Deb. 6% (convert.) bds 

Wat. T'p'ke & R.R. Co.'s 3d M. 6? bds. 
Wat. Turnpike <fc K. K. Co., Stock. 100 

1st M. bds. (Int. guar, by Alb'y Ky. 



BALTIMORE, Ml).*— Local quotations 
to Jan. 18. 

Baltimore Traction Co., Stock 35 

IstM. 5^ bds 

No. Bait. Dlv. 1st M 5% bds 

Ext. and Imp, 6% bds 

City «r Suburbim Ky. Co., Stock... 60 

Gen. M. 5% g. bds 

Bnltiniore City Paan. Ky. Co., Stock 35 

ist. M. 5% g. bds 

Central Pa«8. Ky. Co., Stock 60 

Cons. M. 6f, bds. (+ $151,000 In esc). . 

ist M.6i bds 



BOSTON, MASS.*— Local quotations to 
Jan. 18. 

West End -St. Ry. Co., (common. ... 5ii 
Stock, tpreferred 8;S. 50 

Deb. bf, g bds 

Deb. 4^% g bds 

North Shore Traction (common 100 

Co., Stock. (preferred G%. lOi 
Lynn & Boston K.R. Co.'s 1st Cons. M. 
b% g. bds. (+ $1,677,000 In esc) 



BROOKLYN, N. V.*— New York quo- 
tations to Jan. 33. 
Long Inland Traction Co., Stock... 100 

c^oU. Tr. 6% g. notes 

Brooklyn llei^litH K. R. Co. 

1st M. 5% bds 

Brooklyn City R. R. Co., Stock.... 10 

1st Cons. M. 5% bds 

Brooklyn, <{. Co. & Sub. R. K. Co. 

ist M. b% g. bds. (+ 8350,000 In esc.).. . 

ist Cons. M. 5% g. bos 

Brooklyn Traction Co. (common 100 

Stock. (preferred 6^ 100 

Atlantic Ave. K. R. Co. 

Gen. M. 5% bds 

Cons. U.5% bds. (+ $1,034,000 In esc). . 

Imp. M. !i% g. bds 

B'kPn, Bath &, W. E. R. R. Co. 

Gen. M. 6% bds. (+ $553,000 in esc.)... 
Coney Isl. Ac B'kl'n R.R. Co., Stock 100 

1st M. 5% bds 

Cert. Indebt. 6% 

B'kl'n City & Newt'n K.R.Co. Stock 100 
1st Cons. 5% bds 



BUFFALO, N. Y.*— New York quotations 
to Jan. 33. 

Buflalo Ry. Co., Stock 100 

1st Cons. M. 5% bds. (+ $1,457,000 in 

esc.) 

Crosstown St. Ry. Co.'s Ist M. 5i bds. 



CHARLESTON, S. C.*— Local quota- 
tions to Jan. 18. 

Enterprise St. R. R. Co., Stock 25 

1st M. 5? bds 

Charleston City Ky. Co., Stock 60 

1st M. 6% bds 



CHICAGO, ILL.*— Local quotations to 
Jan. 18. 

Chicago & So. SideR. T.R. K. Co. 

Stock 100 

ist M. 5% bds 

Exten t,% bds 

Chicas;o City Kv. Co., Stock 100 

IstM. iXiibds 

Lake St. Elev. R. R., Stock. 100 



Issued. 



Dtie. 



1,350,000 
500,000 
300 000 
1.50,001 
240.000 
350,000 



5,750 
l,.50O 
1,750 
1,350, 
4,000, 
3,000 
2,500, 
3,000 
300 
549 
151 



9.085,000 
6,400,000 
3,000,000 
3,000.000 
4,000,000 
3,000,000 

3,703,000 



30,000,000 
2.500,000 

250,000 
12,000,000 
B.OUO,000 

3,150,000 
2,500,000 
6,000,0u0 
3,000,000 

759.000 
1,966,000 
1,500,000 

448,000 
1,000,000 
300,000 
200.000 
1,000,000 
1,900,000 



5,370,500 

3,543,000 
3,300,000 



250,000 
60,000 
100,000 
100,000 



7,600,000 
7,500,000 
3,000,000 
9,000,000 
4,619,500 
10,000,000 



1930 
1901 
1919 



1919 



1939 
1943 
1901 



1932 

igii' 



1933 
1912 



1903 
1914 



1924 



1895-'; 
1941 

igii 

1941 
1941 



1909 
1931 
1934 

1933 



1904 
1910 



1939 



1931 
1933 



1906 
1915 



1929 
19;i3 



60 d. 



Quotations. 



1895. 



140 
109 



1131^ 
114" 



"l?a' 
111 

1101,0 

108 
51 

my, 

117 

113 
110 



77 Hi 

95;-4 

107 
1 7 



my. 



185 
115 

115 
105 

18?i 
68I4 

110 
110 
95 

93 



305 
111 



90 

109% 
10714 



78 



17 
75 

63 
335 
102 



116 

105>^ 



111 

lisii 



14V6 
10i?i 
10,5 
102 ?i 

42>i 
lOTi/a 

69 >^ 
113M 

68 

!09>4 
110 



57h 
85 

10354' 
102)^ 



lOlJHi 



151!^ 
Ill 

103 
80 

49 

107!^ 
108 
85 

87 



113 
103 



66 



101 
95;^ 



634 

60 
40 

300 
100>ii 
7X 



Jan. 



136>ii 



17^, 
1103^ 
11 OH 
105 

50 
112 

73 
115 



673^, 

90 
105 
105ii 



83 



173 
112 

103 
80 

wy. 

54 

107 
108 
1^3 

85 



109 



80 



106 
104 



60 
42 
815 

loo;^ 

34 3i 



myj 



16\ 

110>.; 

WTk 
105 

47>^ 
lOOX' 

67><; 
115 

113 



64 

88 
103 
101 



my^ 



80 



80 
7 
48 

107 

108 
82 

85 



109 



100 
100 



60 

40 
278 
1003< 

18>i 



17 

iwy, 

108 
116 

4714 
110 

68^4 
115 

113 



•julj 

10, 



m 
111 

100 

rO 
9 
51 

107 
108 
82 

85 



150 b 
lO'J 



75 



104 
102 



6 
101 
70 
112 



5J8 

60 

40 
278 
100« 

21 



CINCINNATI, O.*— Local quotations to 
Jan. 18, 

Cincinnati St. Ry. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. 7!S bds 

1st M. 4% ext'n'd bds 

" " b% •• " 

Mt. Adams & Eden Park Inclined 

Ry., Stock 50 

1st M. 6^ bds 

" " 6% " 

Cons. M. 5% bds 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington 

St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Cons. M. 55Sg. bds.(lncl. $500,000 in esc.) 
So. Cov. & Cln. St. Ry. Co 1st M. 6% bds. 
" " " " " " "3ndCons. M. 
6j( g. bds. (Incl. $250,000 in esc.) 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



CHICAGO, ILL Continued. 

Met. W. S. Elevated Ry., Stock 100 

1st M. 5% bds 

North Chicago St. R. R. Co., Stock. ICO 

1st Al. 5% bds 

Cert. Indebt. 6^ 

No. Chi. Cy. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 6^ bds... 
" " " " 2nd M. 4}^% bds.. 

" " " " " Deb. 6^Das 

North Chicago City Ry. Co., Guar. 

Stock 100 

Went Chicago St. R. R. Co., Stock 100 

1st M. a% bds 

W. C S. R. R. Tunnel Co.'s 1st M. 5^ bds. 

Deb. 6^ bds 

Chi. W. Dlv. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. bds. 

Chi. Pass. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 6^ bds 

' " Cons. M. 6i5 bds... 

Chicago W. Oiv. Ky. Co., Guar. 
Stock 100 



COLUMBUS. O.*— New York quota- 
tions to Jan. 32. 

Columbus St. Ky. Co., Stock 100 

cons.M. 5% g. bds. (Incl. $780,000 In esc). 
Crosstown St. Ry. Co.'s 1st. M. 5% g. 
bds. ($90,000 In esc.) 



COYINGTON, KY.*— (See Cincinnati.) 



DETROIT, MICH.*— Local quotations to 

Jan. 18. 

Detroit Citi,«en8' St. Ry. Co., Stock. 100 

IstM. 6i oJ-^. (+$1,1.50,000 In esc) 

Fort Wayn A: Belle Isle Ry. Co., 

Stock 100 

1st M. 6% g. bds. ($60,000 In tr.) 

Wyandotte & Detroit River Ry. 

Co.. Stock 100 

Rapid Ity. Co., StOCk 

1st M. 5^bds 

The Detroit Ry., Stock 

istM. 5^ bds 

HARTFORD, CONN.*— See New Haven. 

HOBOKEN, N. J.*— See Newark. 

HOLYOKE, MASS.*— Local quotations to 
Jan. 18. 

Holyoke St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Springfield St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

Northampton St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 



INDIANAPOLIS, IND.*— New York 
quotations to Jan. 32. 

Citizens' St. R. R. Co., Stock 100 

Cons. M. b% g. bds. (Incl. $1,000,000 In 
esc.).... 



JERSEY CITY, N. J.*— See Newark. 



LOUISVILLE, KY.*— Local and New 
York quotations to Jan. 32. 

Louisville Ry. Co., icommon 100 

Stock, (preferred 5^ 100 
Cons. M. 5sS g. bds. (Incl. $1,263,000 In 
esc.) 



Issued. 



11,500,000 
13,500.000 
5,500,000 
3,413 000 
500,000 
500,000 
1.850,0110 
550.000 

500,000 
13,189,000 
4,100,000 
1,.500,000 
4,000,000 
4,040,000 
400.000 
600,000 

1,250,000 



11,000,000 
50,000 
1011,000 
150,000 

3,500.000 
50,000 
100.(100 
531,000 

3.000,000 
3,000,000 
250,000 

400,000 



3,000,000 
3,000,000 

500,000 



1,250,000 
1,150,000 

2,50,000 
340,000 

200,000 
250,000 
300,000 
1,000,000 
1,800,000 



250,000 
1,000,000 
325,000 



5,000,000 
4,000,000 



4,000,000 
2,000,000 

6,000,000 



Due. 



1943 



1906 
1911 
1900 
1937 



1938 
1909 

i932 
19115 
1929 



1896 



1900 
1905 
1906 



1932 
1912 



1933 



1933 
1933 



1935 



1933 



1930 



Quotations. 



1895. 



22 

79 

mu 

103)^ 

101 



600 
135 

103><; 
my 

101 

109 



600 



104 

100>4 

102 

1121^ 
108 
114 
107>i 



100 
115 



115 



60!^ 
102H 

103 



120 b 
100 



250 
100 



110 



225 
215 
200 



58 



54X 
1031^ 

11014 



245 
102 



105 
100^ 



595 
110 

my. 
101 
101 
101 

108 



600 



108% 
101 



108 
106 
103 
106 

34 
94 

mx 

114X 



9414 



90 
100 



210 
100 



100 



300 
200 
160 



34 

823tf 



37 
93 

104}tf 



Jan. 



17 

68 
308}^ 



lOOJ^ 



114 
lUO^ 



100 



my. 



112 



50 
100 



95 



100 
100 

250 
100 

no 

110 
96 



310 
215 
195 



50 
101 



109 



• For detaUed dtscrlptlon of these and other securltlea Issued, see AMBRICAM STREET RAILWAY INVESTMENTS- a sapplement to the STREET RAIL- 
WAY JOURNAL, published annually on March istu. 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



145 



company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



Issued. 



Due. 



Q.uotatioDS. 



1895. 



Jan. 



tiVNN, MASS.*— See Boston. 



»lINNEAPOI>IS, MINN.*— New York 
quotations to Jan. 32. 
Twin Oiry Unpld Tranxlt Co. (com. . 100 
Stock. (prer.7* 
Minn. St. Ry. Co.'s Cons. M. 5% g. bds. 

(+ $960,000 In esc.) 

St. Paul City Ky. Co.'s Cab. Cons. 5% g. 

bds. (Incl. $680,000 In esc.) 

St. Paul City Ky. Co.'s Deb. 6^ g. bds. 



MONTREAT.., CAN.*— Local quotations 
to Jan. 18. 

Montreal St. Ry. Co., Stock 50 

ist M. 5% bds 

2ndM. 4>i!t bds 



NEW AI..BANY, INU.*— See Louisville. 



NEWARK, N. J.*— New York and Phila- 
delphia quotations to Jan. 32. 
OonHOlidaied Traction Co., of N. J., 

Stock 100 

1st M. 5% g. bds 

North Hiiflson Co. Ry. Co.. Stock... 25 
Cons. M. 6% bds. (Incl. $620,000 In esc.) 

2nd M. 6% bds 

Deb. 6% bds 



NEW HAVEN, CONN.*— Local quota- 
tions to Jan. 17. 
Fnirhnven & Westville R. R. Co., 

Stock 25 

Winchester Ave. R. R. Co., Stock.. . 25 

18t M. 5% g. bds 

Deb. 6< bds 

New Haven St. Rv. Co., lStM.5^bdS. 

Hartford St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

H'd & Wth's'fl'd H. R. K. Co.'s deb. 5% 
bds 



NEW ORLEANS. 1,A.*— New York 
quotations to Jan. 2i. 
New Urienns Traction (common.. 100 
Co., Stock, \pre£. 6*... lOO 

N. O. City & Lake R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 5% 

g. bds. ($433,500 In esc.) 

Crescent City R. R. Co.'s Cons. M. 5f, 

g. bds 

New Orleans & Carrollton R. R. 

Co., Stock 100 

1st M. 6 !< bds 

3d M. bds 

Canal & Claiborne R. R. Co., Stock. 40 

1st M. 6 i bds 

Orleans R. R. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. bda 

St. Charles St. R. R. Co., Stock.... 50 

isi M. 6% bds 



NEWPORT, R. I.*— See Providence. 



NEW YORK. N. Y.*— Local quotations 
to Jan. 33. 

Metropolitan Traction Co., Stock... 100 
Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

B'y. Surt R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 5% bds. . . . 
" ■• " " " 2nd M. 5% bda.... 

So. Ferry R. K. Co., 1st. M. 5* bds. . . . 

Lex. Ave. & P. F. Ry . Co.'s 1st M. 6% bds. 
Broadway iV Seventh Ave. R. R. 
Co., (luar Stock 100 

Cons. M. b%g. bds. (+ $4,850,000 In esc.) 

1st M. 5% bds 

3ndM. 5% bds 

Sixth Ave. R. R. Co., Guar. Stock 100 
Ninth Avenne R. R. Co., Guar. Stock 100 
Twenty-third St. Ry. Co.,Quar.StOCk 100 

lstM.6* Dds 

Deb. 5% bds 

B'y. Surt. R. R. Co.'s IstM. 5% bds.... 
42nd St. & «'d. St. Ferry R. R. Co., 
Guar. Stock 100 

1st M. 6jS bds 

Cent. Pk., No. 3c M. Riv. R. R. Co., 
Guar, stock 100 

Cons. M. 7% bds 

Bl'cker St. & Fulton Ferry R. R. 
Co 100 

Ist M. 7* Uds 

Third Avenue R. R. Co.. Stock 100 

ist M. 5* g. bds 

Second Avenue R. R, Co., Stock 100 

Cons. M. b% bds 

Deb. 6* bds 

Eighth Avenue R. R. Co., Stock 100 



15,000,000 




30 


iiy. 


25 


35 


25 


1,500,000 








100 


100 


100 


4 040.000 


1919 


100 


91 


96 


93 


94 


4,298,000 


1937 




85 


93 


90 


90 


1 ,UUU,UUU 


1900 




90 


90 


90 


4,000,000 




227 


168 


226 


214 


215 


300,001 


1908 


189 


184 








700,000 


1932 












15.000,000 




31 


34 


25 


25 


25 


11,711,000 


1933 


87 Si 


80 


86 


78% 


80 


1.000,000 














3 000.000 


1928 












350,000 


1928 












.500,000 


1902 












600, noo 


53 


50 


53 


53 


53 


400 000 














500.000 


1912 


103 


101 




102 


Wi]^ 


lOO.OIIO 


1909 


102 


100 


10) 


100 


101 " 


600.0110 


1913 


102 


101 


103 


103 


102 


200,000 




250 


208 


219 


215 


219 


1,344,000 




103 


100 


102 


101 


101 


5,000,000 




29 


11 


20 


15H 


17 


2,500,000 




mi 


40 


70 


63 


65 


3,000,000 


1943 


105 




101 


99 


100 


2,350,000 


1943 


100 


91 


95 


90 




1,200.000 




12t> 


118;j, 


126 


123 


124 


250,000 


1897) 










1906) 












350,000 


1905\ 
1907) 


113^ 


112 








240,000 


40 


36 


48 


46 


46 


150,0110 


;913 










102 b 


185,000 





43^ib 


33)4 


45 


44 


44>i 


18,000 








114 


111 


lll>i 


594, a50 




66 


5,5" 


68 


b7 


67 


150,000 


1912 












30,000,000 


112>4 




108 


92 


103J4 


13,500,000 












1 1 Al lA 


19''4 


114 I 


lio" 


in" 


in 


113 


1,000,000 


1905 


106 


103 1 


lOiH 


m 


103 


350,000 


1919 


106 


103 


J 06 


106 


106 


Ri lA f\(\f\ 




n 

il,>x 


105is 


113 


1 1 A 


11 1 ?4 


•6, l\}\Ji,\JW 




200 


188 


197 


197 


197 




1943 


1 \7V, 
i 1 ( /a 


109 


115 




115 


1 Kf\i'\ AAA 


1904 


110 


loeunoTj^ 


10* X 


I07><i 


PiAA (VIA 


1914 


111^ 


1081/., 


110 


1 ! I* 


1 10 






223 


200 ' 


220 


«uu 


200 


800,0«« 




160 


146 






160 b 


600,000 




310 


.300 


308" 


305*' 


306 


250 000 


1909 


i;io 


115 


115 


115 


115 


iso.'ooo 


1906 


105 


102 


104 


1U2 


104 


375.000 


1924 


114 


110 


114 


113 


113 


748.000 




330 


315 


315 


315 


315 


336,000 


1909 


116J^ 


115 


116 


116 


116 


1.800,000 




166 


161 


165 


163 


163 


1,200,000 


1902 


118 


nzyi 


115 


113 


114 


900,000 




30 


29 


30 


30 


30 


700,000 


1900 


113 


111 


110 


110 


110 


9.000,000 




vmy^ 


150 


180 


172 


174 !i 


5.000,000 


1937 


vziy; 


118 


121 


117 


116 


1,862,000 




165 


140 


165 


1!)0 


150 


1,600,000 


im 


110 


107 


107>i 


107Va 




300.000 


1909 


105 


100 


103><i 




103K. 


1,000,000 




365 


300 


360 


340 


345 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



Issued. 



Due. 



Quotations. 



1895. 



Jan. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

Cert. Ind'bt. 6% 

4'iMd St., M.<k St. N. Ave. Ry. Co., 

Stock 100 

1st. M. 6^ bds 

2nd M. luc. (i% bds 

Di-y Dock, E. B'y. «V Battery R. R. 

<;o.. Stock 100 

Gen. M. 5% g. bds 

Cert. Ind'bt 5* lOO 

Central CroHstown R. R. Co., Stock lOo 

isi M. 6% bds 

Christopher 1 0th St. R. R. Co., 

Guar. Stock loo 

Dnion Ry. Co., Stock 100 

IstM. 5% bds 

Westchester Elec. R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 
6<bds 



NORTHAMPTON, MASS.*— See Holyoke, 



PATERSON, N. J.*— New York and Phlla 
delphia quotations to Jan. 22. 

PnterHon Ry. Co., Stock 100 

<^ ons. M. 6% bds. (Inc. $350,000 In esc). 



PH I I.A UEI.PII lA, PA.*— Local quota- 
tions to Jan. 18. 

Union Traction Co., Stock 

Philadelphia Traction Co., Stock 

Coll. Tr. 4* g. bds 

Continental Pass. Ry. Co., Guar. 

Stock 50 

1st M. 6% bds. 

Empire Passenger Ry. Co , Stock.. 

IstM. 7% bds 

Philn. t!ity Pass. Ry. Co., Stock 

isr. M. 5% bds 

Phila. & Wy» Ferry Pb«s. Ry. Co., 

Guar. Stock 

Ridge Ave. Pass. Ry. Co. .Guar. Stock 
13th & 1.5th Sts.. Pass. Ry. Co., 

Guar. Stock 

isl M. 7% bds... 

Union Pass. Ry. Co., Guar. Stock.. 

1st M. 5% bds 

2ndM. .5^ bds 

W. Phila. Pass. Ry. Co., Guar. Stock 

1st M. t>% g. bds 

3nd M. &% bds 

Frankford & .S'thw'k P. C. Pass. 

R. R. Co.. Guar. Stock 50 

Lombard & So. St. P. R. R. Co.'s 1st 

bds 

West End P. Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 7^bd.s.. 
Ci iz.ens' Pass. Ry. Co., Guar. StOCli 
2nd & .3rd .Sts. Uy. Co., Guar. Stock 

I.,ehi«h Ave. Ry. Co., Stock 

J'eople'M Pass. Ry. Co., (common 

Stock (preferred... 

1st M. 7% bds 

Cons. M. a% bds 

Uerinantowi Pass. Ry. Co., Guar. 

Stock 50 

Green & Coates Sts. P. P. Ry. Co 

Guar, stock 50 

1st M. 6^ bds 

Hest'v'e, i>lnntua & F'r'm't P. R 

R. Co., Stock 50 



50 



51 



PITTSBURGH, PA.*— Local quotations 
to Jan. 18. 

Citizens' Traction Co., Stock 50 

1st M. .5^ bds 

Pittsbureh Traction Co.. Stock 50 

1st M. 5% bds 

Diiqiipsne Traction Co., Stock 50 

IstM. 5s! bds 

P'b'gb, Allegheny d. Manrli'r Tr. 
Co., Stock 50 

Gen. M. .5^ bds 

P'b'gh Union P. Ry. Co.'s 1st. M. r>% bds. 
Fcdernl St. & P. V. R. R. Co., SlOCk 2ri 

Gen. M. 5% bds.. (aew) 

P'b'gh <S£Biruiinghani Tr. Co., Stock 50 

Gen, M. 5^ g. bds 

Central Traction Co., Stock 50 

1st M. 5% bds 

P'b'ith & West End P. Ry. Co., Stock 50 

1st. M. 5% bds 



PROVI DENCE, R. I.*— Local quotations to 
Jan 17. 

United Traction <& Electric Co., 

Stock 100 

1st M. 5% g. bds 

Newiiort St. Ry. Co. 

1st M. 5^ bds 



1,000,000 

3,500,000 

1,200,000 
1.500,000 

1,200,000 

885,000 
1,100,000 
600,000 
250,000 

650,000 
2,000,000 
2,000,000 

600,000 



1,2,50 000 
l,a.50,000 



15,000 000 
1,0.53.000 

1,000,000 

;i50.ooo 

600.000 
200,000 
475,000 
200,000 

30S,7.'--0 
420,000 

334.529 
100.000 
925,000 
500000 
250,000 
750,000 
246,000 
750,000 

1,875,000 

150,000 
132,100 
192,500 
848,160 
599,950 
740,01)0 
277,402 



572,800 

500,000 
100,000 

3,500,000 



3,000,000 
1,250,000 
2,500,000 
750.000, 
3,000,000 
1,500,000 

.1,000 000 
1,500,000 

100,000 
1.4110.000 
1.2.50,000 
3,000,000 
1,500.0110 
1,500,000 

375,000 
1,500.000 

450,000 



8,000.000 
8,000,0u0 

50,000 



1914 


110 


103 


110 


no 


1910 
1915 


76 
117 
73 


50 
113 


68 
117 
70 


58 
113 
65 


i932 
1914 

1922 


179 
116 
105 
200 
120 


150 
113 
102 
166 
116 


170 
114 

103 
200 

uy 


165 
113 
100 
190 
119 


1942 


1,55 
1.30 
106 


149 
100 
100 


155 
100 
105" 


1.50 
95 
100 


1943 


mx 


96 


99 


99 


1931 


31 
101 


12 

85 


35 
100 


33 
94 


i9i7 


166" 
100 


'7i" 
100 


12 

65J4 


10 
63 


1909 


1.34 
115 


131 


139 




1900 
1910 


12(j" 

175 

108 


I65" 


lie" 






251 


80 
224 


85 
245 




1913 

igii 

1910 

1906 
1926 


233 
124 
206 
108 
100 
225 
110 
105 


322 
206 

198" 


323% 
261^ 

225" 






339 


329 


325 




1901 
1905 

i905 
1905 
1912 


90? a' 

■z'lk" 

231 
.53 
67 ?8 

lai" 

61 


90?8' 

xii" 
2123^ 

40 

47^ 

lis" 

61 


90% 
280' ' 

si" 






120 


112% 


120% 




1P98 


131 

130 


127 
118 


127 






66X 


63% 


48 




i927 
1927 

im 


60 
11014 

70 
110 

36>^ 
105>4 


mk 

58 
107 

26% 
100 


56 


55 

my 


imi 

1901 


40J-4 
107)^ 


35 

mn 




38)4 


mi 
im 

i939 
i923 


22)4 
104 

20H 

98 

28'« 
105 ?8 

50 
104 


19 

)I0 
12% 
90 
IS 

1023< 
29>s 
101 


19',, 

102;^ 

16% 
97>6 
27 


19^; 

lO-'Aj 
16 

97V2 
27 


i933 


58 
1021.^ 


45 


50 
101 


50 
100 


1910 


102 


95 


100 


100 



110 

60 
115 
70 

170 

102 

\y2 
119 

154 
100 
101>i 



25 



54%b 

112 

l62>i 

39a 

106% 
'20a 
16%b 

9sa 

36b 



50 
100 



100 



•For detailed description of these and other securltiea Issued, see AMERICAN STREET RAILWAY investments, a suitpiement to the Hfwvr 
RAILWAY JOURNAL., pabllsbed annually on March 16tb bikkih 



146 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



Company. 

STOCKS AND BONDS. 



Issued. 



Due. 



Quotations. 



Annual Reports. 



1895. 



Jan. 



ROCHESTER, N. Y.*— New York quota- 
tions to Jan. 22. 

RocheBter Ry. Co., Stock 100 

cons. M. 5*g. bds.dncl. $1,000,000 In 

2n1i M.'w g bds.\Vnci.'$75b,665 In esc.) 



100 



ST. LiOUlS, MO.*— Local quotations to 
Jan. 22. „^ , 
St. Louis R. R. Co., Stock 100 

istM. 5% bds 

Citizens' Ry. Co., Stock 100 

lstM.6f.bds 

Cuss Ave. & Fair fcJroiiiids Ky. Co., 
Stock 

istM. .'j^tids 

Ijnion Depot R. R. Co., Stock 100 

Cims. M. 6% g. bds 

Benton. Bellel'ne Ry. Co.'s 1st M. 6% 
bds 

Mound City R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 6^ bds. 
Jeflersoii Ave. Ry. Co., Stock 100 

1st M. 5^ bds 

l>li«80uri II. R. Co., Stock 100 

IstM.e^Dds ..- 

l.indell Ky. Co.. Stock 100 

IstM. 5%\)as ;;---oV„V 

St l,oiil8&: Suburban Ky. Co., Stock 100 
' istM. 6s«bd3. (incl. $600,000 in esc.) 

inc. 6% bds 

People's R. R. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. e% bds 

2nd M. 7% bds. < 

cons. M. 6% bds. (Incl. $300,000 In esc.) 
Foiirtli St. Ac Arsenal Ky. Co., Stock 50 

1st M. 6^ bds 

Southern Flectric Ry. (common ... 100 
Co., Stock tpreterred 6% 100 

cons. M. 6% bds (Incl. $200,0(iO In esc.) 
St. «c E. St. 1.. E. R. Co., Stock.. 100 

llailen St.\>oii'i8 R." R'.'.'stbck. ..." 100 

1st M. 6% bds 



SAN FRANCISCO.CAL.*— Local quota- 
tions to Jan. 15. 
Market Street Ky. Co., Stock 100 

M'ket St. Cabl e CO. s 1 St M 6^ bds . . . . 

Omnibus Caole Co.'s 1st M. 6f. bds. . . . 

Park & ocean R. R. Co.'s IstM. 6% bds. 

Park & Cliff Uouse R. R. Co.'s 1st M. 
6^ bds 

Powell St. R. R. co.'s 1st M. has... 

Ferries & Cliff House Ky. Co.'s 1st M. 

6? bds ■■■■■■ 

Geary St.. I"'U Sc O. K. R. Co., Stock 100 

1st M. 5% bds „ 

Cal. St. Cable R. R. Co., Stock lOil 

1st M. 5% g. bds • 

Sutler Street Ky. Co., Stock . 100 

1st M. 5% g. bds 

Presidio & Ferries R. R. Co. StOJk 100 
Oakland. S. I/. & Hay wards Ry. Co. 
Stock 10" 



SPRINGFIEliD, MASS.*— (See Holyoke.) 

TORONTO, ONT.*— Local qnotatlons to 
Jan. 17. 

Toronto Ry. Co., Stock 100 



WASHINCSTON, D. c.*- Local quotas 
tlonsto Jan. ;30. 

Capitol Traction Co. . 



Metropolitan R. R. Co .Stock 50 

Coll. Tr 6% conv. bds 

Belt Ry. Co.. Stock 50 

cons. M. 6% bds. (Inc. $50,000 In esc.) . . 

Eckington & Soldiers' Home Ry. 
Co., Stock 50 

IstM. 6^, bds 

G'getown & Ten'town Ry . Co., Stock 50 
Columbia Ry. Co ' 50 

1st M. 6^ bds 



WORCESTER, I>IASS.*— New York 
quotations to Jan. 22. 
Worcester Traction Co., (common.. 100 

Stock \prer. 6%... 100 

Worcester Cons. St. R. R. Co 

1 at. M. 5^ bds 

Deb. 5i g. bds 



5,000,000 

3,000,000 
1.500,000 



3,000,000 

3,000,000 

1,500,000 
1.500,000 

2,000,000 
1,911,000 
4.000,000 
1,150,000 

300,000 
400,000 

112,000 

328,000 
2,3(10,000 

500,000 
3,5i'0,000 
1,500.000 
2,500,000 
2,000,000 

300.0U0 
1,000,000 

125,000 
75 000 
1,000,000 

150,000 

50,000 

700,000 
800.000 
500.000 
250,000 
75,000 
60,000 
350,000 



18,616,783 
3,000,000 
2,000.000 
250,000 

350,000 
700,000 

650,000 
1,000,000 

671,000 
1.000.000 

9U0 000 
2,000,000 

900,000 
1,000,000 

1,000,000 



1930 
1933 



1907 

'ml 
i93i 



1892) 
19(13( 
1903 
]89!l| 
1904) 



,--J8) 
1H03) 



1909 
1905 

inis 



1913 
1918 
1914 

1913 
1913 

1914 

1921 

1915 

1918 



4514 

106;^ 
86 U 



149 
107 
130 
108}^ 

100 
100 
200 
110>., 

102 

105 

300 
103 
.ilu 

110 

105>!! 
33Ka 
97i^ 

101 
25 

101 

102 



25 

101 

45 
88 
109 
200 
104 



30 

99!^ 
83 



125 

100 

65 
105 

50 

98 
110 
105 

100 

102 

135 
100 
300 
100 
105 
101)4 

19% 

76 

45 
9 

85 

"TO 

7fl 
4 
98 

40 

84 
105 

99 
102 



99>4 97>4 



4514 


36 M 


125 


117?i 


120 


117 


110 


no 


104 


96 


113 


109 



103 

108 
105 
lllj'-j 



6,000,000 



2,000,000 

750,000 
500,000 
500,0<)0 
500,000 



352,000 

200,000 

200,000 
400,000 
600,000 



3,000,000 
2,000,000 

1.50,000 
,500.000 



15 



100 



1901 
1931 



1896) 
1911/ 



1914 



885 



103 

r.6>^ 

30 
90 



20 



33 



106 

85 



144 
93 



100 
104 



208 
100 
136 
104 
34 



18 



37 



100 

85 



140 

90 



100 
104 



208 
100 
134 
104 

3354 



30 

102^ 

85 



144 
91 



100 
104 



208 
100 
134 
104;^ 
34 



45=.4 
^ 121 
119 



99 J, 

100 1.6 
lOlVi 
1061.2 109' 



1061^ 
15 

100 



60% 



15 
100 

45" 
107^ 



10 



77 



77=:i 

100 
114 

84' 



15 
101 
17 

113 



14J^ 



44?8 
119 " 

102>^ 



101 

l69?i 



44Vi 
120 

108 a 

102 >4 
116 a 

108 a 

10.5'a 

105 b 

109;'4 



7^ 



110 a 
5 b 



66><^ 



75 

97 
110 

83' 

15 
100 

15 

50 



12 



100 100 
99 



15^ 
97 

lll><i 

83" 

15 
101 
17 



12^ 



100 
99 



• See foot note on preceding pages. 

New York and PliUadelptila quotations of Brooklyn, Buffalo, Columbus, Indian- 
apolis, Louisville. New Orleans, New York City, Paterson, Rochester and Worcester 
Securities furnlsbed by Gufltavus Maas, 26 Broad Street, New York. 



THE ALBANY RAILWAY, ALBANY, N. Y. 

Year ending Dec. 31, 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Receipts from passengers $414,253 $455,874 $519,387 

" other sources 4,204 6,044 2,889 

total 418,457 461,918 522,276 

Operating expenses 251,035 298,972 314,319 

Earnings from operation 167,422 162,946 207,957 

Deductions from earnings. 

Interest on bonds 39,313 40,697 40,790 

Taxes 12,645 16,143 16,643 

Rentals 30,383 30,778 31,223 

Other deductions 2,202 4,974 

Net income 82,878 70,354 119,300 

Per centoperating expenses to total 

receipts 60.0 64.7 60.1 

NORTH CHICAGO STREET RAILROAD COMPANY, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Year ending Dec. 31, 1894. 1895. 

Total receipts $2,565,618 $2,780,487 

Operating expenses 1,347,326 1,311,607 

Earnings from operation 1,218,292 1,468,880 

Deductions from earnings 465,648 471,251 

Net income 752,644 997,629 

Dividends paid 659,913 659,922 

Surplus ^ 92,731 337,707 

Per cent operating expenses to total re- 
ceipts 52.5 47.2 

WEST CHICAGO STREET RAILROAD COMPANY, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Year ending Dec. 31, 1894. 1895. 

Total receipts $4,181,237 $4,201,477 

Operating expenses 2,518,627 2,267,195 

Earnings from operation 1,662,610 1,934,282 

Deductions from earnings 859,471 902,016 

Net income 803,139 1,032,266 

Dividends paid 1,184,298 791,340 

Surplus def. 381,159 240,926 

Per cent operating expenses to total receipts. 60.2 54.0 

SPRINGFIELD STREET RAILWAY COMPANY, SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

Year ending Sept. 30, 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Receipts from passengers $383,602 $368,719 $442,000 

other souices 7,571 5,184 

total 391.173 373,903 442,000 

Operating expenses 272,829 252,269 277,155 

«_ 

Earnings from operation 118,344 121,634 164,845 

Deductions from earnings. 

Interest on bonds 123 12,672 

Taxes 18, 731 18,087 17,964 

Net income 99.614 103,424 134.209 

Per cent operating expenses to total 

receipts 69.8 67.4 62.7 

BIDDEFORD & SACO RAILROAD COMPANY, BIDDEFORD, ME. 

Year ending June 30, 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Total receipts $28,213 $24,219 $24,287 

Operating expenses 19. 471 14.813 12,186 

Earnings from operation 8,742 9,406 12,101 

Deductions from earnings. 5, 9^4 

Interest on bonds 5, 400 5.400 

" floating debt 1.536 722 

Taxes i43 269 

Net income 1,663 3. 016 6,187 

Per cent operating expenses to total 

receipts 69.0 61. i 50.1 

SCRANTON TRACTION COMPANY, SCRANTON, PA. 

Year ending Dec. 31, 1894. 1895. 

Total receipts , $253,686 $299,322 

Operating expenses 142,410 157,384 

Earnings from operation 111,276 141,938 

Per cent operating expenses to total receipts. . . 56.1 52.5 



February, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



147 



TABLE OF OPERATING STATISTICS. 



Notice.— These statistics are carefully revised from montli to month, upon Information received from the companies direct, or from offlclal sources. The 
table should be used in connection with our Financial Supplement, "American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating reports to 
the ends of the various financial years. 

Abbreviations.— The following abbreviations are used: * Including taxes, d. deflclency. m. months. 









tn 
tn p4 






□ a> 


CO ^ 


Gro 
Lecei 


Cl W 




as 

cl p, 






so 



Company. 



ALBANY, N. Y. 
The Albany Ry. 



Period. 



BALiTIJHORE, MD. 
Baltimore Traction Co. 



City Sc Suburban Ry. Co.. 

BATH, ME. 
Bath St. Ry. Co 



3 m. 



1 m.,Nov. 
1 " 



BIDDEFORD, ME. 
Biddeford & Saco R R Co. 

BINGHAMTON, N. Y. 
BInKbainton R. R. Co 



BOSTON, MASS. 
Lynn 6c Boston R. R. C0..I 
North Shore Traction Co./ 



BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 
Brldxeport Traction Co. . . 



BROCKTON, MASS. 
Brockton St. Ry. Co 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Broolilyn Traction Co. 



Coney Island Se. Brooklyn 
R. R. Co 



Brooklyn City Sc. Newtown 
R. R. Co 



, Dec. '94 
" 9.5 
" '94 
" '95 

, Dec. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" •95 

June '94 

" '95 



13 m. 
12 " 



'W 
" '94 
" '95 

June'94 
" '95 



1 m. 
1 " 



sept. 



12 m. 
12 " 
1 " 
1 " 



1 m., 
1 " 
12 " 
12 •• 

1 m., 

I " 

II " 
11 " 

1 m., 
1 " 
11 " 
11" 

3 m., 
.s " 



,Sept.'94 
** '95 

Nov. '9< 
•* '95 
" '94 
" '95 

Dec. '94 
" '95 
" '91 
" '95 



Nov. 



Brooklyn Elev. R. R. Co... 
Brooklyn Heights R.R. Co 



Brooklyn, Queens Co. and 
Sub. R. R. Co 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 
Bufialo Ry. System. 



CHICAGO, ILL, 
Lake St. Elev. Ry. Co. 



No. Chicago R. R. Co 

West Chicago R. R. Co... 

ClIVCINNATI, O. 
Cinn. Newport Si Cov.By 
Co 



3 m., 
3 " 



13m 
X2 '• 
3 m. 

3 •• 

6 " 
6 " 

3 m. 

3 " 
9 " 



1 m., 



Dec. '94 
" '95 
" '94 



3 m., 

3 " 
12" 
12" 

12 m., Dec.'94 

13 " 

12 m, 

13 " 



CLEVELAND, O. 
Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 



COLUMBUS, GA. 
Colnmbns R.R. Co. 



COLUMBUS. O. 
Columbus St. Ry. Co 



DENVER, COL. 
Denver Cons. Tramway Co 



Nov. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" 95 

Sept. '94 
'95 
" '91 
" '95 

Sept. '94 
'■ '95 
" '94 
" '95 

,Dec. '94 
•• '95 

.Sept. '9- 

" '9u 
" '94 
" '95 

, Sept. '94 
" '95 
•■ '94 
" '95 

Sept. '94 
'95 
" '94 



122,383 
132,407 
461,918 
532,276 

85,663 
95.673 
255 321 
289,659 
605,12;^ 
751.720 

1,463 
1,501 
18,537 
20,177 

34,31.) 
24,387 

12,597 
13,5.53 
90.741 
97.075 

1,338,410 
1,381, S89 
91,628 
98,510 
194,355 
205,371 

20,041 
34.57' 
144,447 
3U3.416 

18,093 
30,3'"' 
207,378 
352,354 

97,720 
85,672 
1,040.346 
938,717 

115. 
134,760 
252,546 
310,386 

148.187 
137,801 
441,490 
453.928 
1,'< 30,848 
2,0^2,684 
1,304,717 
1,205,075 
2,544.532 
2,351,011 
185,072 
193,485 
441,756 
4.55,580 

131.186 
146,735 
1,138,162 
1,352,575 

131,898 
156,76' 
438.095 
517,301 
3.565,618 
95 2,780,487 
, Dec.'94;4,181,237 
•• '95 4.201,477 



1 m. 



11 •• 

11 " 



1 m. 
1 " 

6 " 
6 " 



1 m. 
1 " 

12" 



Nov. '94 
'■ '95 
" '94 
" '95 

, .Tune '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 



Dec. 



1 m , Dec. '94 

1 " " '95 
12" " '94 
13" " '95 

13 m.,June'94 
13" " "" 
Nov. 



1 m. 
1 " 
5 " 
5 " 



42,6(19 
50,302 
453,911 
570,935 

148,812 
135,063 
607,577 
691,197 

2,340 
3,121 
44,271 

50,085 
55,409 
666,811 
629,995 

739.337 
7lbil03 
57,922 
54,5S8 
313 746 
332,696, 



85,240 
83,928 
298,973 
314,319 



409,863 
546,970 

1,187 
1,0.52 
14,.303 
13,243 

14,813 
12,186 

6,005 
5,716 
51,203 
55.749 

746 304 
784,392 
65,863 
68.(^97 
131,871 
136,242 

11,788 
13,670 

156,340 

10,157 
16,314 
1.33,822 
153,363 

5.';,051 
53.452 
633,537 
752,271 

63,360 
61,766 
162,528 
182,429 

80,608 
83.296 
246,675 
284,634 
1055.463 
1170 949 
738,963 
638,363 
1464,846 
1374,565 
109.241 
108,-348 
324,.556 
395,566 

70,944 
70,358 
644,443 
640,975 



90,160 
390,090 
319.606 
1347,326 
1311, ti07 
2518,627 
2267.195 

28,956 
33,9^7 
334,376 
381,602 

101,455 
76,870 
407,254 
457,424 



1,919 



24,713 
37.271 
269,362 
311,594 

449,981 
433.500 
34,369 
33 771 
186,368 
196,519 



37.142 
48.479 
162,947 
307,957 



195,760 
204,750 

275 
449 
4,334 
6,935 

9,406 
12,101 

6,593 
6.837 
39,. 538 
41,326 

492,106 
596.997 
25,765 
29,844 
63,4'-^4 
69,129 

8,353 
12,007 

147,176 

7,935 
4,065 
73,556 
98,992 

42,669 
32,230 
407,809 
186,446 

53,545 
72,994 
90,018 
127,957 



22,579* 14,564 

21,^,57* 27,023 

92,592* 70,8.";4 

88,657* 119,300 



6 391* 
5,915* 



.379,029" 
391,681* 



67, 

,55, 
194, 
168. 
675, 
911. 
565 
56B, 
1,079, 
976. 

'/5. 

84. 
117. 
160 



816,726 
846,745 
495.255* 
516,736* 
991.941 
1057.590 
84,203 
84,499 



60,343 
76,37 
493,709 
611,600 



66,637 
138,005 
197,695 
1,318,293 
1,468,8>0 
1,663.610 
1,934,282 

13,653 
16,315 
119,635 
189,333 

47,357 
58,193 
200,323 
333,773 



1,20! 



35,37; 

38, 13' 
297,449 
318',4ui 

279.255 
377,69! 
33„553 
20,784 
127,378 
126 177 



3,016 
6,186 



113,077 
205,316 



dl41,340! 
64,990' 
70,500 
49.986 
87,735: 
d81,144 
d8,371 
a 362 



465,648 
471,251 
859,471 
903,016 



Company. 



Period. 



DETROIT, MICH. 
Ft. Wayne & Belle 

Isle .St. Ry. Co 

Citizens' St. Ry. Co.. 
Rapid Ry. Co 

DULUTH, MINV. 
Dulnth St. By 



GALVESTON. TEX. 
Galveston City R. R. 
Co 



752,644 
997.629 
803.139 
1032,; 



GIRARDVILLE, PA. 
Schuylkill Traction Co. 



HAZLETON, PA. 
Lehigh Traction Co, 



HOUSTON, TEX. 
Houston City St. Ry. 



JAMESTOWN, N. Y. 
Jamestown St. Ky, Co 



KANSAS CITY, MO. 
Metropolitan St.Ry.Co 



KINGSTON, IW. Y. 
Kingston City R. R 
Co 



6 m., June '95 

" '95 
m.,Dec.'95 



1 m., Oct. '94 
■ ' " '95 
10 " " '94 
10 95 



I m. Nov. '94 
95 

II " " '94 

11 " " '95 

12 m.Sept. " 

12 " " '95 

3 m., Dec. '94 

~ ' " '95 



m. Dec. '94 

" '95 

12 " " '94 

13 " •' '95 

12 m., Oct. '95 
1 m., Dec, '»4 
1 " " " 

3 m.. Sept, '94 
3 " " '95 
9 " " -94 

" '95 



LAWRENCE, MASS. 
Lowell, Lawrence «St 
Haverhill St. Ry. Co 



LONG ISL. CITY, N. Y. 
Steiuwny Ry. Co 



LORAIN.O. 
Lorain St. Ry. 



LOUISVILLE, Ky. 
Louisville Ry. Co. 



LOWELL. MASS. 
Lowell Sc Suburban St. 
Ky. Co 



MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
Twin City R. T. Co 



MOIVTGOMERY, ALA. 
Montgomery St. Ky.Co 



MONTREAL, CAN. 
Montreal .St. Ry. Co... 



NEW BEDPOKD.MASS 
Union St. Ky.Co 



1 m. 
1 " 



Nov. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 



12 m. .June '94 

13 •' " '95 



NEWBURGH. N. Y. 
Newburgh Elec.Ry. Co. 



NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
New Haven St.Ry. Co 



New Haven Sc Centre- 
ville f»t. Ry. Co 



West Shore Ry. Co.. 



13 m. 
12 " 
1 " 

I " 

II " 

11 " 

13m, 

12 " 
3 " 



I m. 

II " 



im , 
1 " 

9 " 
9 " 



12 m. 
12 " 



1 m., 

I " 

II " 
11 " 



1 m., 
1 " 
12" 
13" 



12 m. 

13 " 
1 " 
1 " 
3 " 
3 " 



1 m., 
1 " 



1 m 

1 " 

5 " 

5 " 



1 m 

1 " 

9 " 

9 " 

1 " 

1 " 

1 " 

1 " 



.,Sept.'95 

Nov. 

" '95 

" '94 

" '95 

June '94 

" '95 
Sept, '94 
'• '95 

" '94 
" '95 

, Nov. '95 
" '95 

Sept. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 

Sept. '94 
'■ '95 

Nov. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 

Dec. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 

Sept. '94 
'95 

Dec. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 

Dec, '94 
" '95 

., Nov. '94 
•' '95 
" '94 
" '95 

,Sept. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 
Dec. '94 
" '95 
" '94 
" '95 



116,945 
386,575 

30,356 



20,0.32 
19,1.52 
ITLOO-i 
175, 8«J 



16,273 
15,848 
181,933 
200,487 



90,981 
22,410 
23,994 



10,067 
10,546 
97,302 
119,.588 

223,808 
18,489 
17,776 

34,461 
39.411 
B8 412 
74,093 

134,548 
140, 
919,991 
948,131 



46,467 
50,230 



269,740 
403,530 
31,89' 
29,207 
259,911 
392,638 

273,497 
246.742 
68,9.33 
108,050 
155,556 
226,283 

6,032 
74,468 

105,020 
158.725 
875,604 
966,698 

377,029 
329,817 

161,259 
162,666 
1,813,310 
1,796,3.5: 

3,623 
4,383 
35,216 
50,645 

897,838 
1,102 778 
75,845 
94,800 
343,959 
290,400 

13.381 
16,008 

3,,591 
5,818 
36,388 
53,73: 

14,25" 
19,.592 
92.476 
1,50.649 
2,742 
4.909 
336 
344 



(D P. 

c w 



1.5,586 



8,294 
7,991 
93,808 
77,652 



10,81.5* 
12,002* 
120,339* 
139,113* 

56..564 
.52.851 
14,492 
14,155 



.5,894 
5,085 
50,605 
70,888 

149,205 
9,938 
11,000 

18,023 
19,439 
47,621 
51,630 

86,279 
85,391 
559,770 
533,113 



29,038 
31,404 



205,816 
363.935 
16,.330 
19,765 
190,736 
249,689 

119,014 

139,.556 
38,488 
54 946 
84,707 

136,594 

4,829 
40,733 

56,438 
66.308 
471.747 
498,198 

179,409 
199,346 

72,093 
68,349 
816.052 
773,173 

2,237 
1,957 
31,724 
27,915 

628,454 
653,812 



3,142 

3.956 
17,268 
25,360 



00 

SO 



14,770 



11,7.38 
11,161 
77,2.57 
98,177 



5,4.58 
3,846 
61,584 
71,374 

31,724 
38,130 
7,918 
9,839 



4,173 
5,461 
46,597 
48,700 

73,603 
8.551 
6,776 

16,4)9 
19,972 
20,791 
23,463 

' 48,269 
55,499 
360,221 
416,018 



17,430 
18,826 



63,934 
140,595 
5.56^ 
9,443 
69.174 
143,949 

154,483 
107,186 
30,444 
53,104 
70,849 



1,203 
33,735 

48,588 
93,416 
403.857 
468,500 

97,620 
130,471 

89,166 
94.317 
997,258 
1,023,179 

1,386 
3,426 
13,492 
22,730 

269,384 
449,966 



45; 
1,862 
19.130 
37,377 



6,875 



25,000 
29,770* 



70,204* 



4,939* 
6,'87i* 
14.734* 
15,989* 



9,398* 
9,576* 



73,423* 
84,081* 



68,083* 
95,370* 
31,390* 
28,610' 
63,379* 
79.936* 



66,624* 
66,575* 



55,363* 



148 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XII. No. 2. 



Company. 



NEW ORLEANS, LA. 
New Orleans Traction 
Co 



NEW YOKK, N. Y., 
Third Ave. K. R. Co... 



lyfetropolitan .Sl.Ry.Co. 



nianiiattan Ry. Co. 



Second Avenne R.R. Co 



1). D., E. B. & Bat'y 
K. 11. Co 



;} m., Sept. 
3 •• 



12" 
13" 



New Yorlc & Harlcin 
R. R. Co 

42€l St., Man. & St. N 
Ave. R. R. Co 



Union Ky. Co 



Westchester Eler. R.R. 
Co 



Period. 



1 m., Nov. 



Oct. 



CO D. 

°s 



93 
121 

9.51 
1,327 

622. 

r.v 

1.57(), 
(129, 
3,134, 
2,6.50, 



!m., Sept. '94 1,413,.538 
i " '• '95 1,. 582,011 
I " " '94 3,822,47(1 
J " " '95 4,475,00] 



3 m., Sept, '94 
" '95 
•' '94 
•' '95 



12 tn., June '9 

12 " ■' '9 



12m., June'94 
12 '• " '95 

3 m., Sept. '95 



3 m.,Sept. '94 165.855 

.3 '• •• '9.> 161 121 

6 " " '94 337,75H 

b '• " '9.5, 326,773 



2,08.3.310 
2,148,530 
7.371,408 
7,167,493 



1,018,133 
95i ,463 



655,558 
730,033 

197,628 



NORRTSTOWN, VA.. 
Schuylkill Val.Trac. Co 

NO. ABINGTON, MASS. 
Rocklanit Abin«;ton 
St. Ry. Co 

noktiiahii'T'n, mass. 

Northniiipton St. Ry. Co 



OAKLAND, CAL,., 
Oakland Consol. St. Ry. 

Co 



3 m. 

3 •' 
9 " 
9 " 



3 m.. 
3 " 
6 •• 



1 m., 
1 " 



Sept. '041 
•' '95 
" '94 
" '95 



Sept. '94 
" 'SI5 
'9.5 

Dec. '94 
" '95 



12 m.,Sept.'95 



PATF.RSON, N. J., 
I'aterHon Ry. Co 



PHILADELPHIA, PA., 
People's Traction Co' 



HeHtonville M. & F. P. 
Ry. Co 



1 m. 
1 " 

s " 



Aug. '94 
" '95 
" '95 



6 m , June '95 



1 m., 
1 •' 

112" 
12" 

12 m. 

13 '• 

1 " 
1 " 
9 " 



Dec. 



June 
Sept. 



Electric Traction Co 



. June 
Nov. 



12 m. 
12 
1 

I " 

II " 

11 " 

12 m. June 
12 •' 



136..588 
13'j,135 
364,»74 
345,292 



28,655 
38,512 
68,738 

3,165 



67,815 



6,324 
10,315 
58,205 



62,-342 



20, 
25, 
213, 
298. 

1,044, 
1,660, 
137, 
194, 
885, 
1,533, 

302 
373 
20, 
44, 
282, 
471, 
1,900 
2,151, 



5fm 



PITTSBURG, PA., 
Central Trnclion Co. ... 1 m., Dec. '94 

.Second Ave Pass. Ry. Coil m. Dec. '95 

I'ORTSMOUTH, VA.. 
Portsmouth St. Ry. Co. . 1 m., Dec. '95 

12 " " '9-5 



14,807 
1.5,850 
37,555 



2,5951 
36,7531 



58,027 
62,5.59 
620,508 
753,188 

312,976 
3t;6.958 
825.906 
,0 9,499 
,070 965 
,.52S,469 

820,706 
800,352 
2.221,755 
2 351,317 



1,250,635 
1,319,129 
4,089 329 
4,125,757 



794,76.5 
734,915 



464.068 
532,245 



136,712 



132,388 
133,972 
261 020 
265,914 



67.172 
74.570 

189,974 
198,225 



20,588 
22,818 
43,331 



49,759 



2,205 
3,864 
29,651 



46,099 



13,440 
15,298 
157,.527 
172,901 

673,479 
829,815 



215,032 
26^,566 



1,120,026 
1,241,584 



1,395 
16,532 



35.075 
58.841 
331,020 

575 .598; 

309,052 
370,871 
750,1.53 
940,313 
963,472 
1,121,594 

592,833 
781,6.i9 
1,600,715 
2,123,684 



832,675 
829,401 
3,282.079 
3,041,736 



223,368 
222,548 



191,490 
197,788 

60.916 



33.467 
27.149 
76.736 
60,859 



69.416 
61,5.55 
175,00(1 

147,U6' 



3,067 
:5 694 
26,407 



18,056 



4,059 
6,451 
28,554 



16,243 



6,813 
10,187 
86,354 
125,417 

.370,680 
8-'0,86] 



87.652 
105,124 



780, .580 
910,269 



1,200 
20,220 



87,47.5* 
83,044* 
255,. 58(1* 
244.718* 
328,467 
330,590 

459,996 
513,131 
1,329,013 
1,523,377 



660,228 
766,790 
1,960,569 
2,141,776 



131,88& 
129,438* 



175.894 
136,093 



10.100 



.30,717^ 
30.700 
61,405^ 
61,400* 



37,674 
32.427 
118,l(:-5 
95,323 



6,957 
7,428 
14,818 



6,C10 



221. .57 

288,82 

494,573 

695,595 

635,005 

791,004 

133,836 
368,538 
271,706 
600,307 



172,447 
63,611 
1,331.511 
899,960 



91.483 
93,130 



15,596 
61,695 



50,816 



2,750 
(13,551 
15.331 

C1541 



31,742 
29.128 
.56.8135 
51 744 



1.110 
8.266 
11,589 



12,046 



Company. 



POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 
Ponglikeepsie City & 
Wuppinger's Falls E. 
R. Co 



Period. 



PROVIDENCE. R. I. 
United Traction Co. 



RKADIN<J, PA., 
Reading; Traction Co. 

ROANOKE, VA.. 
Roanoke St. Ry.Co... 

ROCHESTER. N. Y., 
Rochester Ry. Co 



ROVIE, N. V. 
Rome City St. Ry. Co. 



"SAGINAW, MICH., 
Union I4y. Co 

SARATOGA, N. Y.. 
Union Elec. Ry. Co. -of 
Saratoga 



SCRANTON, PA., 
Scranton Trac. Co. 



SIOUX CITY, lA., 
Sioux City Trac. Co. 



SPRINGFIELD, MASS, 
Sprin^neld St. Ky. Co, 

.SYR\CUSE, N. Y., 
Syracuse Cons. .St. Ry. 
Co 



Syracuse St. R. R. Co. 

TAUNTON, MASS., 
Taunton St. Ry. Co.. . 

TERRE HAUTE, IND., 
Terre Haute Elec. Ry. 
Co 



TORONTO. ONT., 
Toronto St. Ry. Co. 



TROY, N. Y., 
Troy City Ry. Co 



UTICA, N. Y. 
Utica Belt Line. 



WASHINGTON. D. C. 

Capital Traction Co.. . 

WATERBURY, CONN., 
Waterbury Trac. Co... 



WILKES BARRE, PA., 
Wilkes Barre <k Wy- 
oniiug Val. Trac. Co. 



WILMINGTON, N. C, 
V ilniington St. Ry. 1 o., 

WORCESTER, MASS.. 
Worcester Cons. M. Ry, 
Co 



1 m., Sept. '95 

9 " '95 

1 m., Nov. '94 
1 •• " '95 

1 m , Nov. '94 

1 " " '95 

1 m., Nov. '94 
1 " " '95 

1 m., Oct. '94 
1 •' " '95 
10 " " '94 
10" " 

3 m., Sept. 
3 •' '95 
6 " " '94 
6 " '■ '95 

1 m., Dec. '95 
12" " '95 



1 m., Sept. '95 
9 " " '95 

1 m., Dec, '94 
1 •' " '95 
13 " " '94 
12 " " '95 

1 m., Nov. '94 

1 " " '95 
6 94 
6 " " '95 

12 m Sept. '94 
13" " '95 



3 m., June '94 
i " " '95 
6 " " '94 
" '95 

3 m., June ,95 
6 '■ •• '95 

I m., June '95 

B " '95 



1 m., Oct. '94 

'■ '95 

" '94 

" '95 



12 m.,Dec. '94 
12 " " '95 



3 m., Sept. '94 

" -95 
9 " " '94 
" '95 

1 m., Sept. '95 
12 m., Dec. '95 



1 m.,Nov. '94 

I " " '95 

II " " '95 



1 m., Dec. '95 
12 " •' - 
12 " " '95 



1 m., Sept. '94 
1 " '95 



1 m., Dec. '94 

1 •' " '95 

12 " " '94 

13" " '95 



12,002 
73,155 

118,653 
133,628 

11.19 
13,1)6 

3,661 
2,885 

68,800 
71,389 
618,122 
719,758 

3,258 
2,734 
8,953 
9,827 

9,837 
127,617 



11,554 
99,578 

22,664 
29,180 
253,686 
299,322 

6,844 
6,829 
45,494 
40,445 

373,903 
442,000 



51,216 
40,961 
95,308 
85,303 

68,236 
105,430 

7,571 
34,388 



8,661 
11.998 
20.881 
28,303 



9.58,371 
992,801 



118,916 
138,980 
316,817 
361,807 

14,822 



1,063,767 



15.939 
21,886 
224,941 



43,099 
448,788 
400,143 



2,900 
3,092 



31,712 
39,054 
367,326 
441,603 



73 M 



cw 



7,246 
44,42^1 



3M05 
37,999 
356,598 
428,431 

2,265 
1,999 
7,692 
8,940 

5,819 
68.957 



6,301 
Z2 7U3 

14,038 
14,035 
142.410 
157,384 

6,488 
6,137 
34.104 
33,995 

252,369 
277,156 



44,705 
41,597 
87,974 
92,295 

39,491 
67,260 



517,708 
489,915 



57,207 
66,710 
156,2.58 
181,919 



634,013 



11,633 
130,193 



19 256 
214,245 
196,824 



2,027 
1.764 



24,526 
28,089 
251,192 
303,376 



05 

CO 



4,756 
28,727 



33,693 
33,390 
261,524 
291,327 

993 
725 
1,361 

887 

4,008 
58 660 



5.253 
46,875 

8,626 
15,146 
111,276 
141,938 

356 
693 
11.390 
6,450 

121,634 
164,845 



6,511 
d 3,636 

7.335 
d 6,992 

28,745 
38.170 



440,668 
503,886 



61,709 
72,270 
161,559 
179,888 



429,754 



10,353 
94,748 



23,843 
234.543 
203,319 



873 
1.328 



7,186 
10,965 
116,034 
138,227 



2,354 


d 


1,362 


85 


d 


690 


10,100 


d 


8,839 


4,896 


d 


4,009 



18,210* 
30,636* 



43' 



48* 

234" 



24,763* 
46,397* 



122,607* 



103,424 
134,209 



6,463 
d 3,636 

7,287 
d 7,226 

3,980 
d 8,327 



0,711 



Financial Notes. 



Allentown, Pa. — Suit has been brought by the Old Colony Trust 
Companj^ of Boston, to foreclose the mortgage of $200,000 on the 
property of the Allentown & Bethlehem Rapid Transit Company. 

Amherst, Mass. — The Amherst & Sunderland Railway Com- 
pany has been organized to construct an electric railway which will 
cost about $75,000. The officers of the company are: President, T. 
L. Paige, of Amherst; secretary and treasurer, David Barry; direc- 
tors, Chas. -Deuel and H. M. McCloud, of Amherst, Edmund Hobart 
and M. W. Howard, of North Amherst, and F. L. Whitmore and A. 
M. Darling, of Sunderland. 

Amsterdam, N. Y. — The maps and profiles of the extension of 
the Amsterdam Street Railway Company, from Akin to Gloversville, 



have been filed in the offices of the county clerk. G. Morgan is 
general manager and purchasing agent for the company. 

Atlanta, Ga. — The receiver of the Chattahoochee River Street 
Railway Company has been discharged. The company will be re- 
organized and the road will be put in operation again. 

Appleton, Wis. — The street railway property of the Appleton 

Edison Electric Company will be sold at public auction during the 
first week in February. 

Auburn, N. Y. — The Common Council has passed an ordinance 
granting a franchise on several streets of the city to the Auburn In- 
terurban Railway Company. W. H. Pixley and L. S. Ebright, of 
Akron, O., and Geo. B. Turner and D. L. Ramsey, of Auburn, N. Y., 
are among those interested. 



Street F^ailway Journal. 

Vol XII. JVEW YORK AJVD CHICAGO, MARCH, 1896. JVb. 3. 

THE SYSTE/Vl OF THE PORTLAND RAILROAD COMPANY. 



No city on the Atlantic Coast can lioast of a more 
picturesque situation than Portland, Me. Occupj ing a bold 
promontory at the head of Casco Ba}-, beautiful views can 
be obtained from the cit>- of this sheet of water and of 
the neighboring ocean and rock-bound coast. The ba>' 
is thirty miles in length, is .studded with many islands and 



.ship lines through the winter to European ports, and 
throughout the year regular connections are maintained 
hy steamer with New York, Boston and the Maritime 
Provinces. About 6300 hands are employed in the manu- 
facturing industries of the city, which are quite varied, 
tlie principal productions being locomotives, railroad cars. 




FIG. 1.— INTERIOR OF POWER STATION— PORTLAND RAILROAD CO. 



in summer is covered with excursion boats which ply in 
all directions. On the coast, a few miles to the south lie 
the famous seashore resorts of Old Orchard Beach and 
Kennebunkport, while the shores of Casco Bay and the 
coast to the east of Portland are being built up with hand- 
some summer residences and villas. 

The city possesses fine shipping facilities and is the 
winter port for a large part of the commerce of Canada. 
From Portland regular sailings are made by two steam- 



marine and other engines, ships, canned goods, refined 
petroleum and paper. The capital invested in manufact- 
uring enterprises is about $7,000,000, and the value of 
the product is about $4,775,000 annually. The city has a 
population of about 40,000. 

The peninsiila upon which Portland is situated is some- 
thing more than two miles long and less than a mile wide, 
conditions favorable to street car traffic. With the ex- 
ception of a line owned by the Portland & Cape Elizabeth 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. Xn. No. 3. 



Railroad Company, about six miles in length, the entire 
system is owned and operated by the Portland Railroad 
Compan}^, whose lines occupy the main streets of the citj- 
and connect it with the neighboring towns of East Deer- 
ing, Stroudwater and Saccarappa. The general arrange- 
ment of the system is shown on the accompanying map. 

The company completed the equip- 
ment of its line with electric power during 
last summer. It had been operating a 
branch about five miles in length with elec- 
tricity for several years, and the results 
secured were so favorable as to demon- 
strate the advisability of the equipment of 
the entire system. In the beginning of 
April ground was broken for the new power 
house, and in the following month work 
began on the track and line construction. 
No expense seems to have been spared to 
make the road a model one for its size, 
and this fact makes a study of its engi- 
neering features an interesting one. The 
line is equipped with General Electric ap- 
paratus throughout and was l)uilt by Sheaff 
& Jaastad, who furnished all the plans and 
superintended the work of construction. 

THE power 
house is lo- 
cated near 
D e e r i n g 

Bridge very near the cen- 
ter of the system, and is of brick with ornamental front. 
It is close to the Back Bay, an arm of Portland Harbor, 
and coal is received directly by water. The station being on 
reclaimed land, piles had to be driven, about 1650 in all, 
for foundation. These piles were sawed off about one foot 



was grouted. On top of this the brick foundations, which 
are twelve feet in height, were erected. The building 
foundations are carried up entirely distinct from those for 
the machinery. 

The inside dimensions of the engine room are 110 ft. 
X 51 ft. The room is well lighted and ventilated by long 





Street 




FIG. 2.— MAP OF PORTLAND, SHOWING STREET RAILWAY LINES. 



below mean high water line and concreted flush with 
their heads to the depth of one foot with Portland cement. 
The piles were then capped with granite blocks of such di- 
mensions that everj^ capping stone rested firm on at least 
three piles. The granite was carried up for six feet and 



FIG. 3.— STATION SWITCHBOARD. 

windows and monitor roof, and is served by a thirty ton 
traveling crane. 

The present engine equipment is three direct connected 
units. Two of the generators are 400 k. w. and one of 225 
k. w. capacity. The 400 k. w. generators run at a speed 
of 100 rev. p. m., the 225 k. w. at a speed of 120 rev. p. m. 

The generators are the multi- 
polar, iron clad type steel 
frame, built by the General 
Electric Company. 

Fronting on street in the 
engine room, a bay is built, 
four feet deep, in which the 
switchboard is located. The 
front of this board is flush 
with the inside line of the en- 
gine room wall. This arrange- 
ment gives plenty of light 
and room in the rear of the 
switchboard so that the con- 
nections can be easily inspect- 
ed. The board is of the G. 
E. panel type with the usual 
equipment of appliances, in- 
cluding a wattmeter. The 
feeders are brought from the 
switchboard inside of the bay, 
through the roof and from 
there over to the poles. No 
wires of any kind are visible 
inside of building. 

The engines are AUis 
horizontal, cross compound, 
condensing, with cylinders 14 
and 26 X 36 ins. for driving 
the 225 k. w. and' 18 and 34 
X 42 ins. for driving the 
400 k. w. generators. They 
were built extra heavy 
throughout so as to be able 
to withstand the excessive 
strain, due to the great varia- 
tion of load that will necessarily arise on a road like this, 
where there are so many very heavy grades. They are so 
arranged that either side, high or low, can be run indepen- 
dently, condensing or non-condensing if so desired. Room 
is provided for the future installation of a 2,000 h.p. unit. 



March, 1896.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



There is one independent vertical flywheel condenser 
connected to each engine. These condensers are so 
arranged that their steam cylinders come up through the 
floor, making them easy of access. 

The boiler room measures 110 ft. x 94 ft. Twelve feet 
of this width is partitioned off by a wall and used for a 
machine shop and oil room. In the boiler room there are 
at present two batteries of Eabcock & Wilcox's latest im- 
proved water tul^e boilers, each of a rated capacity of 500 
h. p. The boilers are all faced with white glazed bricks 
and present a very attractive and clean appearance. In 
the boiler room there are two Blake feed pumps 10 x 16 x 
12 in. Either pump is of ample size to take care of the 
whole plant. 

There is one heater between each engine and condenser 
in engine room, and one auxiliary heater in the boiler 
room, built by the Goubert Manufacturing Company. 

Figs. 6 and 7 give an excellent idea of the arrange- 
ment of the piping. The .steam main is carried on adjust- 
able brackets bolted to the wall, back of boilers, in boiler 
room and in such a proximity to the boiler room floor that 
the valves can be conveniently reached and operated from 
the floor by hand. The .steam from the boilers enters this 
main through eight inch pipes bolted to the nozzles of the 
boilers. These eight inch pipes have long copper bends so 
as to take care of the expansion and contraction. 

The steam pipes from the main to the engines are car- 
ried through the partition wall, between the engine and 



Stein's exhaust head. The suction pipe to the condensers 
is fitted with a strainer jjlaced in basement inside of build- 
ing. It is by-pa.ssed, and ,so arranged that it can readily 
be gotten at and cleaned. All steam valves are also fitted 
with by-passes. The overflow pipe from the conden,sers 
discharges into the river. 

The feedwater, which is city water, passes through a 
meter to the pumps in boiler room. From here it is 
pumped first through the primary heater in engine room. 
It leaves this heater at a temperature of from 126 to 130 
degs. It then passes to the auxiliary heater in boiler room , 
where the temperature ri.ses to from 200 to 212 degs., at 
which heat it enters the boilers. 





A^apdMirS^jHU-gji r ftp' 



FIG. 4.— EXTERIOR OF POWER STATION. 

boiler rooms, under the engine floor to a Stratton separator, 
located near the throttle valve of engine. As will be noted on 
the plan these pipes are also provided with long, easy bends 
so as to better take care of the expansion, and at the same 
time retard the speed of the .steam as little as po.s.sible. The 
exhaust steam, after leaving the engines, goes through a 
heater into the condenser, or it can go around the condenser 
out into the free atmosphere, as the case may be, dependent 
on whether the plant is running condensing or non-con- 
densing. 

The free atmospheric exhaust pipes from all engines 
connect into one main exhaust pipe, which is carried to the 
boiler room, then up through the roof, ending into a 



FIG. 5.— pumps: 

The piping for this circuit is 
so arranged that any or all of the 
primary heaters can be cut out 
and the water pass direct from 
the pumps through the auxiliary 
heater to the boilers, or the aux- 
iliary heater can be cut out, and 
the water made to pass through 
the primary heaters direct to boil- 
ers, or all heaters primary and 
auxiliary can be cut out and the 
feedwater can be pumped direct 
into the boilers. All drips from 
steam piping separators and re- 
ceivers are carried back to the 
bo